Body Decorations of Oceania

Oceania Body Art

I n the warm climate of the thousands of islands that make up Oceania, people wear few clothes. Uncovered, their skin is considered a blank canvas for decoration. Among the many different cultures living on the islands, body decoration is very important to social and religious practices. Body painting is a temporary method of adorning the body. Much as westerners wear dress clothes to weddings, the peoples of Oceania paint their bodies for rituals and festive occasions. Other body markings are...

Info

Asians Wearing Clogs

Geta (GAY-tah) are the traditional footwear of all kimono-wearers in modern and traditional Japan. They are raised clogs (shoes with a heavy, often wooden sole) and are closely related to the low, wedge-shaped sandals called zori. Geta are usually made of plain wood with a V-shaped padded fabric thong into which the wearer slips his or her foot, inserting the point of the V between the big toe and the next toe. They are raised off the ground by two wooden pieces under the sole, their height...

Tattooing

Tattooing was practiced among members of Native American tribes for thousands of years. Native Americans tattooed themselves by cutting their skin with sharp objects and rubbing dye into the cuts. Cactus needles, fish bones, pine needles, bird bones, sharp stones, or other sharp objects pricked the skin and pigments such as charcoal, cedar-leaf ashes, or other materials were used to make red, blue, or green tattoos on the skin. People, especially men, would often tattoo themselves, though some,...

Fedora

Fur Felt Fedora Turned Down Brim

Orchestra leader Count Basie sporting a fedora with the brim turned down. Reproduced by permission of AP Wide World Photos. Orchestra leader Count Basie sporting a fedora with the brim turned down. Reproduced by permission of AP Wide World Photos. uring the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, hats and caps were a necessary part of a well-dressed man's daily wardrobe. Between the 1890s and the 1960s, one of the most popular hats was the fedora, a soft felt hat with a...

Trainer Shoes

During the 1980s sneakers or athletic shoes became a major component of the American wardrobe. Consumers, most of whom were young, favored certain styles for the attitude or personality they conveyed. Wearing a specific brand or style radiated status. One of the most distinctive styles of athletic shoe introduced in the 1980s was the trainer. Not designed for a specific sport such as basketball or jogging, trainers typically had heavier soles, more decorative and colorful uppers, and prominent...

Spectator Sports Style

World War England Fashions

Attending sporting events was a popular leisure time practice during the 1920s. Fashion-conscious spectators dressed in attire appropriate for a variety of sports events. Often fashion was dictated by the weather. For instance, male and female college students who attended autumn and early winter football games wore bulky raccoon fur coats or heavy tan-colored camel hair and woolen polo coats belted at the waist or with a partial belt at the back. Women's sportswear was becoming more...

Hemlines

When World War I (1914 18) ended, women adopted a new style the knee-length hemline. The year 1919 was the first year that European and American women showed their legs in public. Between 1919 and 1929 women's legs were seen beneath day, sport, and evening dresses. The most fashionable silhouette, or shape, for a woman's skirt from 1919 to 1929 was straight and knee length. The skirts of the decade hid women's feminine curves with loose waists and sashes hugging the hips. These dresses created...

Brassiere

Different Types Undergarments

A garment made to cover, contain, and support women's breasts, the brassiere has long been identified with femininity, female sexuality, and even female oppression. Invented during the early 1900s, when women were beginning to gain some independence, the brassiere, or bra, represented freedom from much more Several different types of brassieres and lingerie. The brassiere represented freedom to women accustomed to tight corsets. Reproduced ofAP Wide World Photos. restrictive undergarments, such...

Fifteenth Century Headwear

Roman Republic Formed 509

ike many of the fashion trends of the fifteenth century, the headwear worn during the fifteenth century underwent a shift after about the 1470s. In the first part of the century, headwear and hairstyles generally followed the conventions of the late Middle Ages (c. 500-c. 1500). Men tended to wear their hair in a bowl cut, although Italian men tended to prefer longer, curlier hair. Men were generally clean shaven. In fact, an English law from 1447 made it a crime for a man to grow a mustache....

Goth Style

Gothic Style Gwyneth Paltrow

He term goth, short for gothic, was used beginning in the 1980s to describe certain rebellious youths who had a very distinctive way of viewing the world, and an equally distinctive style of dress. The term gothic had been used since the sixteenth century to describe medieval northern European architecture and later to describe novels that had a shadowy, mysterious atmosphere. That dark atmosphere, as well as the fashions worn by the characters in gothic novels, became attractive to many young...

America Forges Ahead 19802003

Gap Stores America

Listorians have yet to come up with good labels for the 1980s and 1990s. The 1980s have been called the Decade of Greed because of the aggressive business growth of the time, and the 1990s have been labeled the New Economy or the Internet Age, recognizing the extraordinary influence of high-tech industries. These labels focus attention on the economic changes of the time, yet they may not fully recognize the extent to which the United States dominated Western culture. In world politics,...

Cowboy Boots

Cowboy Boot Straps For Decoration

Cowboy boots arrived in the American West from Mexico, and they had been brought to Mexico by the Spanish horsemen who conquered that country. With sharply pointed toes and a high, angled heel, usually from one-and-a-half to two-and-a-half inches high, the tall leather boots slid easily into stirrups and hooked there when a horseman had to stand up in the saddle to rope cows. Early cowboy boots were difficult to walk in, because they were designed for use on horseback. However, even after cars...

Makeup

Makeup Small Lips

Substances applied to the face for the purpose of enhancing, improving, or highlighting the features of the face are called cosmetics or makeup. People have used cosmetics since very ancient times, and the use of cosmetics, like other fashions, are usually dictated by the social customs and beliefs of the day. Though during certain periods men have worn makeup, in modern times it has usually been considered a decoration for women only. The liberated fashions of the 1920s introduced an era of...

Headwear 191929

Vfter the end of World War I (1914-18) both men and women were inspired to change their hairstyles. For men the changes were not too drastic, but for women hairstyles were dramatically different. Nevertheless, both men and women prized neatly groomed hairstyles during this period. Soldiers came back from the war with military cuts, hairstyles trimmed close on top and shaved up past the ears in the back. Men grew their hair out a bit but maintained neat, short hair. It was not the cut but the...

War II 194660

Relief Society Decorating

He world woke up from a six-year-long nightmare in the summer of 1945. World War II (1939-45), which had pitted the Allied forces of the United States, Britain, France, Russia, Canada, Australia, and other nations against the Axis forces of Germany, Japan, Italy, Austria, and others, finally ended, but the effects of the war lingered on for years afterward. The economies of Europe and Japan were in ruins, and people around the world struggled to recover from the deadliest war in human history....

Eighteenth Century Revolt

Eighteenth Century Clothing

He eighteenth century ushered in sweeping changes to the lives of rich and poor alike. The rural, agriculturally-based economies of Europe began a centuries-long transformation into modern industrially-based economies. The early years of the Industrial Revolution brought technological advances that improved agricultural production and sped up the manufacture of goods, laying the groundwork for the factory system that would soon dominate European countries and the newly formed United States of...

P

Grunge Rock Decor

W eople adorned their bodies in widely varying ways in the 1960s and 1970s. The popularity of modern styles at the beginning of the 1960s brought huge plastic flower ornaments, heavy makeup, especially around the eyes, and false eyelashes for women. Men accepted jewelry as part of their wardrobe, starting with the love beads hung around their necks in the 1960s and ending the period with multiple chains of gold adorning their necks and chests, bracelets around their wrists, and rings on their...

Mustaches

Waxed Mustache Style

M en have always had the option of growing facial hair over their upper lip, but in terms of fashion the nineteenth century was the golden age of mustaches. Beginning about midcentury, a wide variety of mustache styles became popular across Europe and North America, and they remained so into the 1900s. The nineteenth century saw the return of more assertively masculine styles of dress and grooming throughout the Western world. Much of the craze for mustaches began in the military ranks of...

Toq

Audrey Hepburn Wearing Long Gown

Ew people living in the booming 1920s could have predicted that the fifteen-year period starting in 1930 would be one of the most difficult times of the entire twentieth century. Yet these fifteen years are now so closely associated with two sustained historical events, the Great Depression (1929-41) and World War II (1939-45), that we can think of little else that mattered during these years. These events gripped the entire world, with ten years of economic hardship capped by six years of a...

Mens Hats

Century Mens Hats

In the first decades of the twentieth century there were so many different kinds of hats that a man could truly wear a hat for nearly every occasion. And, if he wanted to be considered a gentleman, he absolutely could not go without a hat. The cultural traditions favoring headwear for members of both sexes were very strong. Hat wearing would eventually go out of style by the second half of the century, but in the years between 1900 and roughly 1950, hats were an essential part of a man's...

Body Decorations 193045

Dramatic Eyelashes With Decorations

The extravagant, frivolous fashions of the 1920s were replaced by more practical decorations and accessories during the 1930s. The Great Depression (1929-41) and World War II (1939-45) put pressure on both men and women to simplify their wardrobes. The fanciful purses of the 1920s were replaced by the plainer clutch purse style, for example. Rather than buying different jewelry to adorn each different outfit, women instead favored simple styles or wore meaningful pieces to which they could add...

Headwear 193045

Style Women 1935

I he severe hairstyles of the 1920s were replaced with softer styles between 1930 and 1945. Men and women grew their hair out slightly from the short styles popular in the previous decade. Men abandoned their slick, flattened styles in favor of clean, loose hair. Women, for the most part, wore their hair cut neatly above their shoulders, but some experimented briefly with longer styles inspired by glamorous movie stars such as Veronica Lake (1919 1973). The most characteristic look of this...

Plus Fours

Body Decoration

First introduced during the 1920s, plus fours were a variation on the traditional knee pants called knickers, which had been A golfer wearing plus fours, pants baggier and four inches longer than ordinary knickers. Reproduced by permission of AP Wide World Photos. A golfer wearing plus fours, pants baggier and four inches longer than ordinary knickers. Reproduced by permission of AP Wide World Photos. worn by men, boys, and, occasionally, women, since the late 1800s. Plus fours received their...

Converse All Stars

Basketball Player Wearing Converse

Converse paved the way for the athletic shoe explosion of the late twentieth century with its introduction of the canvas and rubber All-Star in 1917. It also created an enduring American footwear icon that still claims the allegiance of millions of wearers worldwide. Marquis M. Converse founded the rubber footwear company that bears his name in 1908. The Converse brand grew briskly in the decade leading up to World War I (1914-18). But it achieved its greatest success following the introduction...

Headwear 190018

Irene Castle With Messy Hair Dancing

uring the first years of the twentieth century, women continued to wear their hair and hats much as they did in the previous century, but after about 1908 styles began to change and the first of the styles that would become so popular during the 1920s and 1930s appeared. In terms of hair and hats, then, this period was an age of transition. Hair historian Richard Corson claims in Fashions in Hair The First Five Thousand Years that the first half of the twentieth century was, perhaps, the least...

Headwear of African Cultures

African Head Wraps And Body

I he variety of hairstyles and head-wear in Africa matches the diversity of the people who live on the continent. Different cultures have used hairstyles and headwear to show tribal association, gender, religion, job, and social status. In addition, the various cultures have created wigs, hats, hair ornaments, razors, and combs to aid in adorning the head. The importance of head-wear to African culture is witnessed by the many statues and masks of ancient Africa that show detailed hair...

Sunless Tanning Lotion

During the 1920s a tanned complexion became associated with youth and vigor as more and more people began pursuing active lifestyles. Tanned skin remained in style for several decades. In the 1960s several sunless tanning lotions, which imitate the tanning effect of the sun by darkening the skin with chemical reactions, were marketed for those too busy indoors to get a suntan and for those with fair complexions who did not tan easily. Within a few hours of applying sunless tanning lotion, the...

Braids Hair

Really Hair Men Body

Carving of a Roman man with long braids. Both men and women wore braids and curls in their hair. Reproduced by permission of Araldo de Luca CORBIS. Carving of a Roman man with long braids. Both men and women wore braids and curls in their hair. Reproduced by permission of Araldo de Luca CORBIS. ne thing is made very clear by the statues, coins, and paintings that provide our evidence about the hairstyles worn in ancient Rome women changed their hairstyles very often. Though there is no one...

17th Century Male Full Bottomed Wig Blonde

Long Hair Horse Head

Wigs became a necessity for French courtiers officers and advisers in 1643 when sixteen-year-old Louis XIV ascended the throne sporting long curly hair. For all who could not grow their own, long flowing locks were created with wigs. The fashion persisted when, at the age of thirty-five, the king began to lose so much of his own hair that he needed to add false hair to maintain his beloved style. He eventually shaved off all his thinning hair and wore full wigs. Wigs came in several different...

The Sixteenth Century

Population Europe Sixteenth Century

He sixteenth century is widely considered to be one of the pivotal centuries in human history, a time when the overall organization and structure of human society went through a fundamental change. It was the high point of a larger historical period known as the Renaissance, which lasted from the late fourteenth through the sixteenth century. It was called the Renaissance because Europe saw a rebirth of learning, arts, and culture that had not been seen since the splendor of the Greek and Roman...

Gigot Sleeves

Gigot Sleeve

Gigot is the French word for the back leg of an animal, especially of a lamb or sheep. The gigot sleeve, also called the leg-of-mutton sleeve, was named for its resemblance to a sheep's hind leg wide at the top and narrow at the bottom. With a large puff of material at the shoulder, gigot sleeves tapered sharply at the elbow to fit closely along the lower arm. This dramatic style of sleeve was first seen on women's dresses in the sixteenth century but became a very popular style during the late...

More extensive recording

Liberian Decorations

Our knowledge and understanding of African civilization began to expand in the mid-fifteenth century, when Europeans first landed on the west coast of the continent. The Portuguese, followed by the Dutch, British, French, and others, established links between Africa and Europe. Although they had first come in search of gold and other precious trading commodities, Europeans quickly started developing the slave trade, which involved the export of captured Africans. The first shipment of humans...

Eighteenth Century Footwear

Body Decoration

The display of wealth through fashionable clothes was also seen on the feet in the eighteenth century. Both men and women of wealth wore fancy shoes that signaled their status, a trend that died out by the end of the century. Women wore high-heeled shoes made of colorful silk or delicate leather, sometimes decorated with gold and silver lace and braid. Although women wore heavily decorated silk dresses, their shoes were rarely made from matching material to do so would be much too expensive....

Paludamentum

Decoration Byzantine

Paludamentum was a broad term referring to several varieties of cloaks that were worn during the time of the Byzantine Empire 476 1453 c.e. . Worn by both men and women, these cloaks were worn over the standard garments of the day the tunic and dalmatica worn by men, and the stola, or long dress, and palla worn by women. There were actually several different kinds of palu-damentum. The most common was a large semicircle of fabric, pinned at the right shoulder and reaching to about the hips....

Jumper Gown

Jumper gowns were popular during the first few years of the twentieth century. They were long skirts with two- to three-inch-wide attached suspenders, or straps extending over the shoulders from the front waist to the back waist, also known as bretelles. Jumper gowns were worn over blouses or guimpes, yokes or collars of fabric that look like the upper part of blouses and that cover the neck and shoulders. They also were worn over lingerie shirtwaists, undergarments resembling tailored blouses...

Hakama

Samurai Kimono And Hakama

The hakama is a pleated, two-part lower garment usually referred to as either full-cut trousers or a divided skirt. It began as a long trailing garment in ancient times and in more recent times has been worn as a standard part of male ceremonial attire and by martial artists. Originally, the hakama was worn as an outer garment to protect the samurai warriors' legs as they rode their horses, like a cowboy's leather leggings called chaps. As the samurai used horses less, they continued the...

Hobble Skirts

During the first decade of the 1900s, just as women began demanding more freedom, more rights, and more comfortable fashions, one of the most restrictive styles of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries came into style. This was the hobble skirt, a tight, ankle-length skirt that grew narrower at the hem. Popular between 1905 and 1910, the hobble skirt was so tight at the ankles that the woman wearing it could only walk in very short steps. In the early 1900s many westerners were fascinated by...

Bark Cloth

Ancient African Herders

Bark cloth was one of the first cloths known to be made on the African continent, though its exact origins are lost to history. Bark cloth was made by peeling the inner bark off trees and beating it until it was soft. The first peoples known to use bark cloth were the Kuba, living in the present-day nation of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The peoples living in the forested regions of Africa, including the Congo Basin and West Africa, used bark cloth extensively. Bark cloth was fashioned...

Clothing of African Cultures

Nigeria Agbada Dress

The evolution of African clothing is difficult to trace because of the lack of historical evidence. Although artifacts from Egyptian culture date back to before 3000 b.c.e., no similar evidence is available for the majority of the African continent until the mid-twentieth century. Sources from Arab culture refer to the people of northern Africa by the eighth century c.e., but much of early African clothing history has been pieced together from art, oral histories, and traditions that are...

A symbol of wealth

Turquoise Meaning Native Americans

Although most jewelry had spiritual meaning, some indicated social status or was worn simply for decoration. For example, pearls could only be worn by the children of noblemen in the Natchez A Navajo woman displays her turquoise jewelry. Native Americans of the Southwest adorned themselves with turquoise earrings, necklaces, and other jewelry. Reproduced by permission of Nevada Wier CORBIS. tribe of the Southeast. While women of the Iroquois nation typically wore many beaded necklaces, for...

Mullet

Body Decoration

Fans of the hairstyle, which was short on the top and sides and long in the back, included musicians and other celebrities as well as common people. Reproduced by permission of Ken Settle. Mullet is one of many names given to hair that is cut short on the top and sides and grown long in the back. The name mullet can be traced to the 1967 film Cool Hand Luke in which a prison inmate called men from the U.S. South who wore long hair mul-letheads, after a popular southern fish...

Piercing

Artist Wear Nose Ring

Used to be pierced and stretched so that by the time she reached thirteen years old, the girl's earlobes hung almost to her shoulders. This practice signified wealth and virtue among women from ancient times, and females without stretched lobes were shunned or considered prostitutes. This particular custom began to disappear in the nineteenth century as Christian missionaries converted people in these areas. Piercing the nose has special significance in Indian culture. In rural areas female...

Seventeenth Century Headwear

Wigs People Wore The 17th Century

Well-groomed head was important for both men and women during the seventeenth century. At the beginning of the century fashionable men wore their natural hair quite long with lovelocks, or extra long strands of hair, dangling over their left shoulder. In addition, their faces were tufted with mustaches and beards. Kept neat with wax, men's mustaches and beards ranged from full and thick to pencil-thin lines. But when the hair of the French king Louis XIV 1638-1715 began to fall out in the late...

Fr

Jesus The Conqueror Death

Rom as early as 100 b.c.e., administrators of the Roman Empire 27 b.c.e.-476 c.e. had brought parts of Europe under the control and governance of Rome. By the second century c.e., Rome's influence spread throughout most of western Europe, from Spain north to Britain, and Germany south to Italy. When the Roman Empire collapsed in 476 c.e. after years of attacks by hordes of raiding barbarians from the north, including Goths, Huns, Franks, Angles, Saxons, and Vandals, much of the civilization...

Rock V Roll Style

Fashion Design Sketches African American

In the 1950s a new kind of music jolted the American mainstream rock 'n' roll, a loud, fast, liberating sound that primarily appealed to teenagers. Rock 'n' roll was an offshoot of the rural blues and urban rhythm and blues music that for years had entertained The greaser rock 'n' roll look, as and stirred the spirits of African Americans. Throughout the 1940s captured m the fHm The Outside. and early 1950s, blues was classified as race music and was mar- Reproduced by permission of The . Kobal...

Wimple

Medieval Whimple

The wimple, also spelled whimple, was a very common head covering for women of the Middle Ages c. 500 c. 1500 . Popular from the twelfth through the fifteenth centuries, wimples were light veils, usually made of linen or silk, which were fastened all the way around the neck, up to the chin. Sometimes the bottom edge of the wimple was tucked into the collar of the dress. The wimple provided both protection from the weather and modesty. A wimple was often worn with a veil called a couvrechef,...

Footwear of Nomads and Barbarians

Jane Farrell Beck

s with their clothing, the footwear of nomads and barbarians was made out of the skins of the animals that they hunted and, in some cases, herded. Though we have very little physical evidence about the footwear worn by such peoples as the Gauls, Celts, Huns, and Goths, we do know that their animal hide footwear came in two basic styles. The first style, which was similar to primitive footwear worn by prehistoric humans, consisted of a single piece of animal hide wrapped up over the top of the...

Z

Zegna, Ermenegildo, 5 925 Zhou dynasty, 2 207 Zipper boots, 4 693 Zippers, 4 691-93, 692 ill. Zoot suit, 4 813-15, 814 ill. Zori, 2 253 Zucchettos, 2 266 Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages r, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages Volume 2 Early Cultures Across the Globe SARA PENDERGAST AND TOM PENDERGAST SARAH HERMSEN, Project Editor Fashion, Costume, and Culture Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages Imaging and Multimedia...

Footwear of the Middle Ages

The footwear worn in the Middle Ages c. 500-c. 1500 follows the trend of fashion in general over this period, moving from very crude in the early years to highly refined and even frivolous by the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. In fact, the evolution of footwear tracks very nicely the larger social changes that marked this fascinating period in European history. Following the collapse of the Roman Empire in 476 c.e., Europe was without any form of unifying order. Isolated communities of...

Flatteners

Ginger Rogers Breasts

Flatteners appeared on the fashion scene during the late 1910s and 1920s, around the same time as brassieres. However, while brassieres were designed to lift and support the breasts, flatteners had a different purpose to press the breasts tightly against the body in order to give the wearer the flat-chested look that was popular at the time. Flatteners were made of cotton and elastic. Some laced up the sides to pull the breasts flat, while others had wide elastic bands at the breasts, stomach,...

Early Asian Cultures

Xia Dynasty Inventions

He Asian societies that began in modern-day China are among the oldest known human societies on earth. Though they were at least as developed and sophisticated as early civilizations in Mesopotamia centered in present-day Iraq and Egypt, these Asian societies have received far less study and attention in the West. In the last century, however, with the modernization of the ancient nations of China and Japan, people in the West have come to know a great deal about early Asian cultures. Many who...

Tanning

Tan Body From Fair Skin Tanned

O ne of the primary reasons why travelers who live in northern climates head off to fair-weather vacation spots is to smooth on suntan lotion, pass hours soaking in sunshine, and emerge with their skin browned by the sun's ultraviolet UV rays. Not everyone who desires tanned skin has the time or inclination to stay in the sun for the time needed to obtain brown skin. As a result, artificial means Though a tan is seen as an outward expression of good health, excessive exposure to sunlight...

And Incas

Warwick Valley Dispatch 1990

Though the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas were separated in time and in geography, their clothing closely resembled each other. In general, children were naked, and men wore loincloths, adding tunics, or shirts, and cloaks in colder weather. The dress of women was more variable. Mayan women wore skirts with or without a scarf tied to cover their breasts, and Aztec and Inca women wore dresses made from a wrapped piece of fabric, or ankle-length tunic dresses. None of the clothing was cut to fit the...

Indian Body Decorations

ecorating and accessorizing the body plays an important part in ceremonial as well as everyday life in India, today as well as in the past. Sculptures trace the history of body decoration to the earliest civilizations in the Indus Valley, which flourished along the Indus River in modern-day Pakistan. Literature and paintings also document Indian body adornment traditions, many of which have been practiced in some form since 2500 b.c.e. Indians use colors and patterns of makeup for various...

Africa From the Birth of Civilization

African Tribal Ancient Footwear

He earliest stages of human evolution are believed to have begun in Africa about seven million years ago as a population of African apes evolved into three different species gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. Protohumans, as early humans are known, evolved about 2.5 million years ago and had larger brains and stood nearly upright. From prehistoric Africa, humans spread to populate much of the world by 10,000 b.c.e. Some of the world's first great empires originated in northern Africa around...

Where Did The Turban Worn By The Turks Originate

Ottoman Empire Osman

Ottoman Turk Osman I wearing a turban. The turban was worn by both Byzantine men and women, and when the Byzantine Empire was conquered by the Ottoman Turks, the Turks too began wearing the turban. Ottoman Turk Osman I wearing a turban. The turban was worn by both Byzantine men and women, and when the Byzantine Empire was conquered by the Ottoman Turks, the Turks too began wearing the turban. A headdress with ancient roots, the turban is made from a long strip of cloth, most often cotton or...

Dagging and Slashing

Pencil Drawings For Emo Cutters

Dogging, seen here on this man's sleeves, is a decorative edge that was commonly used to distinguish and beautify the clothing of fifteenth-century Europeans. Courtesy of the Library of Congress. Seen between the late fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, dagging and slashing were decorative techniques that were used to distinguish and beautify garments. Both techniques were used on the common garments of the day to add decoration in accordance with fashion trends. In this way they were related...

Readers Guide

Fashoon, Costume, and Culture Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages provides a broad overview of costume traditions of diverse cultures from prehistoric times to the present day. The five-volume set explores various items of human decoration and adornment, ranging from togas to turbans, necklaces to tennis shoes, and discusses why and how they were created, the people who made them, and their uses. More than just a description of what people wore and why, this set...

Clothing 19802003

Provocative Ads Calvin Klein

The years between 1980 and 2003 present all the complexities of modern costume. These decades saw a rise and fall in the status of high-profile clothing designers and their extravagant clothes the sudden popularity of certain clothing items, often associated with youth-driven music trends the impact of new technologies the influence of celebrities on fashion all set against a general trend to favor comfortable, casual clothes. These trends were a continuation of the trends that had...

Gucci Bags

Gianni Versace Family

In 1921 Guccio Gucci 1881-1953 opened a small store in Florence, Italy, where he sold luggage and saddlery, accessories for horseback riders. Over the decades Gucci's business grew into an internationally renowned company that manufactured and distributed stylish, handsomely crafted personal items, including watches, shoes, ties, jewelry, suitcases, and scarves. Among the most popular and coveted Gucci products were handbags a bag that is designed for women and normally used for carrying money,...

Sixteenth Century Clothing

Clothing And Body Decoration

The sixteenth century was one of the most extravagant and splendid periods in all of costume history and one of the first periods in which modern ideas of fashion influenced what people wore. Some of the larger cultural trends of the time included the rise and spread of books, the expansion of trade and exploration, and the increase in power and wealth of national monarchies, or kingdoms, in France, England, and Spain. Each of these trends influenced what people chose to wear and contributed to the frequent changes in style and the emergence of style trendsetters that are characteristic of modern fashion. Perhaps the single biggest factor influencing fashion in the sixteenth century was the wealth of European kingdoms and powerful city-states in Italy. Trade and exploration had led to a boom in the economies of Europe, and the textile, or fabric, industries were at the center of that boom. Wool production in England and silk production in Italy were especially important. These...

Driving Clothes

Tight Hobble Skirt

Driving, or motoring as it was known in the early years of the twentieth century, inspired its own fashion trend, born out of the need to protect automobile drivers and their passengers from the elements. The short-lived craze for driving clothes that emerged in the first decade of the twentieth century also reflected a trend toward the development of specialized garments for special occasions. Driving clothes were more than stylish clothing to complement the earliest cars they were also very practical. The earliest cars gave motorists no protection from the weather. Rain, wind, and cold air threatened to soak or chill motorists, and open cars traveling at high speeds over unpaved country roads covered drivers with dust. Both men and women welcomed the protective driving clothes introduced between 1900 and 1910. For men, the outfit started with a cloth peaked cap and a set of driving goggles that could be pushed up onto the forehead when not in use. On warm, dry days, a driving coat,...

Oceania Island Culture

Portugese Explorer Clothes

Ceania encompasses more than thirty thousand islands in the Pacific Ocean, spanning from Hawaii in the north to New Zealand in the south. To most geographers the lands that make up Oceania include Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, New Zealand, and often Australia and the Malay Archipelago. These islands are home to a wide range of cultures, and today many of the island nations recognize more than one language. For example, in Papua New Guinea alone, a part of the island region known as...

Europe in the Fifteenth Century

Rich Parts Africa The 15th Century

B urope at the dawn of the fifteenth century operated much as it had for the previous several hundred years. The majority of the people, known as peasants, worked on small farms and paid some form of tax to a local lord, who provided the land on which they worked and also offered protection. These lords, who might be dukes, barons, or even kings, were the leading figures in the various kingdoms, states, duchys the territory ruled by a duke , and other small regions by which most of Europe was...

Swimwear

Indecent Exposure Women

Swimwear is clothing worn while swimming or visiting the beach or a pool. As more and more men and women visited public beaches to swim, relax, and play recreational water sports in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, issues about swimwear arose regarding popular fashion, functionality, and modesty. The early years of the twentieth century were daring ones for women's swimwear design. Bulky suits with pant and skirt combinations were replaced by loose, one-piece suits that fit...

Chanel No

Chanel Perfume Factice Decor

Chanel No. 5, introduced in 1921, is still one of the world's most popular fragrances. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann CORBIS SYGMA. Chanel No. 5, introduced in 1921, is still one of the world's most popular fragrances. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann CORBIS SYGMA. Chanel No. 5 has become one of the world's most popular fragrances. Chanel No. 5 was the first synthetic, or man-made, perfume. Instead of essential oils from nature, synthetic perfumes are made with an aldehyde, an organic...

Seventeenth Century Body Decorations

Women Wearing Masks And Gloves

Hile the sixteenth century was an age of excess in ornamentation, the seventeenth century is often thought of as an age of elegance, with greater care for the manner of display than for its abundance. Nowhere is this contrast more evident than in the use of jewelry. While people displayed their wealth in the sixteenth century by sprinkling jewels across their garments, hair, and bodies, people in the seventeenth century were more likely to wear just a few well-chosen jewels to demonstrate their...

Gray Flannel Suit

Fashion Figure Templates 1950s

The 1950s were a time of conformity in the United States and in American fashion. Middle- and upper-class families by the thousands moved out of the nation's cities and resettled in suburban, or Gregory Peck in The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit. In the 1950s, the gray flannel suit was the standard uniform of office workers. Reproduced by permission of The Kobal Collectionl20th Century Fox. Gregory Peck in The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit. In the 1950s, the gray flannel suit was the standard...

Hunting Outfit

Austrian Hunting Attire

Hunting in the early years of the twentieth century combined two activities for which specialized clothes were developed riding horses and shooting. Until the second half of the nineteenth century, men had hunted in a version of their normal attire. That changed with the introduction of the sack coat and the lounge jacket, both of which were adapted for riding with the addition of vents to allow freedom of movement. By the turn of the century a wing-shape cut had evolved, along with special...

John Travolta Famous Dance Scenes

John Travolta Dance Scene

Leisure suits, which gained popularity among men during the 1970s, were casual suits consisting of matching jacket and trousers. They were made of polyester fabric, often in bright colors or earth tone plaids. The leisure suit jacket was distinctively During the 1970s rock music dance clubs became extremely popular. Young people, wearing polyester bell-bottoms and platform shoes, lined up outside popular clubs for a chance to enter dance floors lit with bright, pulsing lights and dance to...

Jewelry

Body Decoration

Jewelry has occupied an important part of life in India from ancient times to the present day. Evidence from the earliest Indus Valley civilizations, which flourished along the Indus River in modern-day Pakistan and which date back to 2500 b.c.e., indicates that early Indians adorned themselves from head to toe with many varied ornaments. Although traditions have changed over the thousands of years since the beginning of Indian culture, jewelry remains an integral part of religious, regional,...

Rachel Haircut

Rachel Green Haircut

Television actress Jennifer Aniston 1969 sparked a worldwide style craze in 1995 when her distinctive shag hairstyle was copied by women everywhere. Dubbed the Rachel, after the name of her character, Rachel Green, on NBC's long-running hit sitcom Friends, the popular hairstyle helped Aniston emerge as the breakout star of the show's ensemble cast. Friends debuted in 1994, steadily building a large and faithful audience, particularly among young, college-educated women. During its first season...

Headwear of Early Asian Cultures

Oriental Single Long Hair Pins

Ver thousands of years of Chinese and later Japanese history, many different forms of headwear and hairstyles were worn, depending both upon fashion and upon the restrictions that were placed on fashions at any given time. In this brief accounting, just a few of the most distinctive of those styles will be discussed. One thing that should be remembered is that both the Chinese and Japanese people have deep black hair. Hair coloring was not used in either of these Asian cultures. As best is...

Sleeves

Sir Francis Bacon Full Body

Fabric arm coverings, or sleeves, were an essential part of the clothing ensemble worn by both men and women during the Renaissance. Although sleeves were sometimes attached directly to The ultimate extension of the ruffs, or wide pleated collars, that were so popular among the wealthy in the sixteenth century was the Medici collar. A Medici collar provided a large, decorative frame around the sides and back of a woman's head. The collar was typically worn with a gown with a d collet neckline,...

Bases

Rene Gruau Fabrics

Bases were a form of skirt, worn by upper-class members of the military, that were a striking departure from typical men's costume of the sixteenth century. During this period, most men wore a doublet, a slightly padded short overshirt, with hose and breeches. The bases replaced the hose and breeches. They were made of stiff, heavy cloth, and consisted of panels of fabric, often in alternating colors. The panels were attached to an inner lining in such a way as to make each of the panels either...

Costume Jewelry

Vicki Miller Great Western Steel Chicago

Adornments for the body that are made of precious metals and stones are called jewelry, and jewelry is given the name costume jewelry when it is not made from precious materials. Costume jewelry provides an inexpensive way to add glamour and sparkle to fashion because it is usually made of cheap materials, such as glass or plastic rather than diamonds and emeralds, and plain steel, brass, or copper, rather than gold and silver. Though costume jewelry has been worn during many periods, it had a...

Beaded Handbags

Vomen Body

Vomen have been carrying purses or small handbags since the Middle Ages c. 500-c. 1500 . Though the first purses were simple leather pouches covered with a flap, women soon developed purses and handbags into decorative accessories that could be matched to their outfits and adorned with all manner of ornament. From 1900 to 1918 one of the more popular styles was the beaded handbag. This small bag, about the size of a grapefruit or smaller, was made of fabric that was covered in small beads. A...

Fifteenth Century Clothing

Clothing The Fifteenth Century

I he fifteenth century saw transformations in the nature of costume and culture that are key to our understanding of Western fashion. Up until the fifteenth century, the clothing customs of most cultures had been determined by tradition, the availability of certain kinds of fabric, and the skill of the tailor. Ancient Egyptians wore similar clothing for nearly thirty centuries, for example, and the long wool garments worn by Europeans in the sixth century were not that different from those worn...

Roman Body Decorations

Rome Jewelry

L oman attitudes toward the grooming and decoration of their bodies changed dramatically over the course of the long history of their civilization. From the serious and simple habits of the eighth-century-b.c.e. founders of the city of Rome, Romans became increasingly concerned with bathing, jewelry, and makeup. By the time of the Roman Empire 27 b.c.e.-476 c.e. , bathing had become an elaborate public ritual, wealthy Romans imported precious jewels from throughout their vast empire, and women...

White Burqa Traditional

Indian Burka

A long, flowing garment that covers the whole body from head to feet, the burka, also known as burqa or abaya, is an important part of the dress of Muslim women in many different countries. Some burkas leave the face uncovered, but most have a cloth or metal grid that hides the face from view while allowing the wearer to see. The exact origin of the burka is unknown, but similar forms of veil ing have been worn by women in countries such as India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Afghanistan since...

GoGo Boots

Gogo Boots

In the swinging mid-1960s a stylish young woman would never be caught on a discotheque dance floor without her go-go boots bold, white, or candy-colored vinyl or leather boots of various heights. Usually worn with miniskirts or dresses, go-go boots were pulled on, laced up, or zippered up, and featured a wide range of heels. The height of the leg-hugging boot was determined by the length of the skirt to be worn with it. Often the shorter the skirt was, the taller the accompanying boot. The term...

Clean Shaven

Images The 1920 Men Shaving

The clean-shaven man only became popular in the 1920s. Before then, being clean shaven was considered an act of rebellion. Courtesy of the Library of Congress. The clean-shaven man only became popular in the 1920s. Before then, being clean shaven was considered an act of rebellion. Courtesy of the Library of Congress. At the time most men were shaved by barbers they occasionally shaved themselves at home, peering into small mirrors before lathering up their faces. They favored some form of...

Snuff Boxes

Snuff Box Public Display Handled

Europeans first began snorting snuff, the pulverized form of tobacco, in the early seventeenth century, and within one hun- EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY BODY DECORATIONS 591 Snuff boxes came in a variety of sizes and shapes. Often the box was accompanied by a quill or a spoon used to stir the snuff or raise it to the nostrils. Reproduced by permission of Massimo Listri CORBIS. dred years it was widely used by men and women alike. Snuff boxes, tiny decorative containers for the powdered herb, became a...

Braids

Native American Braid Decoration

N ext to long, flowing hair, braids are perhaps the most common hairstyle of Native Americans throughout history. Braiding, also known as plaiting, is a hair weaving technique that involves crossing three or more bunches of hair over each other. Both men and women of every North American tribe wore braids, with the exception of some in the tribes of the American Southeast, California, and the peoples of the Subarctic and Arctic Regions. There were many styles of braiding, but two long braids...

Caught With Dress Too Short

Velours is the French word for velvet, and, like velvet, velour is woven by a special process with looped threads that are cut to form a pile, or textured surface. What distinguishes velour from velvet is the fabric from which it is woven. While velvet is most often made of silk or the synthetic fabrics nylon or acetate, velour is loosely woven of cotton, sometimes blended with synthetic fiber. Long used as a drapery and upholstery fabric, particularly in automobiles, velour, when it gained...

Spats

Crackowes Shoes

Spats were originally designed to protect shoes, but they became a fashion statement among elegant men and, later, gangsters. Reproduced by permission of Hulton Archive Getty Images. Spats were originally designed to protect shoes, but they became a fashion statement among elegant men and, later, gangsters. Reproduced by permission of Hulton Archive Getty Images. the wardrobe of the well-to-do male, giving a boot look to shoes. The new spats were made in the era's fashionable colors, which had...

Reticule

Woman Holding Reticule

By the last decade of the eighteenth century, women's dresses had changed from heavy, multilayered gowns made of thick fabric to flimsy, lightweight dresses too delicate to hold pockets. At this time reticules, or handbags, became essential for carrying necessities. The first bags were made of lightweight fabric or net and closed with a drawstring. By the nineteenth century reticules had become a source of ridicule, for woman had begun to carry rather full bags, stuffed with all sorts of...

Eighteenth Century Headwear

Belle Poule Ship

The hairstyles and headwear worn by women changed dramatically and rather frequently during the eighteenth century. The men's styles, on the other hand, gradually became simpler as the century progressed. Shifting fashions had developed deep roots in Western culture by the end of the eighteenth century, and both men and women had become accustomed to yearly, if not seasonal, shifts in fashion, a trend that continues to this day. Wigs were indispensable hair accessories for men during this...

Indian Clothing

L historical record of Indian clothing is difficult to trace. While there is an abundance of sculpture and literature dating from the earliest periods of civilization in the Indus Valley which flourished along the Indus River in modern-day Pakistan around 2500 b.c.e., scholars have had difficulty dating the changes in clothing styles and naming the variations on certain styles over time. Another problem in identifying trends in Indian clothing is the abundance of different ethnic and cultural...

Military Dress

Leather Shields

arriors in ancient Greece developed many methods of protecting themselves in battle. Mycenaeans, who ruled Greece as early as 1600 b.c.e., crafted armor out of bronze plates. Soldiers wore suits made of bronze plates held together with leather straps. This armor protected the body from the neck to the upper thighs. Soldiers strapped additional bronze plates over their shins for leg protection and wore helmets made of boar's tusks. Mycenaean soldiers also carried a variety of different wooden...

Cheongsam

Hong Kong Cheongsam

Two Chinese women wearing patterned cheongsams, which are considered the national dress of Hong Kong. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann The cheongsam CHONG-sahm is the dress that most westerners associate with China. It is a long, close-fitting dress with short sleeves, a slit up one side, a mandarin collar a round, stand-up collar that is worn close to the neck , and a fastening across the right side of the upper chest. The cheongsam, also known as the qi-pao or the cheung sam, is...

Trench Coats

1914 1918 Women Trench Coats

The long, water-repellent coat known as a trench coat was adapted from military use and became enormously popular during and after World War I 1914-18 . Stylish and functional, the trench coat, traditionally made of a rugged fabric called gabardine, remained a staple of outerwear throughout the twentieth century and was adopted by some of the most revered figures in history and popular entertainment. The cloth from which trench coats are made dates from the 1870s, when British clothier Thomas...

Nineteenth Century Clothing

1895 Clothes Men Spain

Ress during the nineteenth century changed dramatically. The change was influenced by shifts in taste, of course, but more significantly by the introduction of machines to the construction of clothing. Sewing machines, power looms, or weaving machines, steam power, electricity, new dye formulas, and other inventions increased the speed and ease of clothing manufacture. These inventions were used to add embellishments to women's clothing machine-made trimmings were applied in bulk to the...

The Costume of the Discovered Peoples

Colonizer Africa Empire

Here is a great deal of information known about the costume traditions of many of the ancient cultures. The clothing, hairstyles, and decorative customs of ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, India, China, Japan, and other societies, for example, have all been written about in many books. And from about midway through the Middle Ages c. 500-c. 1500 c.e. onward there are vast sources of information about the costume worn in Europe. Artwork, monuments and buildings, and written documents are all...

Headwear of Oceania

Body Decoration

ittle information about the traditional hairstyles of the peoples of Oceania exists. Descriptions from early explorers and early photographs show that most women of Oceania wore their hair long and that men were clean-shaven. No history of the specific styles worn by either men or women has been recorded. However, the decorations added to the hair were quite beautiful. Carved combs, feathers, and flowers were known to decorate the hair of some groups. In Polynesia feathered headdresses were a...

1930s Mens And Womens Bathing Suits

Women Dressed Swimsuit And Sarong

A sarong, also known as a pareo, is a free-fitting garment that, when popularized in the West, was worn by women primarily as a skirt or a dress. It does not, however, have clearly designated sleeves, buttonholes, or waistline. A sarong is instead a large, rectangular piece of cloth that is wrapped around the body and tied in place. Sarongs are multicolored and feature an endless array of patterns. When they became popular in the mid-1930s they suggested an exotic, friendly allure. Sarongs have...

Short Hair for Women

Symbol For Liberation

N an April 1927 issue of Pictorial Review, a well-known opera singer of the 1920s named Mary Garden 1874-1967 wrote an article titled Why I Bobbed My Hair explaining to her fans why she cut off her long hair. She said, Bobbed hair is a state of mind and not merely a new manner of dressing my head. I consider getting rid of our long hair one of the many little shackles that women have cast aside in their passage to freedom. This statement expresses the underlying reason behind the 1920s fad of...

Clothing 196179

Mary Quant Clothes

I n fashion, the 1960s and the 1970s were decades of repeated revolutionary change. The youth explosion and mod craze of the early 1960s were followed quickly by the hippie look of the late 1960s, the antifashion trends of the early 1970s, and the punk and disco styles of the mid- to late 1970s. By the late 1970s, people throughout the West seemed content to wear regular clothes once more. Taken together, these high profile fashion fads forever changed the way the fashion industry worked....

Punjabi Suit

Punjabi Clothes For Men

He Punjabi suit, also known as the salwar kameez, is an outfit worn primarily by Indian women but also by some men. The Punjabi suit became popular around the time of the Mogul Empire, from 1500 to 1700 c.e., and has continued to be worn by modern Indians to the present day. The Punjabi suit consists of a sleeved tunic-like An Indian official wearing a plain Punjabi suit. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann CORBIS. top that hangs to mid thigh and loose trousers that become narrow at the ankle....

Grunge

Kurt Cobain Grunge Style

Grunge fashions, inspired by the look of popular Seattle-based rock bands like Nirvana and Pearl Jam, were a fashion sensation of the early to mid-1990s. The casual street look eventually became incorporated into the designs of high fashion. The term grunge was originally a slang term for the heavy guitar-based brand of rock music distributed by the Seattle-based independent record label Sub Pop. Once the Sub Pop band Nirvana hit the top of the charts with its 1991 album Nevermind, grunge...