Laurence King Publishing
Dedicated to my Mother Jean Stuart-Williams 1920-2006
Copyright © 2007 Centroi Scint Martins College of Art & Design, University of the Arts, London. Published in 2007 by Laurence King Publishing in association with Central Saint Martins College of Art & Design.
This book has been produced by Central Saint Martins Book Creation, Southampton Row, London WC1B4AP, UK.
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Design by David Tanguy, Praliné
Printed in China
Frontispiece: Darani, Madeleine de Rauch, L'OJrieî, 1949. Private Collection. Photograph by Marion Treasure © CSM.
Introduction 6 1900-1924 8 1925-1949 70 1950-1974 166 1975 and beyond 258 Further reading 379 List of illustrators 380 Index 382 Picture credits & acknowledgements 384
Wericeslaus Hollar, Winlcr, 1643. Etching. Courtesy the British Museum.
The history of fashion illustration begins in the sixteenth century, when increased exploration and discovery led to a fascination with the dress and costume of the nations of the world. Between 1520 and 1610 more than 200 collections of engravings, etchings or woodcuts were published containing plates of figures wearing clothes peculiar to their nationality and rank. One of the most famous of these, Cesare Vecellio's De gli habiti antichi et moderni di diverse parti del mondo (1590), comprised 420 woodcuts depicting dress from Europe, Turkey and the Orient. The second edition, published in 1598, included dress from Africa and Asia as well as 20 plates on New World dress. For centuries, artists had of course depicted clothes, but these early woodcuts were the first dedicated illustrations of dress and, as such, became the prototype for fashion illustration as we know it today.
Wenceslaus Hollar's engravings of mid-seventeenth-century English fashions continued the genre, and from the 1670s onward journals began to be published - particularly in France, by now established as the centre of fashion under the direction of Louis XIV - that could be called the first fashion magazines. Le Mercure galant (1672), revamped in 1678 as Le Nouveau Mercure galant, contained captioned illustrations of fashion, complete with addresses of suppliers. French fashion plates, the early examples engraved by jean de St Jean, François Octavien, Antoine Hérisset and Bernard Picart, among others, became the standard by which all others were judged. Hie proliferation of periodicals, journals and almanacs during the second half of the eighteenth century was a response to an increasingly well-informed, provincial as well as urban, female readership eager for the latest news of fashion. Copies were passed around and shared, while for some women, such as Barbara Johnson, it was a pleasant pastime to create scrapbooks with cut-out plates accompanied by scraps of fabrics and records of purchases.
The industry in France reached its height by the second half of the century with the publication of plates such as those in the Galeries des modes (1777), the Cabinet des modes (1785) and the Monument du costume (1775-83). Many of these plates were published in other countries with text adapted as necessary. As the Revolution ground France to a cultural halt, Germany for a time became the centre of publishing, the Journal derLuxus und derModen (1786-1826) being the best-known fashion publication. In England, Heideloff s exclusive Gallery of Fashion (1794) filled the void. La Belle Assemblée (1806) and Ackermann's Repository of the Arts, Literature, Commerce, Manufacturing, Fashion and Politics (1809-28) were notable journals of the early nineteenth century. The latter, as the title suggests, was a general interest magazine that included fashion, heralding those that became such a feature of later nineteenth-century life. From mid-century onward, France was once again established as the centre
Barbara Johnson, Plate from Album, late 18'"/ early 19,h century. Courtesy V&A Images/Victoria and Albert Museum.
of the fashionable world, and set the standard for fashion illustration, notably in the work of the talented Colin family in publications such as Le Follet (1829), Le Journal des demoiselles (1833) and La Mode illustrée (1860).
Throughout history many artists have shown a fascination with dress: Dürer, Holbein, Watteau and Ingres all executed exquisite drawings of the fashions of their time. Monet's Women in a Garden of 1867, in which all four figures are modelled by his mistress, Camille, betrays a flat, disjointed quality that can be attributed to the influence of fashion plates of the period. Photography, one of the great inventions of the nineteenth century, was generally held responsible for the demise of illustration by the Second World War, yet it too was influenced by fashion illustration, as is demonstrated in early examples by the stiff poses against studio prop backgrounds that mimic those in contemporary plates. Even an avant-garde photographer such as Edward Steichen failed to give as much impact to Poiret's early designs as the innovative illustrators Iribe and Lepape.
By the 1950s fashion editors were investing more of their budgets for editorial spreads in photography. The subsequent promotion of the fashion photographer to celebrity status meant that illustrators had to be content with working on articles for lingerie or accessories, or in advertising campaigns such as those René Gruau did for Christian Dior perfumes. The sixties and seventies were lean times for illustrators, but the eighties saw the beginnings of a renaissance that continues today, a renaissance that has been augmented by the accessibility of computer technology.
Fashion illustration and fashion photography are two distinct disciplines. Although fashion photographers have continually pushed the boundaries of creativity and possibility, they can do no more than record what is there. Illustrators, on the other hand, have the power to select or emphasize a particular feature; to prioritize figure over garment, or garment over figure; to translate a mood, an atmosphere, with humour or emotion, while their ability to communicate a designer's ideas has often led to a close working relationship. And of course they have the ability to invent.
Despite its integral part in the dissemination of fashion, acknowledged since Baudelaire's flâneur - the wanderer around the city - walked the streets of nineteenth-century Paris as the ultimate symbol of modernity, and despite the fact that many well-known artists have reflected its cultural and aesthetic power in their work, fashion illustration has often been dismissed as trivial, or at best, a 'Cinderella' art. Falling between fine and commercial art, it has only recently been revaluated as a significant genre in its own right, one that was to reach new heights of sophistication and aesthetic beauty in the twentieth century.
'Between 1909 and 1929 an explosion of miracles destroyed the old world and made way for the new ' Jean Cocteau, 1957
A ball dress by Alice Blum shows the straighter line and higher waist coming into fashion. The model is almost overwhelmed by the background and surrounding 'spinach'.
In 1900, when the new century dawned, both fashion illustration and fashion design itself looked backward to the styles of the previous century rather than forward to a vision of the future. Clothing that expressed the opulence of the age, worn by the fashionable aristocratic and wealthy elite of Europe and North America, was informed more by the sinuous aesthetic of the Art Nouveau style, conceived in the 1890s, than by any hint of modernity. The fashionable woman, mature in aspect, was swathed in lace, frills and flounces, accessorized with feather boas and picture hats festooned with bird-of-paradise plumes or flowers, and underpinned by complicated layers of underwear, including the ungainly S-bend corset. Men still adhered to strict codes of dress, regulated by occupation, rank, social occasion and time of day.
As always in high society, dress signified status. Lavish expenditure on clothes epitomized the culture of conspicuous consumption associated with the Belle Epoque. Wealthy women patronized the grands couturiers of Paris, such as Callot Soeurs, Doucet, Paquin and Worth. In London they patronized Lucile and bought their tailor-mades from long-established firms such as Redfern and Creed. Their husbands were dressed by London tailors whose reputation for immaculate cutting in high-quality cloth was unrivalled.
The less well-off benefited from the enormous advances made in the previous century by the textile and clothing manufacturing industries. Ready-made or semi-made clothing was widely available in the department stores that had sprung up in all major towns and cities since the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Many women employed a dressmaker or made their own clothes: the formulaic and highly detailed fashion illustrations of the time enabled domestic and professional dressmakers to copy the latest designs. Free patterns were included in magazines aimed at this middle market, such as Weldon's Ladies'Journal (1879), while Butterick, with branches in London, Paris and New York, had published mail-order patterns since 1866. The dissemination of fashionable styles through the numerous magazines and newspapers aimed at consumers gave everyone the opportunity, if not the means, to engage in the pursuit of fashion.
Early twentieth-century fashion illustration was as aesthetically moribund as fashion itself - statuesque models posed stiffly against fussy studio backgrounds, often framed by ornate arrangements of foliage, known in the trade as 'spinach'. Illustrators working for high-fashion magazines such as American Vogue (1892), Harper's Bazar (1867) and, in Britain, The Queen (1861) adhered to the well-worn tradition of depicting dress in minute, often pedantic, detail, though the work of Adolf Sandoz and Charles Drivon represents notable exceptions. In the United States, Charles Dana Gibson's 'lifestyle' illustrations (rather than dedicated fashion plates) established his 'Gibson Girl' as a fashion icon for modern young women.
Léon Bakst, Costume design for Schéhérazade, 1910. Courtesy The Bricgeman Art Library.
Dioghilev's Ballets Russes caused a sensation in prewar Paris and London. Léon Bakst's exotic costumes had an undeniable impact on the fashionable cultural scene.
Hand-coloured engraved plates were replaced at the end of the nineteenth century by full-colour printing and from the early twentieth century, photography began to make an appearance in magazines. It was Paul Poiret, the most exciting and innovative fashion designer of the prewar years, who elevated both fashion and its representation to the status of art and injected them with a dynamism that made them new and significant forces in the twentieth century.
Poiret established his own couture house in 1903, and his career in the prewar years coincided with radical new directions in art across Europe and beyond. In 1905 Les Fauves exhibited at the Paris Salon d'Automne; in 1907 Picasso's epoch-making painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon heralded the advent of Cubism; and the German Expressionists, the Italian Futurists and the Russian Constructivists explored new concepts and ideologies through art. Fashion is, by definition, modern, so it could not but respond to these powerful new impulses, and during the early years of the twentieth century the interface between fashion, art and design was increasingly reinforced.
When Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, whose 1909 production of Cleopâtre featuring exotic sets and costumes by Léon Bakst, exploded on the Parisian stage in an array of dazzling colours and daring nudity, fashion was quick to respond. The pastel shades of the Belle Epoque were set aside in favour of a new palette of brilliant hues overlaid with silver and gold. Poiret's designs for eveningwear reflected the oriental influence: harem trousers worn under tunics were accessorized with lamé turbans decorated with feathers and jewels. A tubular, more streamlined silhouette, the Directoire style, was developed by many designers; high, boned collars were replaced by low V-necklines; lavishly trimmed picture hats gave way to simpler styles such as the toque; and fussy frills and furbelows were abandoned.
Poiret was a master salesman, but perhaps his greatest gift was as an impresario, linking the worlds of fashion and art by bringing the talents of young artists into his enterprise. Raoul Dufy, for example, designed printed textiles for Poiret's atelier. Recognizing that his radical designs needed a new form of representation, in 1908 Poiret commissioned Paul Iribe to illustrate a promotional publication, Les Robes de Paul Poiret. Iribe broke new ground by introducing figures, some in half-profile or even in back view, against sketchy monochrome backgrounds. In 1911 Poiret commissioned Georges Lepape to illustrate his second brochure, Les Choses de Paul Poiret. Both these albums, printed on high-quality paper in limited editions, used the pochoir method of printing for the plates. This process, based on Japanese techniques refined by Jean Saudé, involved creating a stencil for each layer of colour, which was then applied by hand; sometimes thirty stages were needed to achieve the freshness of the original illustration.
Fur-trimmed sleeves and a gold brocade bodice offset the colour of Poiret's evening gown on the left, while the other gown refers more directly to the early 18th-century chemise dress.
Less exclusive and expensive than Poiret's rarefied albums were the numerous new magazines of this period, such as Modes et manières d'aujourdui (1912), Le Journal des dames et des modes (1912), British Vogue (1916), La Guirlande des mois (1917), Falbalas et fanfreluches (1920), Art, goût, beauté (1922), the German Styl (1922) and French Vogue (1923). However, it was the Gazette du bon ton (1912) which represented a unique collaboration between artists, couturiers and publishers. It was founded in Paris by Lucien Vogel, an art director, editor and publisher, who, like Poiret, had the knack of garnering talent. He employed a group of young artists, many of whom trained together at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and gave them unprecedented freedom in their interpretation of fashion. In a financial collaboration with seven of the major couture houses of the day (Poiret, Chéruit, Doeuillet, Lanvin, Doucet, Redfern and Worth), whose designs were featured in the magazine, the Gazette maintained the highest possible standards in content and reproduction. Interspersed with witty text illustrated with bas-de-page line drawings, each edition contained up to ten colour pochoir plates and several croquis, or design sketches. One of the most influential fashion magazines ever produced, the Gazette ran for 69 issues, from 1912 to 1914 and from 1920 to 1925. A special edition was published in France and the United States in 1915, in collaboration with Condé Nast, the publisher of Vogue, who went on to buy a controlling interest in the Gazette in 1921.
Condé Nast was already investing heavily in illustration for his own publications. Many of the Gazette's original team, such as Pierre Brissaud, André Marty, Charles Martin, George Barbier and Pierre Mourgue, were already working for Vogue on all three editions (American, British and French), as well as on other high-quality magazines. Between 1916 and 1939, Georges Lepape did more than 100 covers for Vogue. In New York Condé Nast's homegrown illustrators included Helen Dryden, George Plank and Eric (Carl Ericlcson), whose work had first appeared in the Gazette in 1922; while William Randolph Hearst's rival publication, Harper's Bazar (renamed Harper's Bazaar in 1929), signed an exclusive contract with F.rté which lasted from 1915 to 1938, one of the longest collaborations in publishing history.
The progress of fashion was surprisingly little affected by the war, though economic privation, the requirements of outfitting armies, and export restrictions inevitably caused disruption in its production and dissemination. However, many of the Parisian houses continued to hold biannual shows throughout the conflict. For many the war brought new freedoms in dress. More practical styles became a necessity, and for women directly engaged in the war effort - in munitions work, driving or working on the land - trousers and breeches became acceptable for the first time. By 1918, many of the old social hierarchies had collapsed, and fashion began to be increasingly
Tomlin's illustration typifies the 1920s look -a low-waisted tubular dress, caught at the hips with a sash, emphasizes a flat chest and short, bobbed hair. The sunburst, a typical Art Deco motif, is repeated in the elaborately arranged cockade.
democratized. Advances in manufacturing, brought about by the war, made mass-produced clothing more readily available, but for the affluent, postwar woman, Parisian couture retained its desirability.
The modern woman was epitomized by the French designer Gabrielle 'Coco' Chanel, who, having established boutiques in Deauville and Biarritz, launched her first couture collection in 1916, going on to become the most influential designer of the twenties and thirties. Chanel introduced the garçonne look: practical styles and easy-to-wear separates in pliable jersey-knit fabrics and tweeds. She also brought into the fashionable female wardrobe for the first time garments adapted from masculine dress, including 'yachting pants' based on sailors' bell-bottoms, and sportswear, featuring her signature knitted cardigans. The suntan and costume jewellery were popularized by her, and in 1921 she launched her famous perfume, Chanel N° 5.
Chanel's exploitation of new or utilitarian fabrics went with innovations in textile manufacture that revolutionized fashion during this period - the synthesis of artificial silk, renamed rayon in 1924, made attractive lingerie and hosiery more available; advances in the manufacture of knitted fabrics and elastic immeasurably enhanced swimwear; and in 1923 the zipper fastener was patented.
The boundaries between formal and informal menswear began to dissolve. Garments such as flannel trousers and blazers became acceptable daywear; stiffened collars were replaced in artistic circles by the soft collar; and the looser, three-piece lounge suit gradually took over from the formal morning or frock coat. Hats remained an essential item, styles ranging from the silk top hat to the felt homburg, straw boater and tweed cap. London tailors still reigned supreme, but US manufacturers began to lead in casual and informal dress. Much of the credit for popularizing American styles and an increased use of colour and pattern must go to the young Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII), a fashion icon of his day, who favoured Fair Isle sweaters, plus-fours, belts instead of braces and checked suits.
For women, the twenties were characterized by simplicity and an emphasis on youthful androgyny, often achieved by using bust flatteners. Low-waisted, tubular evening dresses relied for impact on applied surface decoration - beading and embroidery that reflected the influence of Egyptian decoration (Tutankhamen's tomb had been discovered in 1922) and naive folk-art motifs, while fringing enhanced the motion of popular dances. Neat, head-hugging cloche hats dictated cropped or bobbed hairstyles and became the signature headwear of the twenties. Hemlines wavered: at their shortest, around 1927, they exposed more naked leg than had ever been seen before. The cosmetics industry flourished, their products endorsed in magazine advertisements by society figures, actresses, and that new type of celebrity: the movie star.
Paul Iribe, Plate from Les Robes de Paul Poiret, 1908. Pochoir print. Courtesy The Stapleton Collection.
The vibrant colours of Poiret's Directoirc-style gowns are heightened by Iribe's use of a monochrome background. The deceptively simple layers of the tunic dresses create a tubular silhouette that is complemented by matching bandeaux tied round the head a ¡'antique.
Paul Iribe, Plate from Les Robes de Paul Poiret, 1908.
Pochoir print. Courtesy V&A Images/Victoria and Albert Museum.
Iribe daringly depicts two of Poiret's dramatic evening coats from the rear: one embroidered with Eastern motifs and one with a scalloped fabric feature over the shoulders. The third is lavishly trimmed with fur.
Anonymous, 'Shopping', Harrods' Catalogue, 1909. Courtesy The Stapleton Collection.
A more realistic depiction of fashionable shoppers in front of Harrods. A variety of walking dress is worn with large picture hats trimmed with ribbon, feathers and lace. A new accessory has appeared - the handbag. The posture of the figures clearly shows that the S-bend corset is still being worn.
6 FREE PATTERNS
(Published by the Amnlgnnrntocl Pross, Ltd.)
These Free Patterns are Described in
Languages in this Number
See panes 52 to 59
Ladies' Journal of
GRAND ANNIVHRSARY PRESENTATION of a
COLOURED PLATE and piece of WALTZ MUSIC
FREE with this Number.
Also the (lrntis Patterns of
A Popular Skirt A Smart Coat A Dressy Blouse A Lady's Combinations A Girl's Reefer
(Sizes to 6 years)
A Boy's Shirt
(Sizes 6 to 8 years)
Anonymous, Cover of Fashions for All, April 1909. Courtesy The Stopleton Collection.
Magazines such as this catered for the home dressmaker. This issue contained six free patterns for garments, including the tailored separates that were the staple of most middle-class women's wardrobe.
ARROW COLLARS AND SHIRTS
fit each other, the man and the occasion, imparting to the dress an attractive and valuable air of diftindion. ARROW COLLARS, 2 for 25 wot* $1 JO • doien. ARROW SHIRTS, UM and tZm. Send for Kyle booklets. CLUETT. PEABODY A COMPANY. «7 River Sltm Troy. New York. U. S. A.
J. C. Leyendecker, Advertisement for Arrow Collars and Shirts, c.1910. Courtesy The Advertising Archives.
Joseph Christian Leyendecker, a German émigré to the USA in the late 19th century, became one of America's best-known illustrators. In 1905 he created the 'Arrow Collar Man', one of the world's most successful advertising images, the male counterpart of the 'Gibson Girl'.
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