Gowns

The primary garment worn by women of all social classes was the gown, consisting of a close-fitting bodice with attached decorative sleeves and full skirts. Though the basic form of the garment was very similar to gowns worn during the sixteenth century, a variety of changes made seventeenth-century garments quite distinct. Perhaps most notable were changes in the way skirts were worn. The gown of the early seventeenth century continued the fashions of the sixteenth century. Skirts were given...

S

Sabrina, 4 784 Sack gown, 3 572 Sack suit, 4 683-84 911 (ill.), 920, 926, 929 Sainte-Marie, Buffy, 5 909 Sakkos and sphendone, 1 142 Salville Row, 4 786 Samite, 2 262-63, 270 Samoa, 2 341 (ill.) Samurai, 2 208-9, 209 (ill.), 215 Sandals, 1 46-47, 46 (ill.), 65 (ill.), 66-67, 157-58, 158 (ill.). See also Footwear 1919-1929, 4 773 African, 2 443 Birkenstocks, 5 957, 958-60, 959 (ill.) Egyptian, 1 46-47, 46 (ill.) Greek, 1 157-58, 158 (ill.) Mesopotamian, 1 65 (ill.), 66-67 Native American, 2 385...

T

Tabard, 2 309-10, 309 (ill.) Tabis, 2 252-53, 252 (ill.) Taffeta, 4 730 Tahiti, 2 331 (ill.) Tailored suit for women, 4 747-49, 748 (ill.) 5 972 Tailor-mades, 4 685-86 Tailors, 2 298-300 4 794 Taj Mahal, 1 70 (ill.) Takada, Kenzo, 5 979 Tang dynasty, 2 231, 247 Tanning, 5 953-56, 954 (ill.), 1011 Tapesties, 2 294 (ill.) Target, 5 979 Tattooing, 2 244-46, 343, 343 (ill.), 346-47, 346 (ill.), 377-78, 381-82 5 1012-13, 1012 (ill.) Asian, 2 244-46 henna, 1 99 Mayans, 2 401 Native American, 2...

Veu

519-20, 520 (ill.) Fanny Farmer candy stores, 4 723 Fans, 2 240-41, 241 (ill.) 3 497, 539, 539 (ill.), 645 Farrah Fawcett look, 5 935, 939-40, 939 (ill.) Farthingales, 3 476-77 Fashion The Mirror of History, 1 22-23, 39, 180 2 293 3 471 5 852 563 (ill.) Fashion industry, 4 663-64. See also specific styles and designers Fashion magazines, 3 512 4 784 Fashions in Hair, 2 285 3 490, 533 4 695, 751, 818, 820 Fasteners. See Zippers Fawcett, Farrah, 5 935, 939-40, 939 (ill.) Fearn, John, 2 334...

Info

Van Mander Karel Painting

Neckwear was an important component of dress for both men and women in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and they devised many ways to decorate the neck. Most popular in the sixteenth century were the ruff, a stiffly frilled collar that encircled the neck, and the whisk, a wide fanned collar around the back of the neck. By the mid-seventeenth century, when clothing styles were more subtle and understated, the band was more popular and it came in two primary styles the standing band and...

C

Cameo and Intaglio 1 146 536 Caps 3 578 Casula 1 169 904 78 Chanel No. 5 4 764 Chappals 1 108 Charm Bracelet (1930-45) 4 826 Charm Bracelet (l946-6o) 5 879 216 558 Chlaina and Diplax 1 122 123 79 Chopines 3 502 Clean-Shaven Men 4 753 Cloaks (Native American Cultures) 2 364 Cloaks (Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas) 2 395 Cloche Hat 4 755 Clutch Purse 4 827 616 Coats and Capes 3 559 Codpiece 3 474 314 673 Collars and Pectorals 1 38 Converse All-Stars 4 714 Copotain 3 489 Cordoba Leather Gloves 3 496 905...

1

Vallee, Rudy, 4 740 Van Der Zee, James, 4 740 Vandals, 2 275 Vanderbilt, Gloria, 5 986 Vanity Rules, 5 881 Vedder, Eddie, 5 989 Veils, 1 61-62 driving and, 4 675 fifteenth century, 3 457 Mesopotamian, 1 61-62 Muslim, 1 62, 84, 85, 86 Velour, 5 932 Velvet, 4 730 Versace, Gianni, 5 906 Vests, 4 684 5 906-8, 907 (ill.) Victoria (Queen of England), 3 601, 608-9 4 826 Viet Nam Generation, 5 942 Vietnam War, 4 829, 836 5 890, 935 Vikings, 2 278, 282 (ill.), 289 (ill.) Vionnet, Madeleine, 4 726, 787...

B

Backpack Purses 5 1006 515 752 459 Barbershops 4 698 Bases 3 473 Bathing Costumes 3 608 Beaded Handbags 4 707 435 Beards 1 185 Beehives and Bouffants 5 869 902 Berber Dress 2 421 Beret 2 312 853 Birkenstocks 5 958 361 300 Bloomers (Nineteenth Century) 3 611 Bloomers (1900-18) 4 668 Body Painting (Oceania) 2 344 Body Painting (African Cultures) 2 436 Bold Look 5 855 473 Boots (Ancient Greece) 1 156 Boots (Seventeenth Century) 3 546 Boots (Nineteenth Century) 3 654 Boubou 2 422 Bowl Haircut 2 313...

Revised

C. 476 Upper-class men, and sometimes women, in the Byzantine Empire (476-1453 c.e.) wear a long, flowing robe-like overgarment called a dalmatica developed from the tunic. c. 900 Young Chinese girls tightly bind their feet to keep them small, a sign of beauty for a time in Chinese culture. The practice was outlawed in 1911. c. 1100-1500 The cote, a long robe worn by both men and women, and its descendant, the cotehardie, are among the most common garments of the late Middle Ages. 1392 Kimonos...

Contributors

Freelance Writer, Crosse Pointe, MI. ROB EDELMAN. Instructor, State University of New York at Albany. Author, Baseball on the Web (1997) and The Great Baseball Films (1994). Co-author, Matthau A Life (2002) Meet the Mertzes (1999) and Angela Lansbury A Life on Stage and Screen (1996). Contributing editor, Leonard Maltin's Move & Video Guide, Leonard Maltin's Movie Encyclopedia, and Leonard Maltin's Family Viewing Guide. Contributing writer, International Dictionary of Films...

Top

Nineteen Century Men Riding Apparal

Introduced during the early 1800s, the top hat became the most common men's hat of the nineteenth century. Worn by men of all classes, for all occasions, at any time of day, the top hat was a narrow-brimmed silk hat with a tall, straight crown and a flat top. Formal, dramatic, and imposing, the top hat represented much of the spirit of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, in which middle class and wealthy Europeans focused on elegance and formality in their dress and manners. The...

Steeple Headdress

Body Decoration

The steeple headdress, which became popular among women in France and then throughout Europe in the fourteenth century, was one of the most distinctive forms of headwear worn in human Mary of Burgundy, standing center, wears a tall steeple headdress draped in a long veil. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann CORBIS. Mary of Burgundy, standing center, wears a tall steeple headdress draped in a long veil. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann CORBIS. history. The steeple headdress began simply as...

Tonsure

O ne of the most mysterious and striking of medieval hairstyles was the tonsure (TON-shur). Beginning in the seventh and eighth centuries, members of Christian religious orders began to shave the top of their head in order to show their purity and chastity. The size and shape of the tonsure could vary. Some wore a semicircle tonsure, others a full circle. Some shaved just above the ears and left a full head of hair below. In some Catholic orders monks shaved all but a narrow piece of hair,...

Contents

Entries by Alphabetical Order xxvii Entries by Topic Category xli Reader's Words to Prehistoric Ancient Unraveling the Mystery of Hieroglyphs (box) 18 Kalasiris Loincloth and Loin Skirt 25 Penis Sheath 27 Collars and Fragrant Oils and Ointments 39 Mesopotamia Turbans Choli Dhoti and Lungi 80 Punjabi Modern Islamic Dress (box) 85 Turbans Foot Forehead Henna Jewelry Jutti Khapusa Life in Ancient Chlaina and Chlamys Doric Ionic Chiton 127 Loin Military Dress 131 Minoan Dress 132 Phrygian Pilos and...

Timeline

THE BEGINNING OF HUMAN LIFE Early humans wrap themselves in animal hides for warmth. c. 10,000 b.c.e. Tattooing is practiced on the Japanese islands, in the Jomon period (c. 10,000-300 b.c.e.). Similarly scarification, the art of carving designs into the skin, has been practiced since ancient times in Oceania and Africa to make a person's body more beautiful or signify a person's rank in society. c. 3100 b.c.e. Egyptians weave a plant called flax into a light cloth called linen and made dresses...

W

Walking sticks, 3 593-94, 593 (ill.) War of the Spanish Succession, 3 553 Warner Brothers Corset Company, 4 671 Watches, 3 585-86, 583 (ill.), 648 4 709-11, 710 (ill.) Wealth, 1 161-63 3 469-71 Weatherproof clothing driving clothes and, 4 674-75 trench coats, 4 688-90 Weaving, 2 337 Weejuns, 4 839 Weismuller, Johnny, 4 806 Welch, Raquel, 5 855 Western dress. See also specific Western countries Africa, 2 411, 411 (ill.), 443 Native Americans, 2 358 Western Europe, 2 277 (ill.). See also Europe,...

Kabuki Makeup

Kabuki Makeup Fashion

ICabuki is a style of traditional Japanese theater that includes music, dance, and drama. First performed by females, after 1629 BODY DECORATIONS OF EARLY ASIAN CULTURES 241 only male actors could take part in Kabuki, and they played both the male and female characters. Kabuki characters are often drawn from Japanese folklore, and a major part of the Kabuki performance is the dramatic makeup worn by the actors. This makeup is applied heavily to create a brightly painted mask that uses colors in...

Asian Cultures

W W hile both Chinese and Japanese cultures have some interesting and even spectacular traditions of body decoration, what is perhaps most striking is how little these early Asian cultures depended upon ornament. Both cultures valued simplicity. They did not wear large amounts of jewelry, nor did they have complicated ways of painting their faces with makeup. They did, however, have particular items of their overall costume that allowed for more display. Most of their body decoration customs...

Ddw

Calceus, 1 198, 199-200 California Native Americans, 2 352 Calvin Klein. See Klein, Calvin Calvin Klein Limited, 5 977 Cameo, 3 584-85 Cameo and Intaglio, 1 146 See also Walking sticks Canute (King of Denmark), 2 278, 282 (ill.) Capes, Coats and, 3 559-60 Caps, 3 578-79. See also Headwear deerstalker, 3 635-36, 635 (ill.) 4 678 fez, 2 430-31, 430 (ill.) Phrygian, 1 139-41, 140 (ill.) 2 266 Capucci, Roberto, 5 849 Cardin, Pierre, 5 898, 904, 920 Carey, Mariah, 5 913 Carmichael, Stokely, 5 938...

Panniers

The smallness of a woman's waist became a very important fashion element by midcentury. To accentuate the smallness of the waist, the skirts of gowns were stiffened and padded to increase their size. Panniers were metal and wooden supports used to hold the skirt out away from the legs they looked like baskets fastened around a woman's waist. Panniers expanded skirts to widths as large as five feet, so large that two women could not walk through a doorway at the same time or sit on a couch...

Aso Oke Cloth

A so oke cloth is an intricately woven cloth used for ceremonial garments. Made by the Yoruba men of Nigeria, Aso oke cloth is decorated with elaborate patterns made from dyed strands of fabric that are woven into strips of cloth. These strips of cloth are sewn together to form larger pieces. Some Aso oke cloth, called prestige cloth, has a lace-like appearance with intricate open patterns. Patterns and colors used for Aso oke cloth have special meanings. A purplish-red colored dye called...

Batik Cloth

Body Decoration

Batik cloth has been important in Africa for nearly two thousand years. Batik is a method of applying pattern to fabric. A resist-dyeing technique, batik involves coating fabric with a dye-resistant substance and submerging the fabric in colored dye. Typically the dye-resistant substance is made of the cassava root or rice flour and the chemicals alum, a type of salt found in the earth, or copper sulfate, a naturally occurring mineral. The substance is boiled with water to make a thick paste....

So

France Clothing The 1700s

A model wearing a hip-hugging corduroy skirt at a 1966 fashion show. First popular during the 1700s, corduroy was again trendy during the 1960s and 1970s. Reproduced of AP Wide World Photos. > ometimes called the poor man's velvet, corduroy is a soft, durable fabric that has been popular among people of all classes for almost two centuries. Usually made of cotton or cotton blended with such man-made fabrics as rayon and polyester, corduroy is woven with loose threads that are then cut to...

Fifteenth Century Body Decorations

The fifteenth century was a time of transition in the ways that people ornamented their bodies. The use of jewelry and accessories became more and more prevalent and showy over the course of the century, reflecting the growing richness of the various kingdoms of Europe and paving the way for the absolute excess of display that occurred in the sixteenth century. As in the early Middle Ages (c. 500-c. 1500), bathing was not a regular practice throughout most of Europe, except for in Italy....

India

Choli Dhoti and Lungi 80 Punjabi Modern Islamic Dress (box) 85 Turbans Foot Forehead Henna Jewelry Jutti Khapusa Life in Ancient Chlaina and Chlamys Doric Ionic Chiton 127 Loin Military Dress 131 Minoan Dress 132 Phrygian Pilos and Petasos 141 Sakkos and Sphendone 142 Cameo and Fibulae Jewelry Metal Boots Sandals Ancient Sumptuary Laws Regulate Luxury (box) 162 Dalmatica Etruscan Tunica Braids and Hair Coloring 187 Jewelry Signet Where to Learn More lxxv Volume 2 Early Cultures Across the Globe

Liii

Europeans during the Age of Exploration that began in the fifteenth century. Volumes 3 through 5 offer chronological coverage of the development of costume and fashion in the West. Volume 3 features the costume traditions of the developing European nation-states in the fifteenth through the nineteenth centuries, and looks at the importance of the royal courts in introducing clothing styles and the shift from home-based garmentmaking to shop-based and then factory-based industry. Volumes 4 and 5...

Birkenstocks

Birkenstock sandals are specially designed casual shoes with flexible cork and latex (type of rubber) insoles that are shaped like the bottom of a person's foot. Designed in Germany, Birkenstocks were first introduced in the United States in the late 1960s, and they immediately became identified with a youthful generation who preferred natural and comfortable clothing to the more restrictive fashions of their parents. Birkenstocks introduced the concept of comfort shoes that has been continued...

G

Gabardine, 4 728 Gable, Clark, 4 785 Gainsborough chapeau, 3 636-37, 636 (ill.) 4 703 Gainsborough, Thomas, 3 636 Gallicae, 1 198, 202-3 Ganache and gardcorps, 2 303 Gandhi, Mahatma, 1 72, 82, 108 Gandouras, 2 416 Gap, 5 970, 979, 982 GapKids, 5 970 GapShoes, 5 970 Garbo, Greta, 4 785 Garcia, Jerry, 5 906 Gardcorps, Ganache and, 2 303 Garden, Mary, 4 761 Garland, Judy, 4 784 Garters, 4 676-77 Gaucho pants, 5 909-12 Gauls, 2 276 braccae, 2 281 clothing, 2 282 footwear, 2 289 headwear, 2 285...

Head Flattening

A ncient peoples in the Americas practiced head flattening as a mark of social status. Head flattening is the practice of shaping BODY DECORATIONS OF MAYANS, AZTECS, AND INCAS 403 the skull by binding an infant's head. Typically the skull would be wrapped or bound between two boards to form an elongated conical shape. Mayans shaped the heads of the highest ranking children, those of priests and nobles, between two boards for several days after birth. Some Incas also shaped the heads of male...

Omt

Goodrich Company, 4 693 B-52s (musical group), 5 870 BabyGap, 5 970 Babylonians, 1 49-50, 53, 55, 63, 66, 84 Backpack purses, 5 1006-7, 1006 (ill.) Bacon, Sir Francis, 3 488 (ill.) Baggy jeans, 5 982-83 Baldric, 3 515-16 Balenciaga, Cristobal, 5 849, 878 Bali Company, 5 996 Bandhani, 5 930 Bangladesh, 1 72 Bara, Theda, 4 763 Barbarians, 2 275-90 287 (ill.) clothing, 2 281-83, 282 (ill.) culture, 2 275-79, 277 (ill.) footwear, 2 289-90, 289 (ill.) headwear, 2 285-86 Barbe, 3 458, 459...

The Betsy

A ruffled collar of gathered lace, the betsy, also spelled betsey and betsie, of the early 1800s was an updated variation on the starched linen ruff that had been popular during the sixteenth century. When the ruff reappeared in early nineteenth century England, it was smaller and simpler, a strip of lace gathered and tied around the neck with a drawstring. Its unmistakable resemblance to the tall ruff worn by Queen Elizabeth (1533 1603) gave the betsy its name, after Beth or Bets, nicknames...

Footwear 194660

Men s shoes did not go through a great deal of change in the fifteen years following the end of World War II (1939 45). During the late 1940s, while Bold Look, or showy, fashions were in style, there was a brief preference for thicker-soled, heavier shoes to accompany the bolder cuts and colors in men's suits. By the 1950s, however, as suit styles became more conservative, men turned to lighter soled, traditionally cut dress shoe styles such as moccasins, wing tips, or bluchers, heavy,...

Bloomers

Long, loose pants that are gathered at the ankle, bloomers were worn by women during the nineteenth century both as outerwear and as underwear. Bloomers were part of a movement toward more practical clothing for women, and soon became closely identified with suffragists (women working for women's right to vote) and feminists (women working to improve the status of women). Many men were angry with the suffragists, and did not like women wearing pants, so they often ridiculed the new bloomer...

Mandarin Shirt

Female Loincloth Costume

What westerners now call a mandarin shirt is actually a form of dress that dates back to the ancient Han dynasty (207 b.c.e. 200 c.e.) in China. At that time it was called the ju and was characterized by its high round neckline that was fastened off center. It was characteristically worn with a pleated skirt called a chun that was also fastened off center. Ancient and modern mandarin shirts are very fitted to the body and are closed on the right side of the neckline and shoulder. They In their...

Stola

The stola was the staple garment of the married woman in ancient Rome. It was a long gown, generally sleeveless, that hung nearly to the feet. The stola was generally worn over a tunica intima, a light inner shirt. It was often fastened at the shoulders by small clasps called fibulae. The stola was typically worn with two belts one fastened just below the breasts, creating blousy folds, and another wider belt fastened around the waist. The stola could have several forms of decoration. A stola...

For More Information

Fashion From Ancient Egypt to the Present Day. Edited by James Laver. New York Odyssey Press, 1965. Symons, David J. Costume of Ancient Rome. New York Chelsea House, 1987. Yates, James. Pallium. Smith's Dictionary Articles on Clothing and Adornment. (accessed on July 24, 2003). See also Volume 1, Ancient Greece Himation Volume 1, Ancient Rome Stola

Rams Horn Headdress

Wealthy Europeans in the Middle Ages (c. 500-c. 1500) loved headwear. They wore coverings on their head almost all the time, and over time they developed styles of headwear that were large and sculpted. Along with the steeple headdress, the ram's horn headdress, also known as the horned hennin, was one of the more extravagant headdresses from late in the Middle Ages. The ram's horn headdress got its name from the two sculpted horns that stuck out from either side of the temple. These horns, or...

Bonnets

Woman Covering Her Body Drawing

A red spoon bonnet in the lower, left corner. Designed to protect the head and hair from sun, wind, and rain, bonnets did not sit on top of the head, but fit around the head, usually tying under the chin with long, decorative ribbons. Reproduced by permission of Historical Picture Archive CORBIS. instead of a brim, was a piece of fabric called a curtain, which protected the wearer's neck. A bonnet's primary function was to cover a woman's head and even part of her face, both for modesty and to...

And Incas

I eople in Central and South America went barefoot most of the time. The warm climate did not require clothing for warmth. However, foot coverings did make the rugged terrain easier to manage. Mayan, Aztec, and Inca royalty and soldiers wore various styles of sandals. Typically these sandals were made of leather from a goat, llama, or sheep, or from plant fibers and tied to the foot with leather or woven fabric straps. The Incas wore an unusual type of sandal called usuta, which had a short...

Footwear of Early Asian Cultures

Chinese Shoes That Deformed Feet

I he Chinese were one of the first ancient peoples to develop a wide range of footwear. Shoes made from woven and stitched straw have been dated to about 5000 b.c.e. and tanned leather footwear with stitching has been dated to about 2000 b.c.e. Given the wide ranges of climate found in China, the types of shoes worn varied considerably by region. People in the warmer coastal areas wore straw sandals, while those in the colder mountainous regions wore thick leather shoes and knee-length boots....

Mesopotamian Body Decorations

Many different ethnic groups lived in Mesopotamia, the region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in present-day Iraq, between 3000 b.c.e. and 300 b.c.e. Among the most prominent were the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Persians. Clothing historians have studied carved statues, the artifacts of royal tombs, and written tablets that show and describe the decorative accessories these people wore. While slaves and the poorest people wore simple, functional clothes, the...

Cordoba Leather Gloves

Among the many accessories that both men and women might carry in the sixteenth century were finely made Cordoba leather gloves. People carried a variety of gloves during the time period, including gloves made from leather, suede (leather with a rough surface), or kid (the skin of a young goat), but the most prized gloves were made of leather from Cordoba, Spain. Cordoba had been a center for leather tanning since the eighth century c.e., and it was known for the outstanding quality of its...

Casula

The casula was a versatile outer garment worn in Rome from about 200 b.c.e. and, in modified forms, is still in use throughout the world today. The casula, which means little house, was a large rectangular or oval piece of fabric, usually made of wool, into the center of which was cut a hole for the head. This poncho-like garment slipped over the head and protected the user from bad weather, what some may consider an early version of the raincoat. It was often made of a dark color and extended...

P

W eople took great care covering their feet during the seventeenth century. Fashionable footwear changed shape during the century, and middle-class and wealthy people eagerly purchased the new shoe styles in order to remain in fashion. Shoes and boots continued to be made on straight lasts, the basic sole pattern, so that a shoe would fit either foot. However, significant changes were made to shoe fastenings, toe shape, sole height, and the decorations applied to the upper, or tops of shoes. By...

Jewelry

Body Decorations Mayans

The jewelry worn by the Mayan, Aztec, and Inca people was rich in variety and quite beautiful. Without metalworking skills, Mayans made jewelry from many other materials. Mayan men wore nose ornaments, earplugs, and lip plugs made of bone, wood, shells, and stones, including jade, topaz, and obsidian. Necklaces, bracelets, BODY DECORATIONS OF MAYANS, AZTECS, AND INCAS Map of the Americas showing the Mesoamerican civilizations of the Middle Ages Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas. Reproduced by...

Xqm

A & P grocery stores, 4 723 A la Belle Poule, 3 576-78 Abaya. See Burka Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem, 5 938 Accessories. See also Gloves Jewelry 1900-1918, 4 705 1946-1960, 5 867 eighteenth century, 3 583 nineteenth century, 3 645 seventeenth century, 3 535 sixteenth century, 3 493-94 Adidas, 4 716 5 918 Adrian, Gilbert, 4 784 Advertising, 3 602 5 978 Africa, 2 407-43 body decorations, 2 433-42, 434 (ill.), 435 (ill.), 439 (ill.), 441 (ill.) clothing, 2 329-30, 332, 413-27, 414 (ill.), 417 (ill.),...

Footwear of Native American Cultures

The North American continent has been occupied since 10,000 b.c.e. and active civilizations have been recorded across the continent as far back as 3,000 b.c.e. The continent's wide variety of climates required the people living in different regions to wear different footwear. For the most part, the inhabitants of the southern regions and the temperate regions of the north preferred to go barefoot, even in the snow. Footwear was used, however, especially for traveling. Crude sandals made from...

Animal Skins

Animal hides have been a traditional clothing material used by many cultures in Africa, likely since the dawn of human history. Animal hide clothing was made most often from the skins of domesticated animals. Both farming and nomadic societies prized livestock, and they cared for their animals carefully. Their cattle, goats, sheep, and camels were sources of food and clothing, as well as great symbols of wealth. Other groups hunted wild animals for their meat and hides. To prepare an animal...

Foot Binding and Lotus Shoes

For over a thousand years, tiny feet were symbols of feminine beauty, elegance, and sexuality in China. In order to achieve the goal of tiny three-inch lotus feet (the lotus was a kind of flower), most young Chinese girls had their feet bound tightly with strips of cloth to prevent growth. Once the process was completed, the deformed feet were placed into beautiful, embroidered lotus shoes, tiny pointed slippers that were made especially for bound feet. Though no one knows exactly when foot...

Sandals

While the men living in the Sumerian (3000-2000 b.c.e.), the Akkadian (2350-2218 b.c.e.), and the Babylonian (1894-1595 b.c.e.) empires of Mesopotamia, the region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in present-day Iraq, went barefoot all the time, Assyrian men began to wear sandals for everyday use around 911 b.c.e. Showing these changes are sculptures and bas-reliefs, or wall carvings, from the time period depicting men with foot coverings. The evidence suggests that all men went barefoot...

Usuta

Usuta, the unique footwear of the Incas, were a type of sandal worn by both men and women. The soles of usuta covered the bottom of the foot but ended at the balls of the foot. This left the toes exposed to help grip the ground of the mountainous terrain where the Incas lived. The soles of usuta were made from the un-tanned, or untreated, skin from the necks of sheep. Because the un-tanned usuta soles became soft in water, Incas removed their usuta in wet weather. Usuta were attached to the...

Fragrant Oils and Ointments

I he Egyptians, write fashion historians Michael and Ariane Batterberry in Fashion The Mirror of History, were as clean as any people in history. They bathed regularly, shaved their bodies of any excess hair, including that on the head, and used fragrant oils and ointments to keep their skin smooth and sweet smelling. The first female queen of Egypt, Queen Netocris, who is believed to have ruled around 2170 b.c.e., recommended regular bathing and scrubbing with a paste of clay and ashes. To...

Knot

Was piled neatly in a bun on top of the head and small ringlets fell beside the temples to frame the face. The style reflected the trend in the early nineteenth century to wear Greek-inspired dress styles and hair ornaments called sphendone and wreaths. Women either used their own hair or false hair pieces to create Apollo knots. Sometimes they decorated the front of their Apollo knots with decorative combs. Laver, James. Costume and Fashion A Concise History. 4th ed. London, England Thames and...

Index

Italic type indicates volume number boldface type indicates main entries and then page numbers (ill.) indicates photos and illustrations. 707 (ill.), 710 (ill.) clothing, 4 663-93, 665 (ill.), 669 (ill.), 676 (ill.), 678 (ill.), 681 (ill.), 685 (ill.), 687 (ill.), 689 (ill.), 692 (ill.) culture, 4 659-62 footwear, 4 713-19, 715 (ill.), 717 (ill.) headwear, 4 695-704, 697 (ill.), 700 (ill.), 701 (ill.), 703 (ill.) body decorations, 4 763-71, 764 (ill.), 767 (ill.), 769 (ill.) clothing, 4 725-49,...

Schenti

The schenti, or kilt, was the basic garment of the Egyptian nobleman, or upper class, from the earliest days of the Old Kingdom (c. 2700-c. 2000 b.c.e.) all the way through the New Kingdom (c. 1500-c. 750 b.c.e.). At its most basic, the schenti was a rectangular piece of cloth, wrapped around the hips and held in place by tucking one end into the tightly wrapped waist or by wearing a tied belt. Evidence of the schenti comes from the many hieroglyphs, or picture drawings, that appear in the...

Egyptian Footwear

or more than half of the recorded history of ancient Egypt there is almost no record of the use of footwear. The main source of evidence for this period, the pictorial stories found in tombs known as hieroglyphs, showed every class of person, from the ruling pharaoh (king or queen), to the lowly worker, going barefoot. This may not mean that people never wore some foot protection, but it does seem to indicate that footwear was of very little importance. Historians are not sure why sandals were...

Puka Chokers

Surfer Fashion The 1960s

Strings of white puka shell beads emerged as a teen fashion trend in the early 1970s. Puka shells are the leftover parts from the shell of the cone snail found on beaches in Hawaii. The empty conical shells, closed at the larger end, are swept back into the surf. In Strings of puka shells being sold as souvenirs in Hawaii. Traditional garb for Hawaiians, the shells were worn by surfers in the 1960s and fashion trendsetters in the 1970s. Reproduced by permission of Tim Thompson CORBIS. the waves...

Sixteenth Century Body Decorations

The personal grooming habits of people in the sixteenth century seem strange to us today. On the one hand, wealthy people took great care with their hairstyles and, in the case of women, with their makeup. On the other hand, the practice of bathing was infrequent among even the wealthiest people and quite rare among the poorer classes. Europeans in the sixteenth century simply misunderstood the nature of disease and believed that they could get sick if they used water to clean themselves....

Tailored Suit for Women

Tailored Suit Woman

A t the turn of the twentieth century tailored suits for women, consisting of a matching or coordinated jacket and skirt, were popular outfits for office work, afternoon social visits, travel, and leisure activities such as walking. For the first few decades of the 1900s, tailored suits were made up of loose-fitting waist-length or hip-length A woman wearing a tailored suit belted, below the knee, and de-emphasizing the female form. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann CORBIS. A woman wearing a...

Body painting

Less permanent decorations, such as body paint, were donned for special occasions to mark the status of the wearer. Mayan warriors painted their faces and bodies with black and red colors, and priests painted themselves blue. Although many Aztec women just emphasized keeping themselves clean, others, such as the most fashion-conscious women and the companions of warriors, smoothed yellow earth or a yellow wax on their faces, dyed their feet, and painted their hands and neck with intricate...

Middle Ages

The Middle Ages (c. 500 c. 1500) were a time when people in Europe did less to adorn themselves than at any period in history. The civilizations that developed in Europe following the collapse of the Roman Empire in 476 c.e. inherited their decorative traditions not from the Romans, who had loved jewelry and decoration, but from the crude barbarian groups, or tribes, that had helped bring about the downfall of Rome. The Catholic religion that developed in Europe also frowned on excessive...

Where to Learn More

The following list of resources focuses on material appropriate for middle school or high school students. Please note that Web site addresses were verified prior to publication but are subject to change. Batterberry, Michael, and Ariane Batterberry. Fashion The Mirror of History. New York Greenwich House, 1977. Bigelow, Marybelle S. Fashion in History Apparel in the Western World. Minneapolis, MN Burgess Publishing, 1970. Boucher, Fran ois. 20,000 Years of Fashion The History of Costume and...

Calceus

The calceus was the first shoe in history to look like modern dress shoes. A special type of calceus had been worn by Etruscan kings, who ruled parts of the Italian peninsula before the Romans. In common usage beginning in the Roman Republic (509 27 b.c.e.), the calceus had a leather upper secured to a sole that could be made of leather or wood. Calcei (the plural of calceus) were worn outside with the toga, the traditional outer garment worn by Roman citizens. Along with the solea, or sandal,...

Fibulae

Body Decoration

A ncient Greeks fastened their clothes with fibulae. Fibulae, which resembled safety pins, secured the large panels of fabric that Greeks draped around their bodies. Although they began as a necessity for holding clothing in place, fibulae later became decorative fashion items. The first fibulae were carved from the leg bones of birds, which some scholars believe to be the source of the pins' name since fibula is also the name used for a particular leg bone. The earliest metal fibulae date back...

Clothing of Oceania

Maloriof New Zealand

The sunny climate of Oceania did not require people to wear bulky clothing for warmth. The inhabitants of the more than thirty thousand islands exposed most, or all, of their bodies. Men and boys went about naked, and women often wore only a skirt made of plant fibers or grasses around their waists. Instead of clothes, the peoples of Oceania developed intricate and meaningful body decoration traditions. Weaving developed in the Philippines and other parts of Oceania in 2000 b.c.e. Although...

Signet Ring

The most important piece of jewelry for men during the Roman Empire (27 b.c.e.-476 c.e.) was a signet ring, also called a seal ring. Signet rings were first made out of iron but later came to be made more commonly of gold, especially for government officials and honored military men. The center of the signet ring held a stone ornament. The stone, engraved with the wearer's initials and sometimes decorated with a picture, such as the head of the Greek hero Hercules, was used to stamp the...

Hair Coloring

From as early as the founding of the Roman Empire in 27 b.c.e. women have been known to color their hair. Blonde has often been the most sought after color, perhaps because it resembles gold, perhaps because it is the least common natural color. Europeans in the sixteenth century were no different, though they did pursue new ways to lighten their hair. Women living in the Italian city of Venice in the late sixteenth century were known to sit all day in the blazing sun wearing a special...

Pumps

Alligator Hide Pumps

Pumps, low-cut, slip-on shoes, developed from the shoes worn at royal courts in Europe in the 1870s and have been popular in a variety of versions ever since. The earliest varieties had thick one- to two-inch heels. But after World War II (1939-45) women embraced ultrafeminine styles and wore pumps with higher, slimmer heels. By the 1950s women teetered on pointy-toed pumps with four-inch-high stiletto heels. But throughout the 1960s and 1970s pumps became more practical for walking, with...

Cameo

19th Century Fashion Costume For Men

A cameo is a kind of jewelry produced by artisans, or craftsmen, who engrave a bas-relief, or raised, image on a range of single-colored or multicolored materials. In the eighteenth century cameos were made of onyx, sardonyx, ivory, agate, coral, seashell, lava, and glass. If the substance was multicolored, one color was uncovered and became a background for the image engraved on the second color. During the eighteenth century, cameos came in all sizes and shapes occasionally they were made of...

Gloves

Gloves as a fashion accessory, rather than as a necessity to keep the hands warm, date to about the twelfth or thirteenth century, late in the Middle Ages (c. 500-c. 1500). For years people had worn crude mittens, perhaps lined with fur, when working outdoors, but sewing techniques were not developed enough to allow for the delicate stitches that were needed between fingers. In fact, most people kept the hands warm by wrapping them in the excess fabric of their baggy sleeves. Beginning in the...

Permanent decorations

Some body decorations were permanent. The Mayans squeezed the skulls of the most privileged infants between two boards to elongate and flatten their heads and tried to promote crossed eyes by hanging a ball from children's bangs in the center of their forehead. Mayan kings and noblemen, or aristocrats, bored holes in their front teeth and inserted decorative pieces of stone, especially green jade and glossy black obsidian, which comes from hardened molten lava. All Mayans filed points on their...

Prehistoric Headwear

Evidence concerning the way early man clothed and decorated his body has lasted for thousands of years, but very little has been discovered about how early humans cared for or styled their hair. Even the best-preserved bodies of ancient man reveal nothing about how hair was worn. Rock paintings from the years 15,000 to 10,000 b.c.e. found in caves in France and southern Spain show no specific hairstyles, nor do rock paintings found in the African Sahara dating from 7000 to 6000 b.c.e. Most...

Tunic

Tunics were sometimes worn by the men of Mayan, Aztec, and Inca cultures. Made of a woven rectangle of cotton, wool, or plant fiber fabric with a hole in the center for the head, tunics resembled loose, sleeveless pullover shirts that hung from the shoulders to within a few inches above or below the knee. Tunics were either left open at the sides or sewn leaving holes near the top fold for the arms to slip through. Tunics could hang freely or be wrapped at the waist with a sash. Most often worn...

Aztecs and Incas

The early civilizations of Central and South America paid careful attention to their personal cleanliness and created many different ornaments to beautify the body. Decoration among all Central and South American groups indicated social rank. The Aztecs took this idea very seriously and punished anyone wearing an article of clothing or decoration above his birthright or honorary right with death. Before adorning themselves, the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas all cleaned themselves thoroughly....

Pajamas

Body Decoration

Pajamas could be made out of expensive fabrics such as silk and were popular attire for lounging at the beach. Reproduced by permission of John Springer Collection CORBIS. ajamas were loungewear and sleepwear that consisted of pants and jacket tops. The word derived from two Hindi terms pa(y), for leg, and jamah, for garment. It entered the English language around 1880 as pyjamas, after the British colonized India, where Hindi was spoken. Americans adopted the term from the British as pajamas....

Purses

O ne of the most used fashion accessories in history traces its beginnings to the Middle Ages (c. 500 c. 1500). It was sometime during this period that men began to wear small leather bags with their garments. These bags either fastened directly to the belts that were worn with most medieval garments, or they were tied to the belt with a loop of string or a leather strap that was fastened to the purse. What is known about purses is depicted on the tapestries and statues from the period as there...

Eighteenth Century Body Decorations

Eighteenth Century Fashions For Men

Lany of the body decorations and accessories of the seventeenth century continued into the eighteenth century. Women and some men made their faces pale with white makeup made from lead powder, a corrosive substance that led to health problems for many and death for some. Red cheeks were also quite fashionable. Wealthy people used rouge made of crushed red beetles, called cochineals, on their cheeks. Others dabbed berry juice on their cheeks. In addition, women and some men continued to paste...

Beards

When it came to the wearing of facial hair, Roman men went through several shifts in style over the long history of their civilization. From the founding of Rome in 753 b.c.e. until about 300 b.c.e., all men wore long beards and long hair. In a way, they had no choice, for razors hadn't been invented. Then, in about 300 b.c.e., a barber from the island of Sicily introduced the razor and everything changed. For the next several hundred years Roman men followed a simple rule about facial hair...

Headdresses

Headdresses were usually made from the fur and feathers of sacred animals and were thought to give the power of the animals to the person wearing the headdress. Reproduced by permission of Bowers Museum of Cultural Art CORBIS. The tall, feathered headdress has come to be one of the most recognizable symbols of the Native American people of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Books and movies about Indians often picture them wearing the large feathered headdresses that...

Fifteenth Century Footwear

Europeans wore a wide variety of footwear during the fifteenth century, from simple pull-on leather moccasins to highly decorated poulaines, extremely long, pointed shoes. Shoes were generally made of leather, with either wood or leather for soles. They might be held to the foot with laces or with buckles. Working people generally wore heavier leather shoes and boots, but the upper classes, who provide most of the information about clothing styles since they were the ones who often left the...

Greek Footwear

E arly Minoan and Mycenaean men and women living between about 3000 b.c.e. and 1200 b.c.e. mostly went barefoot, but they did have a variety of sandals, shoes, and boots for outdoor wear. Early Greeks living between about 800 b.c.e. and 146 b.c.e. followed this tradition as well. All classes of Greeks went barefoot when indoors, removing their shoes when entering a house or temple. The proof of these practices has been discovered by archeologists, scientists who study the physical remains of...

To Ruin 190018

He first two decades of the twentieth century saw dramatic changes in the political, social, and economic life in the West. The prosperity that characterized life at the turn of the twentieth century was largely the result of industrialization, a long historic process that had introduced factory production to many major industries, including mining, manufacturing, and the production of clothing. Industrialization had brought great wealth to the major powers of the world, making England,...

Fringe

A cross all the civilizations living in Mesopotamia (the region centered in present-day Iraq near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers) from 3000 to 300 b.c.e., fringe was a popular and important decorative adornment for the clothing of both men and women. It is believed that fringe was worn by all classes of people. The evidence for how fringe was used and what it looked like is found on sculptures, statues, and described in the writings left by these civilizations. Fringe adorned the two most...

Peg Top Clothing

The great fashion shift of 1908 brought important changes to both men's and women's silhouettes, the outline of the body that is the basic form of a new style. One of the most important changes was the introduction of a tapered look from the hips to the ankles. Before 1908, for example, the silhouette for women called for an S-shape, with protruding breasts and buttocks, and bulky, flowing skirts. After 1908 the silhouette became much more natural, with clothes staying closer to the actual...

Slippers

After the French Revolution (1789-99), people began to reject obvious signs of wealth. The large buckles and elaborate patterned silk shoes of earlier days were replaced with simple, plain flat-soled slippers. Slippers were made of thin kid, the skin of a baby goat, or cloth. The toes of slippers were either pointed or rounded, and the throat of the shoe, or the opening at the top of the foot, was cut into a U or V shape. The throat was left plain or a small bow was added. Slippers were often...

Scarification

Scarification was one of the many ways the people of Oceania adorned their bodies. Like tattooing, scarification permanently marked the body. Designs were cut into the skin and, when healed, the design remained as a deep or raised scar. To raise a scar, the skin at the bottom of the cut was scratched or irritated with charcoal or some other substance. To the peoples of Oceania, scarification marked a person's ability to endure pain and symbolized their membership in society. Both men and women...

Furs

Oleg Cassini Fur Coats

People have worn animal furs since the dawn of time. The earliest known hunters and trappers captured and killed animals not only to provide themselves and their families with food, but to stitch together the fur the thick, smooth, hairy coat of animal skin to make warm clothing. People soon developed other fabrics that provided warmth, yet at certain times in human history fur became a fashion statement, indicating great wealth and luxury. A fur coat, wrap, hat, or stole might be made of the...

Cloaks

Cloaks are among the most common garment in human clothing history cultures across time and the globe have used cloaks to keep warm. Blanket-like cloaks were worn by both men and women of the Mayan, Aztec, and Inca empires. Each empire used a different name for their cloaks, and often cloaks worn by men had different names than those worn by women. Mayan men wore cloaks called pati, which were cloths tied around the shoulders. The pati of poor Mayans were plain cotton cloaks, but the...

Uttariya

Both men and women covered their upper bodies in ancient India with a garment called an uttariya. An uttariya was an unsewn cloth or scarf. Made commonly of cotton, the uttariya could also be made of animal skin, linen, or for the wealthiest people silk. Some writings from early India, written in the ancient Sanskrit language, refer to garments being made of the bark of the tree of paradise or the filaments of lotus flowers. The uttariya always accompanied other garments. Men wore them with a...

The Incas

The Inca empire spanned a large portion of South America by the late 1400s c.e. Although many different cultures prospered in the South American Andes Mountains before 3000 b.c.e., the Incas developed their distinctive culture beginning in 1200 c.e. and by 1471 became the largest empire in South America, reigning over a region that stretched from modern-day Ecuador to Chile. Incas built roads, developed trade, created stone architecture, made beautifully worked gold art and jewelry, became...

Bulla

Both rich and poor Roman parents hung a bulla around their newborn child's neck to protect him or her from misfortune or injury. A bulla could be as simple as a knotted string of cheap leather or as elaborate as a finely made chain necklace holding a golden locket containing a charm thought to have protective qualities. Girls wore their bullas until their wedding day and boys wore theirs until they became citizens (full members of society) at age sixteen. Some men, such as generals, would wear...

E

I uropean history in the seventeenth century was dominated on the one hand by the rise of France as the greatest power in the region, and on the other hand by the great fight for political power that occurred between the monarch and the governing body of Parliament in England. These were the great social issues of the age, and they had a great influence on the way people lived and dressed. More subtle historical changes, such as the growth of the middle class and the growing differences between...

Mzu

Bias cut A fabric cut diagonally across the weave to create a softly draped garment. Bodice The part of a woman's garment that covers her torso from neck to waist. Bombast Padding used to increase the width or add bulk to the general silhouette of a garment. Brim The edge of a hat that projects outward away from the head. Brocade A fabric woven with a raised pattern over the entire surface. Collar The part of a shirt that surrounds the neck. Crown The portion of a hat that covers the top of the...

Jutti

The jutti is a shoe worn by men, women, and children throughout India. Most often made of leather from the hide of buffalo, camels, or cows, juttis can also have uppers, or the tops of the shoe, formed from other textiles. Juttis are heavily decorated with cotton, silk, or golden embroidery and sometimes wool pompons, or tufts of material. The jutti is identified by its pointed toe and flat, straight sole that does not distinguish between left or right foot. The shoe can have a closed or open...

Caps

Small white caps made of linen or cotton and edged with lace were quite popular among women and young girls during the early eighteenth century. Two fashionable styles were a mobcap, which covered the head with a puffed white crown bordered by a lace edge, and a round-eared cap, which curved around the head to cover the ears and was edged with lace or ruffles. Both cap types had long fabric streamers called lappets that were left to hang down the back, tied under the chin, or pinned up on top...

Watches

Ancient Timepieces

A watch is a portable timepiece, most commonly carried in a pocket or strapped on the wrist. Pocket watches can be as large as three inches in diameter, while wristwatches are smaller, so that they do not interfere with the wearer's movement. Though they are usually worn for practical reasons, so that the wearer can keep track of the time, watches are also pieces of jewelry, which express the wearer's wealth, social status, and sense of style. Watches have become not only treasured family...

Headwear 19802003

The early 1980s brought a return of interest in high fashion after the comfort trend of the 1970s, which saw many people rejecting designer clothing. Fashion designers became celebrities by marketing collections of ready-to-wear (off-the-rack) clothing, cosmetics, and accessories to the huge middle class. Hairstylists became similarly celebrated, creating looks for film stars and television actors and then marketing hair care products for the general public. The wealthy also continued to...

Nineteenth Century Industrialization

He nineteenth century witnessed an amazing transformation in the political and economic life of Europeans and Americans alike. During the first decade of the century almost all of Europe was under the power of France's ruler, Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 1821), or other members of his family who controlled the outer regions of the empire. With widespread support for overturning the old systems of Europe, Napoleon had built a vast French empire. Although Napoleon was defeated in 1814 at Waterloo and...

Tattooing

Pricking The Body Tattooing

Tattoos in Oceania, etched forever in the skin, signified a person's position in society, helped ward off evil spirits, and were a way to beautify and decorate the body. Reproduced by permission of Anders Ryman CORBIS. Tattoos in Oceania, etched forever in the skin, signified a person's position in society, helped ward off evil spirits, and were a way to beautify and decorate the body. Reproduced by permission of Anders Ryman CORBIS. The inhabitants of the Marquesas Islands appeared to be...

Bathing Costumes

1920s Bathing Costumes

The development of special clothing for swimming went through important changes during the 1800s and early 1900s. Though people of various cultures had bathed in oceans, rivers, and lakes for centuries, the nineteenth century saw a dramatic rise in the popularity of swimming as a recreational activity. Late in the eighteenth century, scientists had learned more about the causes of disease which in turn rid the Western world of a fear of bathing, and people began to embrace the water as a...