Khapusa

IChapusas were heavy boots that covered the knees. Made to protect the wearer from snow, snakes, stones, and the cold, kha-pusas were worn in northern India, especially in the Himalayan Mountains, from the first century c.e. Boots are thought to have been brought to India by foreigners. Boots were a common foot covering of early invaders from central Asia, including the Moguls, Afghans, and Persians. The ancient Indian rulers of the Kushan Empire, which flourished in what is now Pakistan,...

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Calceus, 1 198, 199-200 California Native Americans, 2 352 Calvin Klein. See Klein, Calvin Calvin Klein Limited, 5 977 Cameo, 3 584-85 Cameo and Intaglio, 1 146 See also Walking sticks Canute (King of Denmark), 2 278, 282 (ill.) Capes, Coats and, 3 559-60 Caps, 3 578-79. See also Headwear deerstalker, 3 635-36, 635 (ill.) 4 678 fez, 2 430-31, 430 (ill.) Phrygian, 1 139-41, 140 (ill.) 2 266 Capucci, Roberto, 5 849 Cardin, Pierre, 5 898, 904, 920 Carey, Mariah, 5 913 Carmichael, Stokely, 5 938...

Greek Footwear

E arly Minoan and Mycenaean men and women living between about 3000 b.c.e. and 1200 b.c.e. mostly went barefoot, but they did have a variety of sandals, shoes, and boots for outdoor wear. Early Greeks living between about 800 b.c.e. and 146 b.c.e. followed this tradition as well. All classes of Greeks went barefoot when indoors, removing their shoes when entering a house or temple. The proof of these practices has been discovered by archeologists, scientists who study the physical remains of...

Makeup

Greek women embraced the use of makeup to enhance their beauty. Evidence of how females made up their faces can be found in such different places as on palace frescos, paintings directly on the wall, from Knossos, the royal city on the ancient Greek island of Crete, dating back to 1500 b.c.e. and in the descriptive poems written during the Greek Classical Period from 500 to 336 b.c.e. Although the practice was limited to women of wealth and influence, probably because of the cost, makeup was...

Life in Ancient Greece

Dark Ages Greece 1100

Life in ancient Greece developed from three significant civilizations the Minoans, the Mycenaeans, and the ancient Greeks. Archeologists, scientists who study the remains of ancient cultures, have studied these civilizations and have found evidence of sophisticated societies. In all three of these civilizations the evidence indicates that ancient Greeks used clothing for much more than simply protecting the body from the elements. Clothing for these civilizations served as decoration and...

Sakkos and Sphendone

Greek women covered their heads in a variety of ways starting in 500 b.c.e. Evidence of their headwear has been found on sculptures and in writings from the period. A type of cap called a sakkos was worn by many. The sakkos could be a soft woven cap with a tassel hanging from the center or a piece of material wrapped around the head. In either case the sakkos completely covered the hair, which was tied into a bun, except for the bangs or curls by the ears. Sometimes women wore a stephane, a...

Pilos and Petasos

The two most common hats worn in Greece from 1200 to 146 b.c.e. were the pilos (PEE-loss) and the petasos (PEH-ta-sus). Felt, a smooth cloth, was the most common material used to make the hats, but other materials were also used, including leather and straw. Evidence of many different felt hats formed into a cone shape with a small rolled brim has been discovered in many regions of Greece. These hats were worn by working men. In each region, the hats were usually named after the geographic area...

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Backpack Purses 5 1006 515 752 459 Barbershops 4 698 Bases 3 473 Bathing Costumes 3 608 Beaded Handbags 4 707 435 Beards 1 185 Beehives and Bouffants 5 869 902 Berber Dress 2 421 Beret 2 312 853 Birkenstocks 5 958 361 300 Bloomers (Nineteenth Century) 3 611 Bloomers (1900-18) 4 668 Body Painting (Oceania) 2 344 Body Painting (African Cultures) 2 436 Bold Look 5 855 473 Boots (Ancient Greece) 1 156 Boots (Seventeenth Century) 3 546 Boots (Nineteenth Century) 3 654 Boubou 2 422 Bowl Haircut 2 313...

Stola In Ancient Rome

The stola was the staple garment of the married woman in ancient Rome. It was a long gown, generally sleeveless, that hung nearly to the feet. The stola was generally worn over a tunica intima, a light inner shirt. It was often fastened at the shoulders by small clasps called fibulae. The stola was typically worn with two belts one fastened just below the breasts, creating blousy folds, and another wider belt fastened around the waist. The stola could have several forms of decoration. A stola...

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519-20, 520 (ill.) Fanny Farmer candy stores, 4 723 Fans, 2 240-41, 241 (ill.) 3 497, 539, 539 (ill.), 645 Farrah Fawcett look, 5 935, 939-40, 939 (ill.) Farthingales, 3 476-77 Fashion The Mirror of History, 1 22-23, 39, 180 2 293 3 471 5 852 563 (ill.) Fashion industry, 4 663-64. See also specific styles and designers Fashion magazines, 3 512 4 784 Fashions in Hair, 2 285 3 490, 533 4 695, 751, 818, 820 Fasteners. See Zippers Fawcett, Farrah, 5 935, 939-40, 939 (ill.) Fearn, John, 2 334...

Perfume

Smelling good was of great concern to the ancient Greeks. But without running water, their techniques for freshening themselves were different than modern methods of bathing and showering. Men and women washed themselves with a cloth and a bowl of water or by rubbing olive oil on their skin, scraping it off with a metal rod called a strigil, and rinsing with cold water. Once clean, Greeks would apply perfumes all over their skin and hair. To make perfume Greeks soaked spices and other fragrant...

Chlaina and Diplax

During the Classical Period of Greece 500-336 b.c.e. typical clothing was largely made up of woven rectangles of fabric, usually wool or linen, which were draped in different ways about the body. It was how a piece of cloth was used, rather than the design of the piece itself, which gave it its name. Though most forms of classical Greek clothing were worn by both men and women, there were a few items that were intended to be used mainly by one sex or the other. The chlaina and the diplax were...

Peplos

The peplos was a simple sleeveless outer garment worn by the women of ancient Greece up to the early part of the sixth century b.c.e. Like many Greek garments, the peplos was formed from one large rectangle of woven fabric, which was folded and pinned in specific ways to become a gracefully draped tunic-like cloak. Around 540 b.c.e. the peplos was replaced by the Ionic chiton, another type of tunic, as the most basic female garment, but the peplos continued to be represented in Greek art and...

India

Choli Dhoti and Lungi 80 Punjabi Modern Islamic Dress box 85 Turbans Foot Forehead Henna Jewelry Jutti Khapusa Life in Ancient Chlaina and Chlamys Doric Ionic Chiton 127 Loin Military Dress 131 Minoan Dress 132 Phrygian Pilos and Petasos 141 Sakkos and Sphendone 142 Cameo and Fibulae Jewelry Metal Boots Sandals Ancient Sumptuary Laws Regulate Luxury box 162 Dalmatica Etruscan Tunica Braids and Hair Coloring 187 Jewelry Signet Where to Learn More lxxv Volume 2 Early Cultures Across the Globe

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Paget, Sidney, 3 635 Painter's pants, 5 925-26 Paintings, cave. See Cave paintings Pajamas, 4 726, 736-37, 736 ill. Pakistan, 1 72 Palisades, 3 491 Palla, 1 174-75, 174 1ll. Paltrow, Gwyneth, 5 988 Paludamentum, 2 261, 264-65, Panniers, 3 566 Pantofles, Pattens and, 3 504 Pants. See also Knickers Trousers gaucho, 5 909-12 harem, 4 667 hot, 5 915-16 painter's, 5 925-26 peg-top, 4 682 suit, 4 684 Pantsuit, 5 926-27, 927 ill. Pantyhose, 5 927-28. See also Hose 847-49....

Wigs

During the Roman Empire 27 b.c.e.-476 c.e. wealthy members of Roman society developed a rich and fashionable lifestyle, which included much attention to appearance and ornamentation. Both women and men used any means available to improve their looks and decorate their bodies. Cosmetics and luxurious costumes were used, and elaborate hairstyles came into fashion for women. Baldness in men was viewed as an ugly defect. Both women and men made frequent use of wigs to hide any shortage of hair. The...

Foot Decorating

Ancient Egypt Feet

A foot decorated with henna, a reddish powder or paste. Reproduced by permission of Jeremy Horner CORBIS. The foot has had religious and social significance in India since ancient times. Deities are represented by a set of divine footprints on items ranging from paintings and woven shawls to amulets ornaments that are worn to protect the wearer. The feet of older people are revered by youth, lovers show their affection for each other by caressing each other's feet, and Indian mothers take...

Egyptian Facts About Veil

I n Mesopotamia, the region centered in present-day Iraq near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, a veil was a rectangular piece of cloth woven of linen, wool, or cotton and worn by women to hide their faces from public view. While the veils worn by the wealthiest women could be beautiful, veils were not worn for fashionable reasons alone. Veils were one of the first legally enforced garments. The first use of the veil dates back to the Assyrians, the rulers of Mesopotamia from about 1380 to 612...

Sandals

Mesopotamia Ancient Egypt Clothing

While the men living in the Sumerian 3000-2000 b.c.e. , the Akkadian 2350-2218 b.c.e. , and the Babylonian 1894-1595 b.c.e. empires of Mesopotamia, the region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in present-day Iraq, went barefoot all the time, Assyrian men began to wear sandals for everyday use around 911 b.c.e. Showing these changes are sculptures and bas-reliefs, or wall carvings, from the time period depicting men with foot coverings. The evidence suggests that all men went barefoot...

Revised

C. 476 Upper-class men, and sometimes women, in the Byzantine Empire 476-1453 C.E. wear a long, flowing robe-like overgarment called a dalmatica developed from the tunic. c. 900 Young Chinese girls tightly bind their feet to keep them small, a sign of beauty for a time in Chinese culture. The practice was outlawed in 1911. c. 1100-1500 The cote, a long robe worn by both men and women, and its descendant, the cotehardie, are among the most common garments of the late Middle Ages. 1392 Kimonos...

Is The Burka Clothing Worn In Egypt

Boys Forced Wear Dresses

A long, flowing garment that covers the whole body from head to feet, the burka, also known as burqa or abaya, is an important part of the dress of Muslim women in many different countries. Some burkas leave the face uncovered, but most have a cloth or metal grid that hides the face from view while allowing the wearer to see. The exact origin of the burka is unknown, but similar forms of veil ing have been worn by women in countries such as India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Afghanistan since...

Ancient Culture Hair

Ancient Roman Culture Hair Braids

Carving of a Roman man with long braids. Both men and women wore braids and curls in their hair. Reproduced by permission of Araldo de Luca CORBIS. Carving of a Roman man with long braids. Both men and women wore braids and curls in their hair. Reproduced by permission of Araldo de Luca CORBIS. ne thing is made very clear by the statues, coins, and paintings that provide our evidence about the hairstyles worn in ancient Rome women changed their hairstyles very often. Though there is no one...

Wreaths

Ancient Roman Flower Wreaths Women

Reaths are circular decorations usually made of flowers, vines, leaves, or other materials fashioned in the shape of leaves or flowers. In modern times wreaths have most often been used as a household decoration, displayed on a table or hung on a door. However, in ancient Greece, beginning around the sixth century b.c.e., wreaths were a common personal adornment. Worn on the head as a sort of crown, wreaths not only served as decoration but often indicated a great honor, such as a victory in...

Metal Girdles

Women Greek Civilization 800

Long before the term girdle was used to describe a tight, corset-like garment worn by women to make their waists appear slim, a girdle was a kind of belt or sash, tied or wrapped around the waist. The word gird means to encircle, or go around, and girdles encircled the wearer. In ancient times the girdle was a very useful part of many costumes, holding long, draped garments or short, loose outfits in place. Girdles were also decorative and could be a kind of jewelry for the waist. Girdles were...

Loin Coverings

Ancient Egyptian Clothes

ycenaean men living on the mainland of what would become Greece in about 1600 b.c.e. and Minoan men living on the Greek island of Crete around 3000 b.c.e. wore several basic styles of loin coverings and usually left their upper bodies bare. These styles developed over time and were adapted as clothes for laborers or undergarments in later Greek society. Worn by Mycenaeans and Minoans, the kilt, or schenti, was a thigh-length skirt with a tasseled point in front that hung between the knees. The...

Prehistoric Body Decorations

Ancient Egypt Bodies

The existence of identifiable body decorations on some Neanderthal humans from as early as 75,000 b.c.e. provides intriguing evidence of the first human use of adornment or decoration, and thus the first incidence of fashion. In the Shanidar Cave in northern Iraq, remains of Neanderthal man, an early subspecies of Homo sapiens, were found alongside lumps of red iron oxide and rubbed manganese. Archeologists, scientists who study the physical remains of past cultures, believe that these items...

Greek Body Decorations

The early Greeks were very concerned about their physical appearance and celebrated the human form. The depictions of Minoans living on the Greek island of Crete and Mycenaeans living on the Greek mainland from 3000 to 1200 b.c.e. indicate these cultures idealized the human figure. Both men and women are drawn with slim figures, tiny waists encircled by metal girdles, and flowing black hair. With the exception of the tiny waists, ancients Greeks living from 800 to 146 b.c.e. held the human...

Greek Clothing

Egyptian Mens Clothes Ancient

The history of clothing in ancient Greece traces its roots to three significant civilizations the Minoans, the Mycenaeans, and the ancient Greeks. Each of these civilizations created sophisticated clothing customs. Clothing for these civilizations served not only to cover and protect the body, but also to decorate and enhance the beauty of the wearer. The Minoan culture developed on the Greek island of Crete in about 3000 b.c.e. Minoans created a thriving society around royal palaces and...

Ancient Egypt Contributors

Freelance Writer, Crosse Pointe, MI. ROB EDELMAN. Instructor, State University of New York at Albany. Author, Baseball on the Web 1997 and The Great Baseball Films 1994 . Co-author, Matthau A Life 2002 Meet the Mertzes 1999 and Angela Lansbury A Life on Stage and Screen 1996 . Contributing editor, Leonard Maltin's Move amp Video Guide, Leonard Maltin's Movie Encyclopedia, and Leonard Maltin's Family Viewing Guide. Contributing writer, International Dictionary of Films and...

Mesopotamia

Ancient Mesopotamia Clothing

Etween 3000 b.c.e. and 300 b.c.e. the civilizations thriv- ing in Mesopotamia, a large region centered between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in modern-day Iraq, laid the foundation for customs that would dominate later European culture. Though many different societies emerged and organized cities, states, and empires in Mesopotamia, historians study these cultures together because they lived near each other and had many similarities. The main civilizations were the Sumerians 3000-2000 b.c.e....

How To Make A Palla From Ancient Greece

Ancient Egyptian Clothing

The palla was used as a blanket, a bathrobe, a carpet, or, most commonly, a shawl. Reproduced by permission of Araldo de Luca CORBIS. Along with the stola, the palla was the most common piece of clothing worn by women in ancient Rome. It was a very simple garment, yet its simplicity allowed it to be used in a great many ways. The basic palla was a large, rectangular piece of woolen cloth. It was worn wrapped around the body, either over a tunica, or shirt, or a toga...

Beards

When it came to the wearing of facial hair, Roman men went through several shifts in style over the long history of their civilization. From the founding of Rome in 753 b.c.e. until about 300 b.c.e., all men wore long beards and long hair. In a way, they had no choice, for razors hadn't been invented. Then, in about 300 b.c.e., a barber from the island of Sicily introduced the razor and everything changed. For the next several hundred years Roman men followed a simple rule about facial hair...

Hair Coloring

By the time of the Roman Empire 27 b.c.e.-476 c.e. , both men and women had largely given up the customs of simplicity and frugality that characterized early Rome. One of the most popular ways for people to ornament themselves was through hair dyes. The many traders and slaves that came to Rome and other Roman cities as a result of the empire's great expansion exposed the Romans to a wide variety of hair colors. The most popular hair coloring in ancient Rome was blond, which was associated with...

Indian Clothing

Egyptian Clothing For Women

L historical record of Indian clothing is difficult to trace. While there is an abundance of sculpture and literature dating from the earliest periods of civilization in the Indus Valley which flourished along the Indus River in modern-day Pakistan around 2500 b.c.e., scholars have had difficulty dating the changes in clothing styles and naming the variations on certain styles over time. Another problem in identifying trends in Indian clothing is the abundance of different ethnic and cultural...

Etruscan Dress

Acient Egiption Culture

Before the Romans developed their long-lasting rule on the Italian peninsula, several other groups of people organized towns and farms into small-scale societies. Yet even the most notable and longest lasting of these pre-Roman societies, known as the Etruscans, remains somewhat of a mystery to historians. This is what we know sometime before 1000 b.c.e. people began to move to the central part of present-day Italy from areas north and east around 800 b.c.e. more people arrived in the area from...

Jewelry

Girls Egypt Head Jewelry

Jewelry has occupied an important part of life in India from ancient times to the present day. Evidence from the earliest Indus Valley civilizations, which flourished along the Indus River in modern-day Pakistan and which date back to 2500 b.c.e., indicates that early Indians adorned themselves from head to toe with many varied ornaments. Although traditions have changed over the thousands of years since the beginning of Indian culture, jewelry remains an integral part of religious, regional,...

Jutti

The jutti is a shoe worn by men, women, and children throughout India. Most often made of leather from the hide of buffalo, camels, or cows, juttis can also have uppers, or the tops of the shoe, formed from other textiles. Juttis are heavily decorated with cotton, silk, or golden embroidery and sometimes wool pompons, or tufts of material. The jutti is identified by its pointed toe and flat, straight sole that does not distinguish between left or right foot. The shoe can have a closed or open...

Fringe

A cross all the civilizations living in Mesopotamia the region centered in present-day Iraq near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers from 3000 to 300 b.c.e., fringe was a popular and important decorative adornment for the clothing of both men and women. It is believed that fringe was worn by all classes of people. The evidence for how fringe was used and what it looked like is found on sculptures, statues, and described in the writings left by these civilizations. Fringe adorned the two most basic...

Henna Stains

Ancient Egyptian Clothing

A reddish powder or paste made from the dried leaves of the henna bush, known by the scientific name of Lawsonia inermis, henna has been used to decorate the human body for thousands of years. Many historians believe that henna could have been used by people to decorate their hands and feet as long ago as 7000 b.c.e. After the religion of Islam, also known as the Muslim religion, was founded around 620 c.e., intricately patterned henna tattoos, also called mehndi, became an important part of...

Roman Headwear

Ancient Roman Headwear Women

The costume traditions of the ancient Romans were, in general, fairly simple. Romans did not tend to wear hats or decorative headdresses throughout the long history of their civilization, which lasted from the founding of the city of Rome in 753 b.c.e. to the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 c.e. But this does not mean that Roman customs and traditions of hair and hairstyling were not important. In fact, Romans had some interesting rituals relating to hair. They believed that washing their hair...

Roman Body Decorations

Roman Gold Jewelry

L oman attitudes toward the grooming and decoration of their bodies changed dramatically over the course of the long history of their civilization. From the serious and simple habits of the eighth-century-b.c.e. founders of the city of Rome, Romans became increasingly concerned with bathing, jewelry, and makeup. By the time of the Roman Empire 27 b.c.e.-476 c.e. , bathing had become an elaborate public ritual, wealthy Romans imported precious jewels from throughout their vast empire, and women...

Chappals

Chappals, a simple type of leather sandal, provide the foot with basic protection from hot surfaces and rough terrain. Made with flat soles attached to the foot by straps that encircle the top of the foot and big toe, chappals became a common type of footwear in India by the third century c.e. and remain the most typical foot covering today. Chappals are popular among men, women, and children of all religions throughout India and surrounding countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri...

Indian Footwear

I n the chilly Himalayan mountain northern regions of India, a variety of boots and shoes have been made over the centuries to protect the feet from cold and rainy weather. These boots and shoes are made of leather, wool, and plant fibers. But since the weather in most of India is warm, shoes were not necessary, and for much of history, Indians went barefoot. Without the need for footwear, Indian culture developed a unique history of praising the feet. Mothers massage the feet of their babies....

Chadar

Ancient Breasts

This man wears a heavy brown wool chadar over his shoulders and arms, most likely for warmth. Reproduced by permission of Lindsay HebberdJCORBIS. This man wears a heavy brown wool chadar over his shoulders and arms, most likely for warmth. Reproduced by permission of Lindsay HebberdJCORBIS. The chadar, also spelled chador or chadoor, is a multipurpose garment worn by many people in India since before the third century c.e. Indians and others living in countries of the Middle East continue to...

Turbans

Turban Egypt

From ancient times until the present day, the most common headwear for Indian men has been a turban. A turban is a length of cloth wrapped in a specific way around the top of the head. Most commonly worn outdoors, turbans can also be worn indoors. Woven of cotton, silk, or wool, turbans can be simple or very ornate. The type of fabric, patterns or colors on the fabric, length of fabric, and wrapping technique used for the turban indicate the wearer's social status, religion, ethnicity, and, in...

Minoan Dress

The Minoans, who lived on the Greek island of Crete between 3000 and 1600 b.c.e., had a very complex culture, more advanced than many of the societies that followed it. This complexity is shown in the artistically designed and skillfully made clothing they wore. Much of our knowledge of this clothing comes from artwork that has been found at the sites where the Minoans lived, thousands of years before most recorded history. The society of ancient Crete was largely unknown to modern people until...

Indian Headwear

O ver thousands of years, Indians perfected the art of looping, knotting, and twisting fabric into elaborate and elegant outfits. They applied similar techniques to their hair, twisting and tying their hair into a variety of styles too numerous to count. Hair arrangement became an art form in India. Terra-cotta, or clay, figurines and sculptures from the Indus Valley civilization dating back as far as 2500 b.c.e. depict intricate hairstyles for both men and women that reveal differences between...

Punjabi Suit

Indian Man Punjabi Suit

He Punjabi suit, also known as the salwar kameez, is an outfit worn primarily by Indian women but also by some men. The Punjabi suit became popular around the time of the Mogul Empire, from 1500 to 1700 c.e., and has continued to be worn by modern Indians to the present day. The Punjabi suit consists of a sleeved tunic-like An Indian official wearing a plain Punjabi suit. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann CORBIS. top that hangs to mid thigh and loose trousers that become narrow at the ankle....

Signet Ring

The most important piece of jewelry for men during the Roman Empire 27 b.c.e.-476 c.e. was a signet ring, also called a seal ring. Signet rings were first made out of iron but later came to be made more commonly of gold, especially for government officials and honored military men. The center of the signet ring held a stone ornament. The stone, engraved with the wearer's initials and sometimes decorated with a picture, such as the head of the Greek hero Hercules, was used to stamp the wearer's...

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Bean, 5 979 La Maison Chanel, 4 764, 767 Lacoste, Jean Ren , 4 744, 797 Lacroix, Christian, 5 975 Ladies' Home Journal, 4 770 The Lady in Ermine, 5 857 The Lady Wants Mink, 5 856 Lagerfeld, Karl, 5 972, 975 Lake, Veronica, 4 784, 785, 817, 820 5 867 Lamour, Dorothy, 4 784-85 Lands' End, 5 979 Langhorne, Irene, 4 687 Language, 4 727 Lanvin, 4 764 Lappets, 3 488 Latin, 2 257, 297 Lauder, Estee, 4 708 Laurel, Stan, 3 634 Lauren, Ralph, 4 793 5 863, 886, 976-79 Laws, sumptuary. See Sumptuary...

Ancient Egypt Boots

Boots, shoes that cover part of the leg as well as the foot, have been worn to protect the feet and legs since very ancient times. The people of ancient Greece, beginning with the Minoans from the Greek island of Crete dating from 3000 to 1400 b.c.e., made many different styles of boots and developed shoemaking into a skilled craft and a fine art. The ancient Greek society of Minoans, named for a legendary king in Greek mythology, Minos, had a highly developed sense of decorative fashion. Along...

Solea

The solea, or sandal, was the most common indoor shoe of the ancient Romans. It was a very simple shoe, consisting of a flat sole held to the foot with a simple strap across the instep, similar to today's thongs or flip-flops. Most of the solea known to historians were made of leather. Some, however, were made of wood. Special wooden-soled sandals, called sandalium, were worn by women during the Roman Republic 509-27 b.c.e. and were later worn by both sexes. It appears that simpler wooden-soled...

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Hadrian Roman Emperor , 1 185 Hair coloring, 1 187-88 3 490-91 5 872, 999-1000 Hair musical , 5 942 Hair removal, 2 321 Hair spray, 5 867, 873-74 Hair treatments, 2 321 Hairspray musical , 5 870 Hairstyles. See also Wigs 1900-1918, 4 695-96, 701-2, 701 ill. 1919-1929, 4 751, 760-62, 760 ill. , 761 ill. 1930-1945, 4 817, 817 ill. 1946-1960, 5 867-75, 869 ill. , 871 ill. , 875 ill. 1961-1979, 5 935-43, 936 ill. , 938 ill. , 939 ill. , 943 ill. 1980-2003, 5 999-1003, 1000 ill. , 1001 ill. Africa,...

Gallicae

Gallicae is a general name given to a style of closed leather boot worn by the men of ancient Rome. The Romans named the boots gallicae because they had first encountered them when they were fighting the northern tribes of Gaul, present-day France, after 100 b.c.e. Roman soldiers on long military campaigns in the cold climate of Gaul adopted the sturdy, protective footwear worn by the natives. When they returned home, these soldiers brought the style back to Rome, where it soon became popular....

Ancient Egypt

Egyptian Hieroglyphics Tombs

Lncient Egypt is one of the most studied and best known of the early civilizations. With its great pyramids and temples that have survived to the present day, and with the fascinating mummies found in tombs filled with riches and lined with hieroglyphs, or picture drawings, ancient Egypt provides a fascinating historical record. Tracing its roots to about 4000 b.c.e., the civilizations that we know as ancient Egypt existed for nearly four thousand years before they broke up and came under the...

Cothurnus

The cothurnus was a distinctive boot typically worn by hunters, horsemen, and men of authority and power in ancient Rome. Made of leather, the boot was pulled on to the foot and laced all the way to the top. It could reach as low as mid calf and as high as the knee. The portion of the boot that covered the lower leg was very close fitting. The boot could be very distinctive, with cut leather patterns adding decoration, or with long laces that were wrapped around the lower leg before they were...

Chlamys

Greek Chlamys

He most common cloak worn by young Greek men between the seventh and first centuries b.c.e., the chlamys KLA-mis was one of the few items of ancient Greek clothing worn exclusively by men. It was a short cape, fashioned, like most Greek styles, from a single rectangle of fabric fastened with a pin at one shoulder. Woven of coarse woolen cloth, the chlamys offered the wearer warmth and protection from the weather, while still giving freedom of movement to the active Greek man. Until the later...

Feminalia

Ancient Roman Emperor Clothing

Feminalia were snugly fitting knee-length pants, or breeches. Though the name might suggest that they were worn by women, in fact they were worn most often by men. They were called fem-inalia because the pants covered the length of the thighbone, or femur. During the Roman Republic 509-27 b.c.e. men had generally avoided wearing trousers or pants of any kind, considering it a barbaric costume. They had good reason for this idea, for the people they saw wearing clothing on their legs were the...

Calceus

The calceus was the first shoe in history to look like modern dress shoes. A special type of calceus had been worn by Etruscan kings, who ruled parts of the Italian peninsula before the Romans. In common usage beginning in the Roman Republic 509 27 b.c.e. , the calceus had a leather upper secured to a sole that could be made of leather or wood. Calcei the plural of calceus were worn outside with the toga, the traditional outer garment worn by Roman citizens. Along with the solea, or sandal, the...

Egyptian Clothing

Ancient Egyptian Sheer Clothing

The ancient Egyptians were the first human society to have an identifiable sense of style in clothing. From Egypt's earliest beginnings around 3100 b.c.e. to its eventual decline around 332 b.c.e., Egypt's kings and queens, called pharaohs, and its many noble men and women placed great emphasis on the appearances of their clothes, jewelry, the wigs they wore in place of natural hair, and their skin. The Egyptians idolized the human body, and the clothes they wore complimented the lines of the...

Collars and Pectorals

While the people of ancient Egypt mostly wore plain white linen clothing of simple design, this did not mean that they had no love of adornment. Two of the most notable items of jewelry worn in ancient Egypt were collars and pectorals, both types FRAGRANT OILS AND OINTMENTS of heavily jeweled necklaces. Collars were created with beads made of glass, precious stones, gold, and a glazed pottery called faience. These beads were strung on multiple strings of varying length that were then bound to a...

Himation

Egyptian Clothing For Women

Both Greek men and women wore an outer garment called a himation hi-MA-tee-on beginning as early as the sixth century b.c.e. Although made in various dimensions, himations generally were large rectangular pieces of fabric arranged around the body in a variety of different ways. They were made out of loosely woven thick wool. Though no physical remnants of himations have been discovered, statues and decorations found on pottery suggest that these garments were often dyed bright colors and...

Paduka

Ancient Egyptian Clothing

The paduka also known as the khadaun, kharawan, and karom is the simplest type of Indian foot protection. At its most basic, a paduka is a wooden sole with a knob that fits between the big toe and the second toe. The wearer grips the knob between his toes to keep the sole on the foot. First worn by mendicants, or religious men, padukas have been part of Indian costume since at least the seventh century c.e. In modern times padukas are rarely worn, yet they are still valued as symbols of...

Roman Footwear

Ancient Egyptian Shoes

long with the inhabitants of India, the ancient Romans were one of the first peoples in recorded history to develop a wide range of footwear. The ancient Mesopotamians inhabitants of the region centered in present-day Iraq , Egyptians, and Greeks either went barefoot or used simple sandals as their dominant form of footwear. The climate in these regions made such footwear choices reasonable. But the more variable climate on the Italian peninsula, home to the Etruscans and to the Romans, made...

Fragrant Oils and Ointments

I he Egyptians, write fashion historians Michael and Ariane Batterberry in Fashion The Mirror of History, were as clean as any people in history. They bathed regularly, shaved their bodies of any excess hair, including that on the head, and used fragrant oils and ointments to keep their skin smooth and sweet smelling. The first female queen of Egypt, Queen Netocris, who is believed to have ruled around 2170 b.c.e., recommended regular bathing and scrubbing with a paste of clay and ashes. To...

Roman Clothing

Roman Tunica

The ancient Romans took the clothing traditions of the past and adapted them into one of the most distinctive costume traditions in all of history. The greatest influences on Roman fashion came from the Etruscans, who developed an advanced society in Italy hundreds of years before the Romans became powerful, and from the Greeks. It was from these two cultures that Romans inherited their love of draped garments. Yet Romans were also influenced greatly by the surrounding peoples they conquered...

Braccae

Both men and women wore beautiful, draped garments such as the toga or the stola, a long gown that hung nearly to the feet. Leg coverings were seen as crude items, worn by the barbarians who lived beyond the borders of Roman civilization or as the leg protection of the very poor. Yet as the soldiers of the Roman Empire 27 b.c.e.-476 c.e. began to venture further to distant lands, they began to understand why the peoples of Gaul, present-day France, and Britain...

Fibulae

Ancient Egyptian Gold Jewelry Pictures

A ncient Greeks fastened their clothes with fibulae. Fibulae, which resembled safety pins, secured the large panels of fabric that Greeks draped around their bodies. Although they began as a necessity for holding clothing in place, fibulae later became decorative fashion items. The first fibulae were carved from the leg bones of birds, which some scholars believe to be the source of the pins' name since fibula is also the name used for a particular leg bone. The earliest metal fibulae date back...

Forehead Markings

Red Foreheadmarks

Many people of India, especially those who follow the Hindu religion, wear colored markings on their foreheads and other parts of their bodies. In general, forehead markings identify a person's third eye, or what Hindus believe is the center of a person's nervous system, the area in which a person can see spiritual truths. These markings usually take the form of red, white, and black dots or lines, or combinations of dots and lines, which have either social or religious meanings. The practice...

Ancient Egyptian Sari

Young Poor Woman Saree

The sari, sometimes spelled saree, is a draped dress, created from a single piece of fabric five to nine yards long, which is wrapped around a woman's body in a variety of ways. The resulting garment can be practical working attire or an elegant ceremonial gown, depending on the type of fabric used and the style of draping. While women wear the sari, men wear a version of the wrapped garment called a dhoti. A daily garment worn by approximately 75 percent of the female population of India...

Dhoti and Lungi

Ancient Dhoti

Two styles of clothing have been most popular with Indian men and boys from ancient times to the present day the dhoti and the lungi. Both the dhoti and the lungi are garments made from wrapping unsewn cloth around the waist to cover the loins and most of the legs of their wearers. Although these garments are most often worn by men, women do wear them and other similar garments that resemble skirts. A dhoti is a large cloth wrapped around the waist and then between the legs with the end tucked...

Military Dress

Real Old Egypt Fashionable Dress

arriors in ancient Greece developed many methods of protecting themselves in battle. Mycenaeans, who ruled Greece as early as 1600 b.c.e., crafted armor out of bronze plates. Soldiers wore suits made of bronze plates held together with leather straps. This armor protected the body from the neck to the upper thighs. Soldiers strapped additional bronze plates over their shins for leg protection and wore helmets made of boar's tusks. Mycenaean soldiers also carried a variety of different wooden...

Mesopotamian Body Decorations

Many different ethnic groups lived in Mesopotamia, the region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in present-day Iraq, between 3000 b.c.e. and 300 b.c.e. Among the most prominent were the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Persians. Clothing historians have studied carved statues, the artifacts of royal tombs, and written tablets that show and describe the decorative accessories these people wore. While slaves and the poorest people wore simple, functional clothes, the...

Tunica

Through the course of Roman history, from the early years of ancient Rome in 753 b.c.e. to the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 c.e., there were two garments that were essential to the male wardrobe the tunica and the toga. Adapted from the Greek chiton, the tunica, a type of shirt, was the simplest of garments. It was made from two rectangular pieces of fabric, one set on top of the other. It was sewn together at the sides and the top, with holes left for the head and the arms. Tunicas could...

Ancient Greece Goddess Of Love

Ancient Greek Man Love

Sandals are simple footwear composed of a sole that is held onto the foot by straps. Though the ancient Greeks did not invent the style, they did create many types of leather sandals, developing shoemaking into a skilled art and introducing a wide variety of footwear styles for all classes of men and women. By 500 b.c.e. the average Greek citizen could tell much about the people that passed in the street by the style of sandals they wore. Early Greek sandals were made from a stiff leather or...

Ancient Egyptian Schenti

Egyptian Man Tunic

A ncient Egyptian clothing remained relatively unchanged for over two thousand years, with one important exception the introduction of the tunic, a simple garment that covered the upper body. Egypt's hot climate meant that wearing clothing on the torso was not necessary, and throughout the Old Kingdom c. 2700-c. 2000 b.c.e. and the Middle Kingdom c. 2000-c. 1500 b.c.e. men dressed primarily in the schenti, or kilt, and sometimes with a skirt worn over the schenti. At the beginning of the New...

Prehistoric Life

Early Humans Dress From Animal Skin

'cientists believe that the earliest stages of human evolution began in Africa about seven million years ago as a population of African apes evolved into three different species gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. Some three million years later early humans stood nearly upright and had developed larger brains, about half the size of the modern brain. By 2.5 million years ago it appears that these protohumans, as early humans are known, began to use crude tools such as chipped stones. Beginning...

Ionic Chiton

Doric Peplos

Over their clothing Greek women often draped a himation, which could vary in color from basic white to a more colorful pink or red. Reproduced by permission of Araldo de Luca CORBIS. Ionia is an eastern region of Greece, and Ionian design is a delicate, elegant style that became popular throughout Greece in art, The woman on the right wears the traditional Doric chiton, which was less intricate than the Ionic chiton, worn by the woman on the left. Reproduced by p ermission of Bettmamn CORBIS....

Greek Headwear

Ancient Greece Headwear

Lncient Greek culture is divided among three general societies Minoan, Mycenaean, and Greek. Each of these societies developed sophisticated civilizations, and the earlier societies influenced those that followed. In all, a variety of different ways of adorning the head were created. In Minoan society, which developed on the Greek island of Crete about 3000 b.c.e., long hair was prized for both men and A gold Mycenaean diadem. Diadems as well as wreaths and caps were often used to adorn the...

Mesopotamian Footwear

Mesopotamian Loincloth

s civilizations developed in Mesopotamia between 3000 and 300 b.c.e., foot coverings became more important. From the earliest times to about 911 b.c.e., the available evidence indicates that the people who lived in Mesopotamia, the region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in present-day Iraq, went without any footwear at all. Even though these people had developed needles for sewing garments, looms for weaving, and the skills to make beautiful gold jewelry, they worked, entertained,...

Mesopotamian Clothing

Babylonian Clothing

The civilizations that developed in Mesopotamia near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers between 3000 and 300 b.c.e. developed impressive skills for fashioning clothing. The evidence of these civilizations' clothing remains on sculptures, pottery, and in writings left on tablets and royal tombs. It indicates that a thriving textile or fabric industry existed in the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, which included the Sumerians 3000-2000 b.c.e. , the Akkadians 2350-2218 b.c.e. , the Babylonians...

Doric Chiton

The Doric chiton KYE-ten was one of the most common garments worn by both men and women in Greece during the sixth and early fifth centuries b.c.e. The Dorians were a people who had invaded Greece in the twelfth century b.c.e., and the Doric style was a simple, classic design found in much Greek art and fashion. The chiton was a kind of tunic formed by folding and wrapping a single rectangular piece of fabric around the body. Women's chitons usually provided more modesty, reaching from...

Egyptian Pendents Named Bulla

Both rich and poor Roman parents hung a bulla around their newborn child's neck to protect him or her from misfortune or injury. A bulla could be as simple as a knotted string of cheap leather or as elaborate as a finely made chain necklace holding a golden locket containing a charm thought to have protective qualities. Girls wore their bullas until their wedding day and boys wore theirs until they became citizens full members of society at age sixteen. Some men, such as generals, would wear...

Schenti

The schenti, or kilt, was the basic garment of the Egyptian nobleman, or upper class, from the earliest days of the Old Kingdom c. 2700-c. 2000 b.c.e. all the way through the New Kingdom c. 1500-c. 750 b.c.e. . At its most basic, the schenti was a rectangular piece of cloth, wrapped around the hips and held in place by tucking one end into the tightly wrapped waist or by wearing a tied belt. Evidence of the schenti comes from the many hieroglyphs, or picture drawings, that appear in the...

Mesopotamian Headwear

Men and women adorned their heads in very different ways in Mesopotamia, situated in the region centered in modern-day Iraq near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers between 3000 and 300 b.c.e. In the early years of civilization there, most men shaved their heads bald while women braided their long hair into elaborate styles pinned to the top of their heads. They also covered their hair with netting, scarves, or turbans. Elaborate hairstyles soon became important for both men and women in...

Early Asian Cultures

Early Asian Cultures 205 Samurai Cheongsam 216 Dragon Robes 217 Hakama Haori Silk Mandarin Geisha box 231 Kabuki Face Painting at the Peking Opera box 243 Tattooing Foot Binding and Lotus Shoes 248 Tabis Zori The Byzantine Dalmatica Nomads and Vikings The Last Barbarians box 278 Europe in the Middle Ages 291 Cote and Ganache and Hose and Breeches 304 Leg Mantle Pourpoint Tabard Bowl Ram's Horn Headdress 317 Steeple Crackowes and Poulaines 326 The Costume of the Discovered Peoples 329 Body...

Purdah

The word purdah comes from the Hindu word meaning curtain or veil. Purdah is a complex set of rules, followed in some Muslim and Hindu societies, which restrict a woman's movements both in the outside world and within her own home. Meant to separate the family as a unit from those outside the family, purdah requires a woman to isolate herself from those who are not in her immediate family by veiling her body and face or sitting behind screens or curtains. The custom of purdah originated among...

Prehistoric Clothing

Egyptian Clothing And Food

The first known humans to make clothing, Neanderthal man, survived from about 200,000 b.c.e. to about 30,000 b.c.e. During this time the earth's temperature rose and fell dramatically, creating a series of ice ages throughout the northern areas of Europe and Asia where Neanderthal man lived. With their compact, muscular bodies that conserved body heat, Neanderthals were well adapted to the cold climate of their day. But it was their large brain that served them best. Neanderthal man learned to...

Egyptian Body Decorations

Egyptian Queen Headdress

ncient Egyptians took great care with their bodies, from the way they dressed to the ornaments that they wore. The many ways that Egyptians decorated their bodies reveal their fascination with appearances. Caring for the skin was very important, especially to wealthy people. Egyptians washed their bodies often using fairly harsh soaps that stripped oils from the skin. To soften their skin they used a variety of ointments and creams. These might contain scents to perfume their bodies. The...

Egyptian Footwear

or more than half of the recorded history of ancient Egypt there is almost no record of the use of footwear. The main source of evidence for this period, the pictorial stories found in tombs known as hieroglyphs, showed every class of person, from the ruling pharaoh king or queen , to the lowly worker, going barefoot. This may not mean that people never wore some foot protection, but it does seem to indicate that footwear was of very little importance. Historians are not sure why sandals were...

Loincloth and Loin Skirt

Ancient Egypt

The most basic garment of clothing for Egyptian working men was the loincloth or loin skirt. The climate in Egypt was very hot. Many workers simply worked naked. But the hieroglyphics, or picture drawings, found in Egyptian tombs indicate that many men working in agriculture, wood, metal, leather, and tailoring wore a loincloth or a loin skirt. The loincloth was a very simple garment and is seen beginning in the Old Kingdom period c. 2700 c. 2000 b.c.e. . Most often it consisted of a linen belt...

Penis Sheath

The penis sheath was an essential element of men's costume in ancient Egypt. This strategically placed strip of cloth was worn, not out of modesty as we might assume, but to protect what was considered a vital and sacred organ from environmental elements, working hazards, as well as troublesome insects and tropical diseases. In ancient Egypt all men adopted costume that emphasized the front of the body. The traditional male garment, called the schenti, was a simple kilt made out of leather,...

Prehistoric Headwear

Evidence concerning the way early man clothed and decorated his body has lasted for thousands of years, but very little has been discovered about how early humans cared for or styled their hair. Even the best-preserved bodies of ancient man reveal nothing about how hair was worn. Rock paintings from the years 15,000 to 10,000 b.c.e. found in caves in France and southern Spain show no specific hairstyles, nor do rock paintings found in the African Sahara dating from 7000 to 6000 b.c.e. Most...

Timeline

THE BEGINNING OF HUMAN LIFE Early humans wrap themselves in animal hides for warmth. c. 10,000 b.c.e. Tattooing is practiced on the Japanese islands, in the Jomon period c. 10,000-300 B.C.E. . Similarly scarification, the art of carving designs into the skin, has been practiced since ancient times in Oceania and Africa to make a person's body more beautiful or signify a person's rank in society. c. 3100 b.c.e. Egyptians weave a plant called flax into a light cloth called linen and made dresses...