Starting your own Fashion Business

How To Start A T-Shirt Company

If you're an aspiring fashion designer and want to start making your own clothes, you don't have to start a multi-million dollar company! You don't need to spend thousands of dollars in start-up capital or attract huge investors; you can start the company from your own personal computer at home! This guide will teach you everything you need to know about The fashion world can be cutthroat and hard to break in to; but this guide teaches you how to get in the back door and start making your OWN way in the fashion world. You don't need to know anything about business to start! You will learn how to create your own designs, how to sell the designs, how to copyright your work, and how to get noticed by even higher-up people in the industry. Start making money off of your work in fashion today! More here...

How To Start A TShirt Company Overview

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I started using this ebook straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

As a whole, this e-book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

The luxury fashion business strategy model

The prospect of developing a business strategy model is often perceived as daunting and intellectually tasking. For this reason business modelling seems to be reserved for eyeglasses-wearing nerds who spend their lives behind a computer in smart business consultancy firms. The task of crafting a business model for the fashion industry is even more difficult to envision. This is because of the wide credence that the creative and business development aspects of fashion are incompatible.

The Invisible Designer

Fashion, Culture and Identity promises to consider the 'labyrinthine passage whereby an idea in the designer's head is translated into the purchases and pleasures of the consumer'.48 Following the largest section of the book, addressing the issues of identity, gender, status and sexuality, the final two chapters deal with the fashion's cycles and processes. The text does indeed include quotes from and references to some knowledgeable designers and journalists but despite some pithy observations, the picture created is rather wooden. Davis was a sociologist interested in the fashion industry from a sociological point of view, and his description rather recalls a Victorian ornithologist's study of the habits of a newly discovered species of bird. The description might edify the general reader but it would be of little use to young birds wishing to learn how to fly. The problem is not only that of the author's distance from his subjects, but also that of there being so few other texts of...

Nicola White and Ian Griffiths

During the same decade, the media profile of the fashion business has been raised to heady levels. ID Magazine reported in 1999 that 'the 90's have been a decade of heightened celebrity and fashion designers some of its brightest stars. The grand narratives of fashion fame are as fascinating as any pop or celluloid',1 whilst the sociologist and anthropologist, Joanne Finkelstein notes that fashion 'now functions as a form of global entertainment reported in the nightly television news broadcast . . . the romances, wild escapades and indiscretions of the fashion industry's supermodels and the occasional political insensitivities of its flamboyant designers all fuel the gossipy tabloids, and sometimes ignite the mad indignation of the international press'.2 The contemporary appetite for fashion is insatiable, and yet it seems that the practical realities of the fashion business are little known to very few other than those who work within it, including it appears to the many authors of...

To View This Figure Please Refer To The Printed Edition

Shirin Guild believes that certain styles of dress possess a time-honoured functionality and enduring beauty and thus her collections subtly evolve from season to season, whilst the basic square shaped silhouette and layered approach remains the same. Function and comfort are a priority. Styles are loose (many tops are made in just one size and skirts and trousers in small, medium and large), hang from the shoulders and engulf - but never shroud - the wearer. Unusual within the high-fashion industry, is the designer's pride in the fact that her clothes appeal to and flatter women of various ages, shapes and sizes. When worn in European or American urban contexts clothes bearing the Shirin Guild label can transcend distinctions between day and evening, formal and leisurewear. However a judicious variation in textiles and yarns can render garments of the same or similar cut ideal for specific purposes and occasions.

Antipathy Thinly Veiled and Undisguised Hostility

Like many who decry fashion, Finkelstein believes it to be a condition of capitalist societies. Those who are indisposed towards capitalist ideologies, must inevitably, it seems, take a similar stance on fashion. Writing in Fashion Theory Finkelstein concentrates specifically on the fashion industry, its

Nicola White

The Italian fashion industry is currently one of the leading players on the international fashion stage, and ranks parallel with Paris and New York.1 Yet before 1945, there was no industrial production of fashionable womens-wear in Italy, and little innovative made-to-measure haute couture. The well-known Italian fashion style currently seen in the world's glossy fashion magazines rose seemingly from nowhere in the post-war years, and was not widely recognized until the early 1980s. It is perhaps not surprising therefore, that the early post-war period has been seen simply as a preparation for the recent miracle of Italian fashion. This chapter considers whether a distinct Italian fashion look existed in the mind of the international fashion industry well before this date, in fact, by the mid-1960s. It attempts a definition of Italian fashion style in the two decades after the Second World War, through the top three levels of production haute couture, boutique and quality...

So why write about luxury fashion branding

The luxury fashion industry is a global multi-billion dollar sector comprising of a multitude of brands with high relevance. Among these are brands like Louis Vuitton, Herm s and Gucci. They are also among the most valuable and influential brands in the world. Despite the large size and income generation of the global luxury fashion industry, the sector has witnessed a slow growth in its strategic business direction. This is because for a long time luxury brands were managed through traditional business methods where decisions were made based on intuition and sometimes on a trial basis. These traditional methods also featured a strong focus on product development and publicity generation through conventional advertising methods. However, the rapid development and complexity of the global business environment currently requires modern and sophisticated business practices in luxury goods management. Further changes in the luxury fashion industry include rapid market expansion and...

Wrote this lesson in response to a number of letters to quote but one

Painting skin color, throughout history, has been more an exercise in fashion rather than anything else. Today the brown suntanned flesh is attractive to the northern races while the pallid sun-shy color seems desirable among darker skinned people. This may derive as much from envy or our fashion industry as from anything else. For sexual allure the rounded shapes that denote health and vitality are probably far more powerful than the hue -and if they come in pairs even more so.

Origins of luxury fashion

These aspects of evolution and like fine sculpture, the old luxury brands have become modified and enhanced with age and the new brands have become highly appealing with the aid of effective modern techniques. Several of today's largest and most valuable luxury brands like Louis Vuitton, Guerlain and Gucci originated in France and Italy in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and therefore have a long history. These brands and their countries of origin have played a key role in the development of the global fashion industry. The twentieth century also produced several American brands like Ralph Lauren and Donna Karan as well as Far Eastern brands like Yoji Yamamoto and Issey Miyake. In addition, other respectable global luxury brands such as Burberry of Britain have a strong historical legacy surrounding their creation.

Product merchandizing design

Champs Elysees Shop Facade

Window display merchandizing techniques currently require strong differentiation. This is a result of the visible convergence of retailing tactics of luxury brands with those of mass fashion brands, as a result of continuous evolution of the fashion industry. For example, fashion brands that do not advertise in the mass media, such as Zara, use their window displays as a communicative tool and therefore place great emphasis on its design and message. This is similar to luxury department stores such as Macy's or

So what is luxury fashion branding all about

Luxury fashion brands strive for innovation, differentiation and appeal. This is because the fashion business is forward-thinking. Fashion always incorporates the past and the future and is hardly preoccupied with the present. It draws inspiration from the past in order to create the desire of the future. The present is only a temporary phase because if fashion is here today, it is already old-fashioned. This is where the role of branding is most prominent because it fuels the continuous desire of luxury products despite the constant changes of fashion. Luxury brands set the fashion trends for every season during the fashion weeks held in Paris, Milan, New York, London and other prominent cities. In the past century, haute couture designers like Christian Dior and Valentino decreed the colour of every fashion season and the cut of every jacket through their designs. Presently, the scenario is gradually changing as a result of a wider choice and variety in brand and product offering...

Modern business principles

Charles Worth applied two major principles that made his fashion business highly successful. The first was his utilization of influential people in society as a publicity tool. He had an early realization of the importance of attaching his name to the celebrities that could influence fashion, and this practice continues to be applied by current luxury brands, notably with Hollywood stars.

Conspicuous Leisure Consumption and Waste

Andre Courreges Space Look

By the 1960s, the fashion industry had begun to produce and distribute more than enough products for everyone to be able to dress fashionably. This democratization of fashion means that by the twenty-first century anyone across the world could imitate a new style instantaneously. The direction of fashion change is no longer unilinear it traverses geographical places, and flows from both the traditional centers of style as well as the periphery. Through global media and popular culture, members of the lower classes, and subcultural and marginal groups, have been able to influence fashion as much as those in the upper classes. Therefore, it has become more appropriate to talk about a bubble-up or trickle-across theory.

The Total Environment

Psychedelic fashion was a quintessential 1960s movement. Although it was eventually, and to some degree opportunistically, embraced by virtually every mainstream design and sector of the fashion industry, it would be hard to isolated a single designer or even a cluster of designers who could be credited for its invention or promotion. Nevertheless, the psychedelic preoccupation with light and the total environment reached a paradigm at the Manhattan boutique Paraphernalia in 1966, when electrical engineer Diana Dew devised a vinyl dress that turned-on at the command of the wearer. A miniaturized potentiometer fit on the belt of the dress and regulated the frequency of the blinking hearts or stars, which could be coordinated to the throbbing beat of the disco soundtrack. That same year, Yves Saint Laurent brought psychedelic light and color to pop art's disembodied trademarks with a bridal gown that flashed an incandescent flower, which enlivened the runway show's traditional finale.

From Rome to the Byzantine Empire and the Middle Ages ad 4501500

Although the fashion industry expanded in this era, the development of fashion style and sophistication remained static. For example, there was no distinction between summer and winter fashion unlike in the Roman Empire. Also men and women wore similar long and floating clothing, covering the whole body, all year round, until the fourteenth century. The social class, however, continued to determine the choice of materials for dressing.

Effect 3 trend watching trend tracking and luxury services

Luxury Fashion Trend Images

Trends information is increasingly found in the mass media and on the internet through fashion e-zines. Fashion magazines are often filled with product features of various luxury fashion brands and advice on how to wear them. Also, numerous websites and online fashion retailers offer free services on fashion styling and coordination. 'Style Advisers' and 'Style Consultants' have also become important roles in the fashion industry as a result of the growing consumer demand for trends services. Also the title of 'Style Icon', given to some celebrities has become as much a career as being an actor or musician. These avenues of trends information all provide consumers with the possibility of becoming stylish. The demand for trend analysis by luxury brands has led to the emergence of a services sub-sector within the fashion industry, known as the 'Fashion Trend Service'. This service is provided by several companies like online-based Trendwatching.com, which supplies up-to-date information...

Charles Frederick Worth Le Pre de la haute couture 182695

Charles Worth Fashion Designer

Haute couture and later became attention to detail the first fashion entrepreneur haute couture and later became attention to detail the first fashion entrepreneur Worth was awestruck by the magnificent events in the French world of royalty and aristocracy. His first direct involvement with this world of opulence was when Gagelin, the company he worked for, was asked to supply the materials for Empress Eugenie's trousseau during her wedding to Napoleon III in January 1853. This came through their connection with dressmakers because although Gagelin was a textile supplier, they were constantly consulted by dressmakers on the suitability of specific materials for certain styles. The association of Gagelin with the wedding of Napoleon and Empress Eugenie gained Gagelin immense publicity in fashion magazines and fashion society, leading to increased sales. This was Worth's first lesson of the important role of aristocratic and celebrity connection to the success of a fashion business....

Seventeenthcentury baroque fashion

Louis XIV loved fashion and luxury living and consequently supported the fashion industry through government reforms that provided incentives and financial aid to designers, artisans and craftsmen. As far back as 1665, he introduced policies to increase export of French fashion goods and reduce imports of foreign fashion goods. France therefore emerged as the biggest supplier of luxury fashion goods in the world. Louis XIV also ensured that France had a well-established textile industry, which generated wealth and influenced the culture of the nation and beyond.

Valentino Valentino Clemente Ludovico Garavani

By the end of the century, the couture business had become a losing one. In 1960, when Valentino first opened his maison, his couture clientele was the house's primary source of revenue however, by the time the company was sold, he and Giammetti admitted they had been taking only a limited number of couture orders each season. It had become impossible to make a profit, considering the huge cost of producing a single garment. It had become clear that publicity was the key to success in the fashion business, and that only huge funds would enable companies like Valentino's to compete with massive conglomerates like Bernard Arnault's LVMH, owner of Dior and Givenchy, among many.

Cloth and Clothing in Ancient China

Fashionable clothing returned to China in 1978, and by the 1980s the fashion industry surged with a re-establishment of fashion magazines, shows, and classes. John S. Major. Reproduced Fashionable clothing returned to China in 1978, and by the 1980s the fashion industry surged with a re-establishment of fashion magazines, shows, and classes. John S. Major. Reproduced

Case illustration 3 the effect of licensing on Pierre Cardins brand equity

Pierre Cardin, whose name and business has one of the highest global recognition levels in the luxury fashion sector, is not only a fashion design icon, but has also become an institution. At his current age of 85 years, Pierre Cardin has a career in fashion spanning more than 65 years. He continues to preside over a fashion empire that he built from nothing and still owns 100 per cent. He has been described as the godfather of the fashion industry and as an unparalleled revolutionary. Pierre Cardin was propelled to the global stage of fashion as a result of his high artistic talent and his innovative and often radical nature. He is a visionary who paved the way for several aspects of modern fashion business practices. He was also one of the first designers to take fashion beyond creativity, into the business sphere, through licensing agreements and diversification beyond the range of traditional luxury fashion goods. He also paved the way for the current Premium Fashion revolution...

Clothing and Fashion Industries

Clothing Late Nineteenth Century

Although always dependent on imported attire and fabrics, especially high-grade goods, a local clothing, footwear, and textile industry was set up in Eastern Australia soon after first settlement. These industries have been subject to a persistently troubled history, although until the mid-twentieth century, Australia sustained a sound reputation for manufacturing good-quality, comfortable clothing and textiles. Immediately after World War II, local wool fabrics were successfully promoted, initially by the Australian Wool Board and later the Australian Wool Corporation, but the situation has remained endemically volatile at the quality end of the fashion spectrum. While a fashion industry of sorts emerged by the early twentieth century, the real high point for the rag trade occurred in the decade immediately following World War II.

What Was The Impact Of Emergence Of Women Right Activists On Womensware During That Period

They could not necessarily afford them. Elegant, body-skimming, elongated lines became popular, and sumptuous fashions dominated this otherwise sparse period of American history. U.S. movies began disseminating fashion information through the glamorous garments of the stars. The international popularity of movies helped solidify the reputation of the American fashion industry. The entry of the United States into World War II (1941-1945) ended the Great Depression and spurred economic growth. Just as Americans were beginning to enjoy economic stability, however, the government imposed rationing on building materials, clothing, food, and fuel. The fighting in Europe forced many of the couture houses there to close their doors, and those that remained open had to bend to the will of the Nazis occupying France. With America cut off from European fashions by the war, the U.S. fashion industry gained power and prominence in an industry that previously had been indisputably dominated by the...

America fashion and commerce

Contributed to the ascent of New York as a fashion city since the majority of the designers were based in New York. However, after the war Paris rose once more as the global fashion capital. The emergence of French designers like Christian Dior in 1947, Pierre Cardin in 1950 and Hubert Givenchy in 1952 contributed to the return of Paris' prominence in global fashion. Although Americans once more sought fashion inspiration from Paris, the taste for local fashion had been definitely roused and the American fashion industry had been born. By the 1970s, both designers had become highly successful experts in ready-to-wear fashion. In 1974, Ralph Lauren designed the wardrobe of the cast of the film 'The Great Gatsby', and stamped a definite place for himself in American fashion history. Calvin Klein's success was boosted by the carefree attitude of the consumer public and the growing independence of women. At the same time, fashion magazines like Vogue and Vanity Fair, which had become...

An Advertisement of Self

The Wild One Motorcycle Gang

Originally attractive because of its perceived authenticity, its offer of alternative choice and its capacity to say something significant about those who wear it, street style has moved into a key position within the clothing industry in a postmodern age characterized by a crises of identity, truth, and meaning. This is to say, not only has the fashion industry come to increasingly

Effect 1 the rise of the masses

In addition, Swedish fashion brand H& M showed retail innovation through its co-branding collaborations with luxury fashion designers, Karl Lagerfeld, Stella McCartney and Viktor & Rolf, as well as links with celebrities like Madonna. Also, Zara, which is considered the market leader among the mass fashion brands, is not left out in the fashion marketing innovation. Zara is reputed to have the fashion industry's most effective and responsive operations techniques, which enables the production of new designs approximately every three weeks. As a result, its stores have a high shopping traffic of style-conscious consumers. Although Zara is not a luxury fashion brand, it has achieved great success in several global markets, including France, where more than three quarters of the population are hard-to-please luxury fashion consumers.

New Technology versus Old Traditions

Paul Poiret First Fashion Album

In the last few decades of the twentieth century, the technical requirements of ballet rapidly increased. This resulted in a demand for more elaborate pointe shoes. A wide range of designs were on the market from soft block shoes, which are designed for transition from soft shoes to pointe shoes, to extremely hard shoes, which give extra strength, to machine-manufactured rehearsal pointes for dance students operating on a smaller budget. About thirty-five ballet shoe manufacturers, such as Freed, Capezio, and Gaynor Minden, operate in the market, but as a result of a long history of traditional pointe shoe manufacturing with cardboard and simple flour and water paste glue, the innovative pointe shoe with unbreakable shanks produced by the U.S. ballet shoe manufacturer Gaynor Minden are ubiquitous. At the end of the twentieth century, the fashion industry picked up the idea of ribbons and look-alike pointe shoes, and designer brands such as Manolo Blahnik, Sonia Rykiel, Etro, and...

Perennially Best Dressed

Flat White Boots

Best-dressed lists allow readers to imagine that a winning profile is open to all, when in fact the top spots invariably go to wealthy people in the public eye film stars and fashion industry or society figures. But the lists continue to fascinate as they impart lessons in style, self-presentation, and the ineffable quality of individual chic.

Fashioning the Feminine Fashion Gender and Representation

Each chapter is concerned with the multiplicity of cultural and social formations which go towards fashioning the feminine. In Chapter 2, we examine the relationship between femininity, the fashion industry and fashion imagery between 1890 and 1910, and in Chapter 5, which deals with aspects Wider access to fashion across social classes is, however, a characteristic of fashion in Britain in the twentieth century. As this study shows, the greater availability of fashion, and the knowledge required to dress fashionably, was enhanced by a number of factors. Firstly this resulted from new technologies in fabric production, garment construction and fashion promotion. These developed both in the home and at the factory, and were a consequence of the greater availability of the home sewing machine, but also they were due to the introduction of modern industrial methods. These included divisions of labour, which were organised to facilitate mass-production, the use of new machinery for sewing...

Sears Roebuck and Company

Richard Warren Sears, one of the pioneers of mail order, contributed to the fashion industry by introducing new strategies for marketing apparel. He entered into the mail order business in 1886 when he founded the R.W. Sears Watch Company in North Redwood, Minnesota. As the middleman between watchmakers and the railroad station managers who sold the watches, Sears concentrated on low profit margins, rapid turnover, and high volume. This strategy was successful because he supported it with extensive advertising to attain a wider customer base.

Nonconformist Quaker Dress

The alternative clothing choices embraced by George Fox and his followers were set in direct opposition to the fashionable styles of the time. Quakers believed that the focus on aesthetics within the fashion industry was immoral. Instead Quakers wore modest, unstructured, and natural-colored garments that better reflected their Christian values of humility, piety, and simplicity. The strict adherence to their faith led Quakers to eschew contemporary fashions and any decorative clothing.

Business lessons from boocom

3 Any company that desires to sell fashion goods must first create a BRAND with well-defined dimensions of Brand Concept, Brand Identity, Brand Personality and Brand Image. If a fashion company fails to do this, then they might as well be ready to become a supermarket brand.

Skin Colors Or Flesh Tones

Flesh Light

Painting skin color, throughout history, has been more an exercise in fashion rather than anything else. Today the brown suntanned flesh is attractive to the northern races while the pallid sun-shy color seems desirable among darker skinned people. This may derive as much from envy or our fashion industry as from anything else. For sexual allure the rounded shapes that denote health and vitality are probably far more powerful than the hue - and if they come in pairs even more so.

The dolce vita style blast

The fashion businesses of these talented Italian designers quickly gained world fame. Italian accessories, especially shoes, became popular and synonymous with style, class and high quality all over the world. Although Italian accessories flourished, fashion remained predominated by the dress and this was mostly made in France. As a result, Italian designers focused their attention on exports to America, rather than on developing a home fashion sector. As early as the 1920s, Americans were getting exposed to Italian fashion and its appealing associations to European aristocracy. Italy was also an attractive tourist destination for Americans with its beautiful landscape and seductive lifestyle. This combination served as an important formula for the success of Italian fashion abroad. The Italian government also recognized the important role of fashion in resuscitating its economy and engineered reforms to favour the growth of fashion. For example, Italian leader Benito Mussolini's...

The nineteenth century and modern luxury fashion

The nineteenth century marked the beginning of the modern luxury goods sector and the launch of many of the highly valuable luxury brands that we know today. The rapid development of the fashion industry during this period was made possible by the bolstering of social and economic conditions and rising prosperity. The demand for luxury goods remained high and extremely talented and entrepreneurial designers emerged and grasped business opportunities made possible by their predecessors. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the fashion industry in Paris had become an established world leader and was mainly segmented into two parts dressmaking which was mostly controlled by highly influential women, and textile merchandizing and professional tailoring which was mostly controlled by men.

Return to Readyto Wear

Cashin returned to New York, and to Adler and Adler, in 1949. She received the unprecedented honor of earning both the Neiman Marcus Award and the Coty Fashion Critic's Award within the same year (1950). Displeased, however, with her manufacturer's control over her creativity, she decided to challenge the setup of the fashion industry. Working with multiple manufacturers, she designed a range of clothing at different price points, thereby specializing in complete wardrobes for my kind of a girl for a certain kind of living.

Figures

2.1 Charles Frederick Worth, the man who invented haute couture and later became the first fashion entrepreneur 48 9.3 The strategic challenge level of the luxury fashion business model 273 9.5 The implementation planning level of the luxury fashion business model 274 9.6 The performance measurement level of the luxury fashion business model 275 9.7 The luxury fashion business model 276

The Fashion System

Christmas was over when we opened the daily newspaper and found an advertisement for the winter sale in the boutique of an Italian fashion brand. Fashion brands do normally advertise in fashion magazines, but in a way, this advertisement was like a death announcement in daily papers. All it said was Sale, and the address of the fashion boutique in the first district of Vienna, which was printed in bold white on a black background. So, we set out to take a look at the city's storefronts and their decoration, finding them all surprisingly ugly. The sales period was omnipresent, and all the shops in town were decorated in a strikingly ugly manner. Why did this period ask for ugliness and not beauty The books we found on window decoration only showed the nice, the well-designed and artistic show window.5 The large and glossy illustrations in our books showed the artistic side of the decoration business. Beautiful windows, like theatre stages presented the merchandise we were supposed to...

History II

Art and fashion differ significantly in their respective attitudes to history. Art looks at its own historical tradition and, importantly, at the communication of history (historiography), as points of friction and contrast. History for artists consists of mythical or ideological narratives that can be illustrated, debated, and re-assessed in the context of artistic tradition. Styles or motifs are quoted, as in the historicism of academic painting, for example, but this process is consciously reflected upon. The costumes in European history paintings of the nineteenth century are often remodeled and redrawn to fit contemporary ideals of the past. Thus, for example, a subject wearing Roman toga is depicted with a contemporary hairstyle and contemporary makeup, and the face and body of the painterly subject follows modern perceptions rather than adhering to any archaeological evidence. The beholder of such artworks understands that historical authenticity is impossible but expects the...

Production II

The production of couture adopted the idea of the independent, subjective artist and developed this stance despite the growing commercial pressure and industrialization of the industry's progress toward ready-to-wear. In the fashion industry there exists a pronounced dialectic that is expressed in the need for stylistic, some would say artistic, innovation that cannot be catered for by the manufacturing process that had given rise to couture as the basis for the fashion market established in the early twenty-first century. Designers perceive themselves as removed from the production process in auxiliary industries like weaving in a way that is similar to the painter who professes to be removed from the maker of the canvas or paper. Thus, from the birth of haute couture onward, fashion has had to accommodate the problem of relying on a design process that contradicts its procedural basis. This is the reason for the oscillating parameters of art and fashion and for the curious hovering...

Retro Versions

While historical styling is never repeated in the same way, both art nouveau and art deco styles have been subject to fashion revivals. As the maxi hemline became accepted from the late 1960s, in Britain new psychedelic styles were linked to a subversive nostalgia for the imperial Edwardian period, for art nouveau, and for the work of Aubrey Beardsley. This is evident in the original art nouveau brand logo selected by Barbara Hulanicki for her fashion company Biba, founded in 1964. This is also clear in the art nouveau romanticism of her fashionable evening silhouette and use of feather boas, though she fused this with early 1930s style in her use of slinky satins and the bias cut. John Galliano presented several Edwardian-styled fashions in 1996-1997.

Scholarship on Dress

Until the 1990s, the study of dress and fashion in Australia was marked by limited scholarship, one reason being the cultural disparagement of a practice traditionally associated with women's interests. Harsh environmental conditions in rural areas, especially dominated by men, meant fashionable dress was often given a low priority. Australian men have historically prided themselves on a lack of attention to the finer details of appearance, regarding this as incompatible with masculinity. While this conservatism shifted markedly with the expansion of urban living, and an increasingly materialistic social outlook after the 1980s, disparagement of clothing seems to have flowed on to a general unease about the subject of fashion itself. With some notable exceptions, such as the Powerhouse Museum in Sydney, museums and art galleries have shown little sustained interested in collecting Australian dress, especially everyday clothing. The collecting of penal clothing is one exception. All of...

Intuitive Images

And if we do, it is only metaphorically, although the seasonal sale window can be interpreted as a devotional image. Panovsky described this type of image as having an intention to communicate rather than being consumed as aesthetic pleasure.200 According to Postrel, aesthetics are the substance of today Fashion exists because novelty is itself an aesthetic pleasure.201 But this pleasure exists only in relation to the Dionysian period of sale, which is the duplicity of the Apollonian and the Dionysian as Nietzsche called it. While beauty and aesthetic pleasure are appealing, the ugly is repelling.202 And repel is what the fashion industry wants to do to the leftovers of its past collection a magical act based on the power of images. Therefore, the show window is transformed into a stage for the Dionysian festival, which banishes the Apollonian and voluptuousness and barbarism take over charge. Sloterdijk coined the term erotrop for this condition.203 And the window dresser is the...

Giorgio Armani

1980s Giorgio Armani Womenswear

Giorgio Armani's success stems from his passion and drive for the fashion business. Armani incorporates such fine fabrics as cashmere, alpaca, and suede into refined, understated, sophisticated apparel coveted by both business executives and fashion gurus, as well as some of Hollywood's most elegant stars. Celebrities such as Ben Affleck, Annette Bening, Richard Gere, and Jodie Foster don Armani for both business and leisure. See also Nino Cerruti Christian Dior. Website http www.armaniexchange.com

Gilbert Adrian

1935 Woman Silhouette

Perhaps Adrian is best known for the shoulder-padded ensembles he created for Joan Crawford which became a signature look during the 1930s. In 1942, largely as a result of the impact Adrian's costumes had on the fashion industry (his costumes for film were so often translated into garments sold through retailers that he was voted one of the top three designers by 1,000 U.S. buyers in 1940), Adrian opened his own salon, headquartered in Beverly Hills, which was an instant success, and produced clothing based on many of the ideas he popularized in film. In 1952 Adrian Gilbert suffered a heart attack and eventually retired to Brazil with his wife, actress Janet Gaynor. He was working on the costumes for the Broadway musical Camelot when he died.

Costume design 150

Layouts Designs For Fashion Croquis

The fashion industry is a challenging and competitive business, so it is essential to be well equipped with professional drawing skills. The aim of Fashion Artist is to inspire you to develop these drawing skills and communicate your creative and innovative ideas on paper. To be a successful designer you will need to work hard to develop your talent, believe in your own judgement, and have a certain amount of chutzpah I wish you every success in the world of fashion. Sandra has drawn on all the techniques and formula available, utilised her deep knowledge gained within both the fashion industry and as an educator at numerous fashion departments across the world to compile this dynamic and vibrant book. By reading and absorbing its contents you will be inspired, and become aware of fashion illustration in its historical and contemporary context and utilize its structural formulas and processes to encourage better use of this form of 'art'.

Anne Fogarty

Fogarty attended Allegheny College and studied drama at the Carnegie Institute of Technology. She moved to New York in 1947 to pursue acting and became a fit model and fashion stylist. In 1948 she began designing for Youth Guild, a fashion company specializing in clothes for teenagers and then worked for Margot Dresses, Inc., from 1950 to 1957.

The consumer is king

In the highly protective luxury fashion industry. Gucci's reason for choosing him was strategic. The company wanted a manager who had a deep insight and understanding of the customer and would effectively apply the concept of meeting consumer needs and exceeding their expectations to the brand. Polet was credited with the know-how of providing the desired products and managing effective relationships with customers. Several people predicted that his lack of luxury experience, industry relationships and creativity and press savvy would backfire on the Gucci brand. However, the approach of customer orientation applied by Gucci has been effective, as the brand has increased its brand equity, sales and profitability under Robert Polet's helm.

Walter Plunkett

Walter Plunkett gave up the study of law at University of California, Berkeley, to become an actor and became one of the greatest costume designers in movie history. He was known for the elaborate wardrobes he created for Hollywood's most glorious period films. His best known, most influential costumes, in terms of impact on the fashion industry, began with Cimarron (1931), in which his dresses for Irene Dunne helped popularize the broad-shouldered silhouette. His success continued with such classics as Little Women (1933) and Mary of Scotland (1936). For Little Women, Plunkett scoured publications from the 1860s, rediscovering and reintrod-ucing ginghams and calicos which were promptly copied for the retail market. Plunkett's designs for Mary of Scotland, starring Katherine Hepburn, began several fashion trends, from red satin slippers and velvet berets to suede gloves and gold medallions. Plunkett's career started in 1926 when he began working at RKO Studios as an assistant. In 1935...

Procession

Twice each year, the fashion industry succumbs to the allure of pure, exhilarating spectacle. Seventh Avenue traffics in fantasy, myth-making, and romance. Audiences assemble around the catwalks in anticipation of the clothes, the models the magic.564 569 Clarke Miller (2002 192) conducted an ethnographic study about the anxiety of consumers to choose the right dress assuming that the fashion industry and the journalism associated with it may have little concern for this problem The catwalk show is likely to remain an integral part of the fashion industry's marketing armour. It provides a tried and tested method of presenting products and establishing trends. But as a means of social or political expression, the catwalk show is only ever going to be marginal, destined by design to be ephemeral. The fashion show is an important event, during which nothing is said - at least nothing of substance.576 All the photos taken during the performances are strikingly similar. They usually show...

The 1980s

The Japanese avant-garde designers, who attracted a good deal of attention in Europe during the 1980s, stood in sharp contrast to this trend. In the tradition of Japanese clothing, Yohji Yamamoto draped skeins of fabric loosely around the body. In 1981, Rei Kawakubo's fashion company Comme des Gar ons, called the entire Western fashion aesthetic into question. She shredded skirts into fluttering strips, tore material, knotted it together, and layered it crosswise. Black and gray dominated. Issey Miyake was known for his highly experimental use of materials and methods, demonstrated by his rattan bodices inspired by Samurai practice armor in 1982, and his first Pleats Please collection of 1989.

Fashion Innovations

Madame Demorest's entrepreneurial success can be attributed to her astute understanding of the American fashion business as a combination of creativity, marketing, distribution, and brand identity. She claimed a number of innovative products, including a line of comfortable corsets, an affordable hoopskirt, the Imperial Dress-elevators (loop fasteners enabling skirts to be raised), and a sewing machine that could sew backwards moreover, she developed the Excelsior Dress Model drafting system, a tool for making dress patterns. However, her mass-produced and marketed paper dress patterns remain her most important contribution. Madame Demorest's foray into paper patterns came at a time of great social change, when a growing middle class was clamoring for access to affordable fashions and technical advances like the sewing machine were becoming increasingly common in the home, making these fashion ambitions possible. Madame Demorest's paper patterns reached women across America and...

The Future

TEENAGE FASHION Since World War II, clothing styles adopted by young people have been a powerful influence on the development of fashion in North America and Europe. The postwar growth of young people's spending power ensured that the youth market became a crucial sector of the fashion business. The styles adopted by young people, moreover, also became an important influence on wider fashion trends. Indeed, by the 1990s the youth market had expanded to embrace not only teenagers, but also consumers in their twenties, thirties, and older.

Leisurewear

Richard Avedon Self Portrait

Out of Line Australian Women and Style. Sydney, Australia University of New South Wales Press, 2001. First comprehensive text on twentieth-century women's dress and the fashion industry in Australia, including an account of indigenous designers. Twopeny, R. E. N. Town Life in Australia 1883. Sydney, Australia Sydney University Press, 1973. AVEDON, RICHARD Richard Avedon (b. 1923 ) was one of the most important and prolific photographers of the second half of the twentieth century, and in the eyes of many photography and fashion specialists, he was the most important fashion photographer of all time. In a career spanning sixty years he showed himself capable of almost constant stylistic reinvention, yet in retrospect his oeuvre also demonstrated a remarkable coherence and strength that far surpassed the narrow confines of fashion photography. He was acknowledged by his peers for his superb work as early as 1950, when he won the Highest Achievement Medal of the Art Directors Club in...

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Haute Couture For Magazines

To a great extent, the couture-led recovery of Paris can be credited to the intense competitive interest of department stores and fashion magazines around the world. Fashion editors and buyers flocked to Paris in the postwar years. The most important market for France was the United States, whose interest was particularly stimulated by the Theatre de la Mode of 1945, a travelling exhibition of child-size dolls made of wire armatures with porcelain heads, dressed by Parisian couture houses and mounted on sets designed by famous artists. Organised by the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne as part of a carefully planned strategy of the French Ministry of Reconstruction, the purpose of the Theatre de la Mode was to reassert the dominance of French fashion over, and define it against, American fashion, which had developed considerably during the period of isolation from Europe. The French had quickly come to understand that their own fashion industry had suffered little from the...

Planning a range

The words range and collection are often used Interchangeably in the fashion industry to denote the group of garments created each season by a designer. However, range also has more specifically commercial overtones. Range planning involves considering your designs in terms of a complete wardrobe of coordinating garments, incorporating a balance of tops, bottoms, dresses, outerwear, and so on, When you see garments by your favorite designer displayed in a boutique, you are experiencing range planning. The newness and trendiness of the garments are obviously important, but the boutique also needs to appeal to its customers with a variety of options of garment type that coordinate and are interchangeable.

Nino Antonio Cerruti

Nino Cerruti's influence has been felt in all areas of the international fashion industry. His famous protege Giorgio Armani learned all about fabrics and manufacturing during his six years with the company, enjoying, along with his former boss, much of the praise that resulted from Cerruti's forays into film. Cerruti has continuously displayed the ability to combine the artistic with the logical, the traditional with the modern, and the historic with the technological all of which has enabled him to maintain the success he enjoys today. Throughout his career, he has demonstrated, perhaps, the most important ingredient of all good taste. See also Giorgio Armani. Website http www.cerruti.net

Origin of the Sarong

In the course of the twentieth century, the scarf's viability as a blank canvas on which to present elaborate designs, advertising, humorous motifs, and artists' creations was used to advantage. The idea of printing scarves and handkerchiefs to commemorate heroes, political events, inventions, and other occasions began in the late eighteenth century and was popular throughout the nineteenth century. This use continued into the twentieth century, with scarves commemorating world's fairs, political campaigns, cities, tourist attractions, and numerous other themes. Fashion designers employed the signed scarf as a means to accessorize their clothing and promote their names. As licensing became an established part of the fashion industry, designers names on scarves became a lucrative sideline.

Clothing 196179

1970s Garment

I n fashion, the 1960s and the 1970s were decades of repeated revolutionary change. The youth explosion and mod craze of the early 1960s were followed quickly by the hippie look of the late 1960s, the antifashion trends of the early 1970s, and the punk and disco styles of the mid- to late 1970s. By the late 1970s, people throughout the West seemed content to wear regular clothes once more. Taken together, these high profile fashion fads forever changed the way the fashion industry worked. The choices hippies made about clothing were a direct criticism of fashion, the system by which certain elite designers and trendsetters determine what everyone wears. Hippies wanted everyone to choose for themselves. Even though they tried to be an-tifashion, the fashion industry celebrated and borrowed from hippie clothing, making such things as the long wrap dress, the fringed shirt, blue jeans, and other items available to the masses. But in doing so the fashion industry recognized that its...

Steven Stipelman

Ilustrador Jason Brooks

In the commercialized mainstream fashion industry the economic boom of the early eighties brought with it the 'power dressing' symbolic of that decade. Referencing forties glamour, the archetypal suit with its short skirt and heavily padded shoulders combined sex and business, while the puffball 'pouf skirt (popularized by the French designer Christian Lacroix) typified evening glamour. Power dressing was taken to its extremity when underwear became

Madeleine Vionnet

Chilleurs Aux Bois Madeleine Vionnet

Vionnet's approach to the fashion business was as innovative as her designs. She opened a school in 1927 to teach new apprentices how to use the bias the training program lasted three years. When she built a new building to house operations, she included a medical clinic and a gymnasium. She offered her employees free lunch, coffee breaks, paid vacations, and medical and dental care. Also, she personally arranged maternity leave for her workers.

Oleg Cassini

Oleg Cassini 1960s Pillbox Hats

Together, Cassini and Jacqueline Kennedy created many memorable garments which captured the essence of 1960s femininity and the imagination of the American public. The Kennedy look created by Cassini featured boxy jackets with slim skirts for day, long strapless fitted dresses for evening, and her personal favorite, a two-piece ensemble consisting of a fitted dress and short jacket with a detachable Russian sable collar. Each ensemble was always completed by Cassini's original creation, Kennedy's signature pillbox hat. All of Cassini's designs for the first lady were simple and sophisticated. The combination of Cassini's elegant designs and Kennedy's grace brought worldwide attention to the American fashion industry.

Todd Oldham

By comparison to many, Oldham is a relative newcomer to the American fashion industry. However, in a brief period of time, he has propelled himself to the forefront of American fashion by participating in innovative marketing strategies through cable television and the World Wide Web. He is also one of the few designers to develop product lines targeted at the emerging teen market. Despite his youth, his unique use of color, pattern, and fabric has earned him recognition as one of the top designers in America.

Tommy Hilfiger

Tommy Hilfiger was one of nine siblings born into a middle-class family in Elmira, New York. After high school, Hilfiger began his career in the fashion industry with 150 and twenty pairs of jeans which he sold out of the back of his car. This self-taught designer had opened ten specialty stores, People's Place, across upstate New York by the time he was twenty-six. In 1979 he sold his stores and moved to New York City to pursue a career in fashion design. Hilfiger launched his own label through a licensing agreement with Murjani International however, he terminated his agreement with Murjani, which was suffering financially, and went in search of a new backer.

Geoffrey Beene

Geoffrey Beene Fashion Images

Geoffrey Beene is not like any other American designer. He does not follow fashion trends in fact, he verbalizes his dislike for designers who create fads and for patrons who follow them. Beene, unlike Ralph Lauren and Calvin Klein, does not promote a lifestyle image. Beene is the rebel of the American fashion industry, something which earns him both punishment and praise. Beene has repeatedly renounced the ritual of the twice-yearly fashion show, occasionally opting to present his new collections on

Color palettes

When creating a color palette, many students and designers use the reference books of tear-out color chips produced by Pantone. These uniformly sized color blocks are convenient to use and look tidy on a mood or presentation board. All the colors have individual reference numbers, recognized throughout the fashion industry, which you can quote when talking to clients, dyers, or manufacturers to avoid confusion about exactly which shades you mean.

Ebranding strategy

Luxury Fashion Branding

Customer care The online customer care of Coach.com is one of the most efficient in the luxury fashion industry. Online customers are offered the possibility to return or exchange new and unused merchandise either at a Coach store or through shipping. Merchandise can also be exchanged for store credit. Provisions are also made for telephone contact, email contact, free catalogue order, viral marketing and product registration. Consumers also have the possibility to purchase and check the balance of gift cards online.

Branding Removal

Caresse Crosby Bra Reproduction

BRANDS AND LABELS Brands developed as a means of commercial distinction within the marketplace in the mid- to late-nineteenth century. The process of branding begins with the attachment of a name to a business, product, or a family of products, and involves the creation of an image for that business which sets it apart from its competitors. Brand image is usually disseminated through advertising, but the value of a brand generally resides in its reputation and the level of loyalty or desirability it can generate amongst consumers. In the fashion industry, a desirable brand name allows companies to bridge the gap between expensive, high-fashion garments and affordable mass-market goods such as perfumes, accessories, and ready-to-wear diffusion lines. The fashion industry can seek legal protection for designs through patents legislation, which protects the unauthorized use of original designs for manufacture. It also benefits from complex trademark legislation, which protects the words,...

Donna Karan

Donna Karan grew up Donna Faske in Forest Hills, New York, and seemed destined from the beginning to be in the fashion industry her father was a tailor and her mother was a sales representative and showroom model. After high school Karan moved to New York City to attend Parson's School of Design and landed an internship at Anne Klein in 1967. However, Karan's dream job became a nightmare when she was fired after nine months. At nineteen, Karan brought a youthful enthusiasm to her position as Klein's assistant or head pin-picker-upper, but she lacked the maturity to work in a high-pressure position for such a meticulous woman. Fortunately, Karan was able to obtain a position under Patti Cappalli at Addenda, where she diligently worked for the next year and a half to learn all aspects of the apparel industry. The American fashion industry has traditionally been viewed as an old boys' club, in which Karan was often considered a trespasser. Her designs, which revolutionized the working...

The Death of Fashion

From the sacrifice) is the fashion system and the victim is the past seasonal collection. In a metaphorical setting, we have killed the victim by cutting the price (the aorta) after which the consumers (the ritual audience) are invited to the common meal where the victim is dismembered by the bare hands of the bargain hunters (feeding the community). The customers confirm death consciously by way of enactment. This dramatisation of violence has been discussed as being contrary to the theory of shopping as a sacrifice by Daniel Miller.642 Both approaches are based on the concept of thrift. A difference emerges from this premise. While Miller analyses everyday shopping as a sacrificial act, we face an elaborated festival of thrift by the fashion industry in the seasonal sale. The sacrifice of the seasonal collection during the sales can be compared with the ancient rites of the sacrifice of the god because the victim (fashion collection) represents the god (fashion). The last step of...

Presenting your work

Fashion designers are in the business of visual communication, and effective presentation of work is all important. Your brain may be teeming with innovative ideas and you may produce the most original designs, but none of this will matter if you are unable to communicate your vision. In the fashion business, first impressions really do count. When you show your work, you need to ensure that your presentation looks as professional as possible organized, well mounted, and clean, as well as accurate, clear, and creatively appropriate.

My Magic Fashion

Out the question we must ask ourselves. What does the fashion industry want to influence We will answer this question in the context of our assumption about the Dionysus rite. We assume that fashion wants to perpetuate the myth of creativity in the same way as the ancients wanted Nature to return with full force in spring and give power to the fields. Every half year, fashion must be reborn with new creative power. Ronald Grimes detaches magic from archaic beliefs so that we can connect it with the merchandising activity of our research on the show windows

Designing to a brief

There are various limitations associated with working to a design brief and it Is best to confirm them before you begin. Your budget, for example, will be dictated by the price at which your garments can be sold. It is common in the fashion industry to establish a rigid and logical price structure for all the pieces in a collection a vest top will be cheaper than a long-sleeved garment, for example and your designs should reflect this. A garment that is very embellished will have a high perceived value, but you must be certain that the customer is willing to pay the increased price.

Further education

Graduate Fashion Week Stands

Fashion is a glamorous industry that many find attractive, resulting in much competition for places on fashion courses. Before applying, research the type of course that will suit you best. The aim of a university course is to make your training as relevant as possible to a job in the fashion industry, so the correct course choice at this stage is vital. It is no longer as simple as choosing to study fashion courses with similar-sounding titles vary considerably. Fashion design and garment construction dominate many degree courses, but fashion illustration and promotion are also often key areas. The following list demonstrates the variety of fashion-degree courses offered Product Development for the Fashion Industry What do you like dislike about the fashion industry Which is your favourite high-street retailer There will be many others in a similar position when you leave the safety of the study environment. Most courses showcase graduate work in annual, specialized graduate...

Zandra Rhodes

Rhodes is primarily known as a print designer and colorist. She entered the fashion industry during 1960s swinging London, and was influenced by pop artists Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol as well as textile designer Emilio Pucci. Rhodes draws her inspiration from everyday objects, nature, and textures. She works by repeatedly sketching motifs until they are highly stylized and abstract. Her prints contain whimsical interpretations of lipstick tubes, lightbulbs, shells, lilies, chain knits, laces, ruffles, and feathers. Rhodes brought the pop art of the 1960s to textile design and, in turn, to apparel design. The silhouettes of Rhodes's apparel are dictated by the textile design. Her tendency to design large-scale directional motifs places limitations on the apparel she can design. Rhodes primarily designs garments with long flowing panels to show her textiles motifs to their full advantage.

Karl Lagerfeld

He has been referred to as Kaiser Karl, the Don Corleone of the fashion industry. He seldom appears without a fan in one hand and a Diet Coke in the other, always with his dark glasses, signature pony tail, and white powdered hair. He has houses in Monte Carlo, Hamburg, Brittany, and Paris. He tries to skim one book every day and reads newspapers in four languages, often while listening to music ranging from rock to classical. He is an accomplished illustrator, book critic, and, above all, probably the most famous and influential designer of the twentieth century, producing as many as sixteen collections a year. He is the highly skilled and famously disciplined Karl Lagerfeld. tography and he was particularly interested in clothing. When Karl was fourteen, the family moved to Paris where, at the age of sixteen, he designed a coat that won second prize from the International Wool Secretariat. (The young Valentino had also recently won a competition sponsored by the same organization.)...

Thierry Mugler

Thierry Mugler's early training was in the fine arts he was a member of the Rhine Opera Ballet from 1965 to 1966, and he attended the Strasbourg School of Fine Arts from 1966 to 1967. At the age of twenty, Mugler moved to Paris to pursue a career in the fashion industry. He worked as an assistant designer for the Gudule boutique in 1968, as a designer for Andre Peters in London in 1969, and freelanced for several houses in Paris and Milan between 1970 and 1973. In 1973 Mugler created his own label, Cafe de Paris, and a year later, he founded his own house.

Fashion Cycle

Wear our winter jacket instead of our summer jacket when the weather conditions change. The need to wear warmer or cooler garments is thus a good reason for linking the fashion year to the natural seasons. This natural order can also be reflected in that of our wardrobes at home. During the cold season, all the pieces for summer have a place in the rear. This order is then changed when the seasons change. As in former times, we still have a representation of nature as an ordering structure in our homes, although behind closed doors. Maybe this is a hidden ritual in our consumer society according to which we also restructure the order of garments in our wardrobe in spring and autumn. This is when we become aware of the seasons and begin to mentally prepare ourselves for the warm or the cold time of the year.100 The awakening of nature in spring, summer, and its change in autumn and winter are natural references for the dramatisation of fashion collections. This why we pointed out that...

Gottex

This family-owned business has been a leader in swimwear for years and still is with its exquisite, innovative fabrics made of vibrant colors and flattering silhouettes. In the fashion industry, the name Gottex is synonymous with quality and fashion. Website http www.gottex.com

Hamburg

It is sheer madness to want to produce consumer junkies, who are possibly hooked to a particular brand. While Simmel feared that the consumer could become a slave to the trend industry, to the fashion industry in particular, Bolz and Bosshart go a step further. The relation of master and slave is replaced by the relation of dealer and junky. Both concepts are frightening. Here, Miller's notion of consumption as a sacrificial act of devotion undergoes a primitive For Aicher, objects that lose their functional properties in favour of heightened symbolic communication are merely ritual adjuncts. They should rather be for sacrificial purposes than for everyday use. Design theorist Michael Erlhoff asked whether it is the designer or the artist who should design the ritual object for liturgical (sacrificial) use. And his solution is surprisingly not the artist, but the designer.527 The answer to the question whether the object acquires its aura by its use or by materiality can be found in...

Production

By the end of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first century, an increasing section of the fashion industry was specializing in the production of corporate wear. According to Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), the National Association of Uniform Manufacturers and Distributors estimates that the American career apparel industry is worth at least 6 billion. International companies as large as McDonald's potentially spend as much as 60 million a year on their uniform programs (Fast Food Fashion).

Ellen Tracy

The Ellen Tracy label not only provided women with the wardrobe they needed to succeed in the workplace, it also became the anchor for the newly emerging bridge market that filled the gap between designer fashions and mass merchandisers. In 1984 Linda Allard's name was added to the Ellen Tracy label to recognize Allard's work and to create a designer feel for the line. However, Ellen Tracy is run as a fashion business, not a fashion house, with an emphasis on the profitable. Each line is designed with the consideration that the majority of women do not have the bodies of fashion models, but still want to wear fashionable clothes.

Factoring

A longtime practice in the fashion industry is factoring, whereby a company takes out short-term loans to buy fabrics and other materials to produce garments for the season, then repays the loans as retailers purchase the goods. The specialized lenders are called factors. Factoring is not limited to apparel production it also exists in other industries where fashion changes quickly, such as toys. A plague of the fashion business is that retailers squeeze manufacturers by returning unsold goods or paying less than the agreed-upon price. Because the garment business is so competitive, profits are low and existence is risky.

Jeanne Lanvin

Jeanne Lanvin entered the fashion business in 1890 by opening a millinery house. However, it would not be her headwear designs that would launch her career. In addition to designing headwear, Lanvin was designing charming, youthful garments for her daughter. These creations were noticed by other women, and in 1909 she converted her millinery business to a custom-made children's clothing business. Soon, the composition of Lan-vin's business would change again. The clientele who had patronized her for garments for their children also sought her out for garments for themselves. The designs Lanvin developed for these women had the same youthful exuberance as her children's wear, with soft colors and feminine embroidery details.

Benetton

Benetton, along with companies such as Esprit, came to epitomize 1980s fashions. The brightly colored, patterned knitwear captured the active lifestyle of the 1980s youth market and the energy of New Wave music. The fashions were comfortable and affordable, and they crossed social classes. However, Benetton wanted to sell more than fashion they wanted to sell social awareness. In 1981 Benetton launched their first socially oriented advertising campaign, All the colors of the world. The advertisements, which embraced diversity, featured models from multiple races, celebrating the United Colors of Benetton. The advertisements, designed by Oliveiero Toscani, incited national debate and propelled Benetton to the forefront of the fashion industry. Successive advertising campaigns continued to espouse the Benettons' views on increasingly sensitive social issues such as terrorism, race, AIDS, and the death sentence, but they rarely featured any of Benetton's products. The advertisements...

Commercialization

From the sounds of Seattle and grunge, through to a swathe of bands in 2004 that look more like The Ramones than The Ramones, punk has endured. For the fashion industry, its stylistic conceptualization as both bricolage and rebellion makes it the perfect vehicle to reappro-priate the old in the spirit of the new, which gives rise to the interpretation of punk as a seasonal look on a cyclical basis. As such, its legacy is assured within both its musical and stylistic qualities. Yet whether its politics of change or its celebration of the bored and nihilistic attitude of teenagers can ever be faithfully played out again is another question.

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