S

Sabrina, 4 784 Sack gown, 3 572 Sack suit, 4 683-84 911 (ill.), 920, 926, 929 Sainte-Marie, Buffy, 5 909 Sakkos and sphendone, 1 142 Salville Row, 4 786 Samite, 2 262-63, 270 Samoa, 2 341 (ill.) Samurai, 2 208-9, 209 (ill.), 215 Sandals, 1 46-47, 46 (ill.), 65 (ill.), 66-67, 157-58, 158 (ill.). See also Footwear 1919-1929, 4 773 African, 2 443 Birkenstocks, 5 957, 958-60, 959 (ill.) Egyptian, 1 46-47, 46 (ill.) Greek, 1 157-58, 158 (ill.) Mesopotamian, 1 65 (ill.), 66-67 Native American, 2 385...

T

Tabard, 2 309-10, 309 (ill.) Tabis, 2 252-53, 252 (ill.) Taffeta, 4 730 Tahiti, 2 331 (ill.) Tailored suit for women, 4 747-49, 748 (ill.) 5 972 Tailor-mades, 4 685-86 Tailors, 2 298-300 4 794 Taj Mahal, 1 70 (ill.) Takada, Kenzo, 5 979 Tang dynasty, 2 231, 247 Tanning, 5 953-56, 954 (ill.), 1011 Tapesties, 2 294 (ill.) Target, 5 979 Tattooing, 2 244-46, 343, 343 (ill.), 346-47, 346 (ill.), 377-78, 381-82 5 1012-13, 1012 (ill.) Asian, 2 244-46 henna, 1 99 Mayans, 2 401 Native American, 2...

Veu

519-20, 520 (ill.) Fanny Farmer candy stores, 4 723 Fans, 2 240-41, 241 (ill.) 3 497, 539, 539 (ill.), 645 Farrah Fawcett look, 5 935, 939-40, 939 (ill.) Farthingales, 3 476-77 Fashion The Mirror of History, 1 22-23, 39, 180 2 293 3 471 5 852 563 (ill.) Fashion industry, 4 663-64. See also specific styles and designers Fashion magazines, 3 512 4 784 Fashions in Hair, 2 285 3 490, 533 4 695, 751, 818, 820 Fasteners. See Zippers Fawcett, Farrah, 5 935, 939-40, 939 (ill.) Fearn, John, 2 334...

Info

Van Mander Karel Painting

Neckwear was an important component of dress for both men and women in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and they devised many ways to decorate the neck. Most popular in the sixteenth century were the ruff, a stiffly frilled collar that encircled the neck, and the whisk, a wide fanned collar around the back of the neck. By the mid-seventeenth century, when clothing styles were more subtle and understated, the band was more popular and it came in two primary styles the standing band and...

B

Backpack Purses 5 1006 515 752 459 Barbershops 4 698 Bases 3 473 Bathing Costumes 3 608 Beaded Handbags 4 707 435 Beards 1 185 Beehives and Bouffants 5 869 902 Berber Dress 2 421 Beret 2 312 853 Birkenstocks 5 958 361 300 Bloomers (Nineteenth Century) 3 611 Bloomers (1900-18) 4 668 Body Painting (Oceania) 2 344 Body Painting (African Cultures) 2 436 Bold Look 5 855 473 Boots (Ancient Greece) 1 156 Boots (Seventeenth Century) 3 546 Boots (Nineteenth Century) 3 654 Boubou 2 422 Bowl Haircut 2 313...

U

Association), 5 983 The Unbelievables, 3 571, 583 Underwear. See also Bloomers Brassiere Calvin Klein, 5 977 for men, 4 690-91 subligaculum, 1 177 undershirts, 4 785 Underwear for men, 4 690-91 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 5 842, 843, 889, 969, 971 Union suits, 4 690 Unitas, Johnny, 5 871 (ill.) United Cerebral Palsy Association (UCPA), 5 983 United States. See specific time periods also Oxfords Urban Cowboy, 5 1017 Usuta, 2 406 Utility clothing, British, 4 799, 800

Revised

C. 476 Upper-class men, and sometimes women, in the Byzantine Empire (476-1453 c.e.) wear a long, flowing robe-like overgarment called a dalmatica developed from the tunic. c. 900 Young Chinese girls tightly bind their feet to keep them small, a sign of beauty for a time in Chinese culture. The practice was outlawed in 1911. c. 1100-1500 The cote, a long robe worn by both men and women, and its descendant, the cotehardie, are among the most common garments of the late Middle Ages. 1392 Kimonos...

Top

Nineteen Century Men Riding Apparal

Introduced during the early 1800s, the top hat became the most common men's hat of the nineteenth century. Worn by men of all classes, for all occasions, at any time of day, the top hat was a narrow-brimmed silk hat with a tall, straight crown and a flat top. Formal, dramatic, and imposing, the top hat represented much of the spirit of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, in which middle class and wealthy Europeans focused on elegance and formality in their dress and manners. The...

Steeple Headdress

Body Decoration

The steeple headdress, which became popular among women in France and then throughout Europe in the fourteenth century, was one of the most distinctive forms of headwear worn in human Mary of Burgundy, standing center, wears a tall steeple headdress draped in a long veil. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann CORBIS. Mary of Burgundy, standing center, wears a tall steeple headdress draped in a long veil. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann CORBIS. history. The steeple headdress began simply as...

W

Walking sticks, 3 593-94, 593 (ill.) War of the Spanish Succession, 3 553 Warner Brothers Corset Company, 4 671 Watches, 3 585-86, 583 (ill.), 648 4 709-11, 710 (ill.) Wealth, 1 161-63 3 469-71 Weatherproof clothing driving clothes and, 4 674-75 trench coats, 4 688-90 Weaving, 2 337 Weejuns, 4 839 Weismuller, Johnny, 4 806 Welch, Raquel, 5 855 Western dress. See also specific Western countries Africa, 2 411, 411 (ill.), 443 Native Americans, 2 358 Western Europe, 2 277 (ill.). See also Europe,...

Kabuki Makeup

Kabuki Makeup Fashion

ICabuki is a style of traditional Japanese theater that includes music, dance, and drama. First performed by females, after 1629 BODY DECORATIONS OF EARLY ASIAN CULTURES 241 only male actors could take part in Kabuki, and they played both the male and female characters. Kabuki characters are often drawn from Japanese folklore, and a major part of the Kabuki performance is the dramatic makeup worn by the actors. This makeup is applied heavily to create a brightly painted mask that uses colors in...

Asian Cultures

W W hile both Chinese and Japanese cultures have some interesting and even spectacular traditions of body decoration, what is perhaps most striking is how little these early Asian cultures depended upon ornament. Both cultures valued simplicity. They did not wear large amounts of jewelry, nor did they have complicated ways of painting their faces with makeup. They did, however, have particular items of their overall costume that allowed for more display. Most of their body decoration customs...

Ddw

Calceus, 1 198, 199-200 California Native Americans, 2 352 Calvin Klein. See Klein, Calvin Calvin Klein Limited, 5 977 Cameo, 3 584-85 Cameo and Intaglio, 1 146 See also Walking sticks Canute (King of Denmark), 2 278, 282 (ill.) Capes, Coats and, 3 559-60 Caps, 3 578-79. See also Headwear deerstalker, 3 635-36, 635 (ill.) 4 678 fez, 2 430-31, 430 (ill.) Phrygian, 1 139-41, 140 (ill.) 2 266 Capucci, Roberto, 5 849 Cardin, Pierre, 5 898, 904, 920 Carey, Mariah, 5 913 Carmichael, Stokely, 5 938...

Aso Oke Cloth

A so oke cloth is an intricately woven cloth used for ceremonial garments. Made by the Yoruba men of Nigeria, Aso oke cloth is decorated with elaborate patterns made from dyed strands of fabric that are woven into strips of cloth. These strips of cloth are sewn together to form larger pieces. Some Aso oke cloth, called prestige cloth, has a lace-like appearance with intricate open patterns. Patterns and colors used for Aso oke cloth have special meanings. A purplish-red colored dye called...

Batik Cloth

Body Decoration

Batik cloth has been important in Africa for nearly two thousand years. Batik is a method of applying pattern to fabric. A resist-dyeing technique, batik involves coating fabric with a dye-resistant substance and submerging the fabric in colored dye. Typically the dye-resistant substance is made of the cassava root or rice flour and the chemicals alum, a type of salt found in the earth, or copper sulfate, a naturally occurring mineral. The substance is boiled with water to make a thick paste....

So

France Clothing The 1700s

A model wearing a hip-hugging corduroy skirt at a 1966 fashion show. First popular during the 1700s, corduroy was again trendy during the 1960s and 1970s. Reproduced of AP Wide World Photos. > ometimes called the poor man's velvet, corduroy is a soft, durable fabric that has been popular among people of all classes for almost two centuries. Usually made of cotton or cotton blended with such man-made fabrics as rayon and polyester, corduroy is woven with loose threads that are then cut to...

Fifteenth Century Body Decorations

The fifteenth century was a time of transition in the ways that people ornamented their bodies. The use of jewelry and accessories became more and more prevalent and showy over the course of the century, reflecting the growing richness of the various kingdoms of Europe and paving the way for the absolute excess of display that occurred in the sixteenth century. As in the early Middle Ages (c. 500-c. 1500), bathing was not a regular practice throughout most of Europe, except for in Italy....

India

Choli Dhoti and Lungi 80 Punjabi Modern Islamic Dress (box) 85 Turbans Foot Forehead Henna Jewelry Jutti Khapusa Life in Ancient Chlaina and Chlamys Doric Ionic Chiton 127 Loin Military Dress 131 Minoan Dress 132 Phrygian Pilos and Petasos 141 Sakkos and Sphendone 142 Cameo and Fibulae Jewelry Metal Boots Sandals Ancient Sumptuary Laws Regulate Luxury (box) 162 Dalmatica Etruscan Tunica Braids and Hair Coloring 187 Jewelry Signet Where to Learn More lxxv Volume 2 Early Cultures Across the Globe

Liii

Europeans during the Age of Exploration that began in the fifteenth century. Volumes 3 through 5 offer chronological coverage of the development of costume and fashion in the West. Volume 3 features the costume traditions of the developing European nation-states in the fifteenth through the nineteenth centuries, and looks at the importance of the royal courts in introducing clothing styles and the shift from home-based garmentmaking to shop-based and then factory-based industry. Volumes 4 and 5...

G

Gabardine, 4 728 Gable, Clark, 4 785 Gainsborough chapeau, 3 636-37, 636 (ill.) 4 703 Gainsborough, Thomas, 3 636 Gallicae, 1 198, 202-3 Ganache and gardcorps, 2 303 Gandhi, Mahatma, 1 72, 82, 108 Gandouras, 2 416 Gap, 5 970, 979, 982 GapKids, 5 970 GapShoes, 5 970 Garbo, Greta, 4 785 Garcia, Jerry, 5 906 Gardcorps, Ganache and, 2 303 Garden, Mary, 4 761 Garland, Judy, 4 784 Garters, 4 676-77 Gaucho pants, 5 909-12 Gauls, 2 276 braccae, 2 281 clothing, 2 282 footwear, 2 289 headwear, 2 285...

Omt

Goodrich Company, 4 693 B-52s (musical group), 5 870 BabyGap, 5 970 Babylonians, 1 49-50, 53, 55, 63, 66, 84 Backpack purses, 5 1006-7, 1006 (ill.) Bacon, Sir Francis, 3 488 (ill.) Baggy jeans, 5 982-83 Baldric, 3 515-16 Balenciaga, Cristobal, 5 849, 878 Bali Company, 5 996 Bandhani, 5 930 Bangladesh, 1 72 Bara, Theda, 4 763 Barbarians, 2 275-90 287 (ill.) clothing, 2 281-83, 282 (ill.) culture, 2 275-79, 277 (ill.) footwear, 2 289-90, 289 (ill.) headwear, 2 285-86 Barbe, 3 458, 459...

Mandarin Shirt

Female Loincloth Costume

What westerners now call a mandarin shirt is actually a form of dress that dates back to the ancient Han dynasty (207 b.c.e. 200 c.e.) in China. At that time it was called the ju and was characterized by its high round neckline that was fastened off center. It was characteristically worn with a pleated skirt called a chun that was also fastened off center. Ancient and modern mandarin shirts are very fitted to the body and are closed on the right side of the neckline and shoulder. They In their...

For More Information

Fashion From Ancient Egypt to the Present Day. Edited by James Laver. New York Odyssey Press, 1965. Symons, David J. Costume of Ancient Rome. New York Chelsea House, 1987. Yates, James. Pallium. Smith's Dictionary Articles on Clothing and Adornment. (accessed on July 24, 2003). See also Volume 1, Ancient Greece Himation Volume 1, Ancient Rome Stola

C

Different Styles Ghana Weaving

Otton was woven in West Africa as early as the thirteenth century. Unlike the earlier handwoven cloths, cotton was woven on looms, frames used to interlace individual threads into fabric. These looms produced narrow strips of cloth that would be stitched together to form larger pieces of cloth. Typically, six to eight strips would be sewn together to form a dress or other garment. Like other cloths used by Africans, cotton was wrapped around the body to create many different styles of clothing,...

And Incas

I eople in Central and South America went barefoot most of the time. The warm climate did not require clothing for warmth. However, foot coverings did make the rugged terrain easier to manage. Mayan, Aztec, and Inca royalty and soldiers wore various styles of sandals. Typically these sandals were made of leather from a goat, llama, or sheep, or from plant fibers and tied to the foot with leather or woven fabric straps. The Incas wore an unusual type of sandal called usuta, which had a short...

Footwear of Early Asian Cultures

Chinese Shoes That Deformed Feet

I he Chinese were one of the first ancient peoples to develop a wide range of footwear. Shoes made from woven and stitched straw have been dated to about 5000 b.c.e. and tanned leather footwear with stitching has been dated to about 2000 b.c.e. Given the wide ranges of climate found in China, the types of shoes worn varied considerably by region. People in the warmer coastal areas wore straw sandals, while those in the colder mountainous regions wore thick leather shoes and knee-length boots....

Jewelry

Body Decorations Mayans

The jewelry worn by the Mayan, Aztec, and Inca people was rich in variety and quite beautiful. Without metalworking skills, Mayans made jewelry from many other materials. Mayan men wore nose ornaments, earplugs, and lip plugs made of bone, wood, shells, and stones, including jade, topaz, and obsidian. Necklaces, bracelets, BODY DECORATIONS OF MAYANS, AZTECS, AND INCAS Map of the Americas showing the Mesoamerican civilizations of the Middle Ages Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas. Reproduced by...

Xqm

A & P grocery stores, 4 723 A la Belle Poule, 3 576-78 Abaya. See Burka Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem, 5 938 Accessories. See also Gloves Jewelry 1900-1918, 4 705 1946-1960, 5 867 eighteenth century, 3 583 nineteenth century, 3 645 seventeenth century, 3 535 sixteenth century, 3 493-94 Adidas, 4 716 5 918 Adrian, Gilbert, 4 784 Advertising, 3 602 5 978 Africa, 2 407-43 body decorations, 2 433-42, 434 (ill.), 435 (ill.), 439 (ill.), 441 (ill.) clothing, 2 329-30, 332, 413-27, 414 (ill.), 417 (ill.),...

Footwear of Native American Cultures

The North American continent has been occupied since 10,000 b.c.e. and active civilizations have been recorded across the continent as far back as 3,000 b.c.e. The continent's wide variety of climates required the people living in different regions to wear different footwear. For the most part, the inhabitants of the southern regions and the temperate regions of the north preferred to go barefoot, even in the snow. Footwear was used, however, especially for traveling. Crude sandals made from...

Foot Binding and Lotus Shoes

For over a thousand years, tiny feet were symbols of feminine beauty, elegance, and sexuality in China. In order to achieve the goal of tiny three-inch lotus feet (the lotus was a kind of flower), most young Chinese girls had their feet bound tightly with strips of cloth to prevent growth. Once the process was completed, the deformed feet were placed into beautiful, embroidered lotus shoes, tiny pointed slippers that were made especially for bound feet. Though no one knows exactly when foot...

Sandals

While the men living in the Sumerian (3000-2000 b.c.e.), the Akkadian (2350-2218 b.c.e.), and the Babylonian (1894-1595 b.c.e.) empires of Mesopotamia, the region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in present-day Iraq, went barefoot all the time, Assyrian men began to wear sandals for everyday use around 911 b.c.e. Showing these changes are sculptures and bas-reliefs, or wall carvings, from the time period depicting men with foot coverings. The evidence suggests that all men went barefoot...

Fragrant Oils and Ointments

I he Egyptians, write fashion historians Michael and Ariane Batterberry in Fashion The Mirror of History, were as clean as any people in history. They bathed regularly, shaved their bodies of any excess hair, including that on the head, and used fragrant oils and ointments to keep their skin smooth and sweet smelling. The first female queen of Egypt, Queen Netocris, who is believed to have ruled around 2170 b.c.e., recommended regular bathing and scrubbing with a paste of clay and ashes. To...

Puka Chokers

Surfer Fashion The 1960s

Strings of white puka shell beads emerged as a teen fashion trend in the early 1970s. Puka shells are the leftover parts from the shell of the cone snail found on beaches in Hawaii. The empty conical shells, closed at the larger end, are swept back into the surf. In Strings of puka shells being sold as souvenirs in Hawaii. Traditional garb for Hawaiians, the shells were worn by surfers in the 1960s and fashion trendsetters in the 1970s. Reproduced by permission of Tim Thompson CORBIS. the waves...

Sixteenth Century Body Decorations

The personal grooming habits of people in the sixteenth century seem strange to us today. On the one hand, wealthy people took great care with their hairstyles and, in the case of women, with their makeup. On the other hand, the practice of bathing was infrequent among even the wealthiest people and quite rare among the poorer classes. Europeans in the sixteenth century simply misunderstood the nature of disease and believed that they could get sick if they used water to clean themselves....

Tailored Suit for Women

Tailored Suit Woman

A t the turn of the twentieth century tailored suits for women, consisting of a matching or coordinated jacket and skirt, were popular outfits for office work, afternoon social visits, travel, and leisure activities such as walking. For the first few decades of the 1900s, tailored suits were made up of loose-fitting waist-length or hip-length A woman wearing a tailored suit belted, below the knee, and de-emphasizing the female form. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann CORBIS. A woman wearing a...

Middle Ages

The Middle Ages (c. 500 c. 1500) were a time when people in Europe did less to adorn themselves than at any period in history. The civilizations that developed in Europe following the collapse of the Roman Empire in 476 c.e. inherited their decorative traditions not from the Romans, who had loved jewelry and decoration, but from the crude barbarian groups, or tribes, that had helped bring about the downfall of Rome. The Catholic religion that developed in Europe also frowned on excessive...

Where to Learn More

The following list of resources focuses on material appropriate for middle school or high school students. Please note that Web site addresses were verified prior to publication but are subject to change. Batterberry, Michael, and Ariane Batterberry. Fashion The Mirror of History. New York Greenwich House, 1977. Bigelow, Marybelle S. Fashion in History Apparel in the Western World. Minneapolis, MN Burgess Publishing, 1970. Boucher, Fran ois. 20,000 Years of Fashion The History of Costume and...

Calceus

The calceus was the first shoe in history to look like modern dress shoes. A special type of calceus had been worn by Etruscan kings, who ruled parts of the Italian peninsula before the Romans. In common usage beginning in the Roman Republic (509 27 b.c.e.), the calceus had a leather upper secured to a sole that could be made of leather or wood. Calcei (the plural of calceus) were worn outside with the toga, the traditional outer garment worn by Roman citizens. Along with the solea, or sandal,...

Clothing of Oceania

Maloriof New Zealand

The sunny climate of Oceania did not require people to wear bulky clothing for warmth. The inhabitants of the more than thirty thousand islands exposed most, or all, of their bodies. Men and boys went about naked, and women often wore only a skirt made of plant fibers or grasses around their waists. Instead of clothes, the peoples of Oceania developed intricate and meaningful body decoration traditions. Weaving developed in the Philippines and other parts of Oceania in 2000 b.c.e. Although...

Signet Ring

The most important piece of jewelry for men during the Roman Empire (27 b.c.e.-476 c.e.) was a signet ring, also called a seal ring. Signet rings were first made out of iron but later came to be made more commonly of gold, especially for government officials and honored military men. The center of the signet ring held a stone ornament. The stone, engraved with the wearer's initials and sometimes decorated with a picture, such as the head of the Greek hero Hercules, was used to stamp the...

Hair Coloring

From as early as the founding of the Roman Empire in 27 b.c.e. women have been known to color their hair. Blonde has often been the most sought after color, perhaps because it resembles gold, perhaps because it is the least common natural color. Europeans in the sixteenth century were no different, though they did pursue new ways to lighten their hair. Women living in the Italian city of Venice in the late sixteenth century were known to sit all day in the blazing sun wearing a special...

Pumps

Alligator Hide Pumps

Pumps, low-cut, slip-on shoes, developed from the shoes worn at royal courts in Europe in the 1870s and have been popular in a variety of versions ever since. The earliest varieties had thick one- to two-inch heels. But after World War II (1939-45) women embraced ultrafeminine styles and wore pumps with higher, slimmer heels. By the 1950s women teetered on pointy-toed pumps with four-inch-high stiletto heels. But throughout the 1960s and 1970s pumps became more practical for walking, with...

Cameo

19th Century Fashion Costume For Men

A cameo is a kind of jewelry produced by artisans, or craftsmen, who engrave a bas-relief, or raised, image on a range of single-colored or multicolored materials. In the eighteenth century cameos were made of onyx, sardonyx, ivory, agate, coral, seashell, lava, and glass. If the substance was multicolored, one color was uncovered and became a background for the image engraved on the second color. During the eighteenth century, cameos came in all sizes and shapes occasionally they were made of...

Prehistoric Headwear

Evidence concerning the way early man clothed and decorated his body has lasted for thousands of years, but very little has been discovered about how early humans cared for or styled their hair. Even the best-preserved bodies of ancient man reveal nothing about how hair was worn. Rock paintings from the years 15,000 to 10,000 b.c.e. found in caves in France and southern Spain show no specific hairstyles, nor do rock paintings found in the African Sahara dating from 7000 to 6000 b.c.e. Most...

Aztecs and Incas

The early civilizations of Central and South America paid careful attention to their personal cleanliness and created many different ornaments to beautify the body. Decoration among all Central and South American groups indicated social rank. The Aztecs took this idea very seriously and punished anyone wearing an article of clothing or decoration above his birthright or honorary right with death. Before adorning themselves, the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas all cleaned themselves thoroughly....

Pajamas

Body Decoration

Pajamas could be made out of expensive fabrics such as silk and were popular attire for lounging at the beach. Reproduced by permission of John Springer Collection CORBIS. ajamas were loungewear and sleepwear that consisted of pants and jacket tops. The word derived from two Hindi terms pa(y), for leg, and jamah, for garment. It entered the English language around 1880 as pyjamas, after the British colonized India, where Hindi was spoken. Americans adopted the term from the British as pajamas....

Eighteenth Century Body Decorations

Eighteenth Century Fashions For Men

Lany of the body decorations and accessories of the seventeenth century continued into the eighteenth century. Women and some men made their faces pale with white makeup made from lead powder, a corrosive substance that led to health problems for many and death for some. Red cheeks were also quite fashionable. Wealthy people used rouge made of crushed red beetles, called cochineals, on their cheeks. Others dabbed berry juice on their cheeks. In addition, women and some men continued to paste...

Headdresses

Headdresses were usually made from the fur and feathers of sacred animals and were thought to give the power of the animals to the person wearing the headdress. Reproduced by permission of Bowers Museum of Cultural Art CORBIS. The tall, feathered headdress has come to be one of the most recognizable symbols of the Native American people of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Books and movies about Indians often picture them wearing the large feathered headdresses that...

Fifteenth Century Footwear

Europeans wore a wide variety of footwear during the fifteenth century, from simple pull-on leather moccasins to highly decorated poulaines, extremely long, pointed shoes. Shoes were generally made of leather, with either wood or leather for soles. They might be held to the foot with laces or with buckles. Working people generally wore heavier leather shoes and boots, but the upper classes, who provide most of the information about clothing styles since they were the ones who often left the...

To Ruin 190018

He first two decades of the twentieth century saw dramatic changes in the political, social, and economic life in the West. The prosperity that characterized life at the turn of the twentieth century was largely the result of industrialization, a long historic process that had introduced factory production to many major industries, including mining, manufacturing, and the production of clothing. Industrialization had brought great wealth to the major powers of the world, making England,...

Fringe

A cross all the civilizations living in Mesopotamia (the region centered in present-day Iraq near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers) from 3000 to 300 b.c.e., fringe was a popular and important decorative adornment for the clothing of both men and women. It is believed that fringe was worn by all classes of people. The evidence for how fringe was used and what it looked like is found on sculptures, statues, and described in the writings left by these civilizations. Fringe adorned the two most...

Peg Top Clothing

The great fashion shift of 1908 brought important changes to both men's and women's silhouettes, the outline of the body that is the basic form of a new style. One of the most important changes was the introduction of a tapered look from the hips to the ankles. Before 1908, for example, the silhouette for women called for an S-shape, with protruding breasts and buttocks, and bulky, flowing skirts. After 1908 the silhouette became much more natural, with clothes staying closer to the actual...

Scarification

Scarification was one of the many ways the people of Oceania adorned their bodies. Like tattooing, scarification permanently marked the body. Designs were cut into the skin and, when healed, the design remained as a deep or raised scar. To raise a scar, the skin at the bottom of the cut was scratched or irritated with charcoal or some other substance. To the peoples of Oceania, scarification marked a person's ability to endure pain and symbolized their membership in society. Both men and women...

E

I uropean history in the seventeenth century was dominated on the one hand by the rise of France as the greatest power in the region, and on the other hand by the great fight for political power that occurred between the monarch and the governing body of Parliament in England. These were the great social issues of the age, and they had a great influence on the way people lived and dressed. More subtle historical changes, such as the growth of the middle class and the growing differences between...

Watches

Ancient Timepieces

A watch is a portable timepiece, most commonly carried in a pocket or strapped on the wrist. Pocket watches can be as large as three inches in diameter, while wristwatches are smaller, so that they do not interfere with the wearer's movement. Though they are usually worn for practical reasons, so that the wearer can keep track of the time, watches are also pieces of jewelry, which express the wearer's wealth, social status, and sense of style. Watches have become not only treasured family...

Headwear 19802003

The early 1980s brought a return of interest in high fashion after the comfort trend of the 1970s, which saw many people rejecting designer clothing. Fashion designers became celebrities by marketing collections of ready-to-wear (off-the-rack) clothing, cosmetics, and accessories to the huge middle class. Hairstylists became similarly celebrated, creating looks for film stars and television actors and then marketing hair care products for the general public. The wealthy also continued to...

Nineteenth Century Industrialization

He nineteenth century witnessed an amazing transformation in the political and economic life of Europeans and Americans alike. During the first decade of the century almost all of Europe was under the power of France's ruler, Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 1821), or other members of his family who controlled the outer regions of the empire. With widespread support for overturning the old systems of Europe, Napoleon had built a vast French empire. Although Napoleon was defeated in 1814 at Waterloo and...

Bathing Costumes

1920s Bathing Costumes

The development of special clothing for swimming went through important changes during the 1800s and early 1900s. Though people of various cultures had bathed in oceans, rivers, and lakes for centuries, the nineteenth century saw a dramatic rise in the popularity of swimming as a recreational activity. Late in the eighteenth century, scientists had learned more about the causes of disease which in turn rid the Western world of a fear of bathing, and people began to embrace the water as a...

Wigs

During the Roman Empire (27 b.c.e.-476 c.e.) wealthy members of Roman society developed a rich and fashionable lifestyle, which included much attention to appearance and ornamentation. Both women and men used any means available to improve their looks and decorate their bodies. Cosmetics and luxurious costumes were used, and elaborate hairstyles came into fashion for women. Baldness in men was viewed as an ugly defect. Both women and men made frequent use of wigs to hide any shortage of hair....

Indian Headwear

O ver thousands of years, Indians perfected the art of looping, knotting, and twisting fabric into elaborate and elegant outfits. They applied similar techniques to their hair, twisting and tying their hair into a variety of styles too numerous to count. Hair arrangement became an art form in India. Terra-cotta, or clay, figurines and sculptures from the Indus Valley civilization dating back as far as 2500 b.c.e. depict intricate hairstyles for both men and women that reveal differences between...

High Top Boots

Renaissance Footwear

W omen's skirt lengths began to rise after about 1908, opening up a whole new world for the display of women's shoes. Skirt lengths did not raise much but just enough to display women's ankles and, perhaps, the lower length of her calf. For the woman who dared to wear the new higher skirts but was still modest, the high-top boot was the best choice of footwear. Stylish yet not revealing, it was one of the most popular shoes of the period. The typical high boot was made of shiny black leather...

The Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Decor

He people who we know today as the Byzantines called themselves Romans, spoke Greek, and lived in modern-day Turkey. (The name Byzantine came from the founder of the empire's capital, a Greek man named Byzas, who may have existed only in legend.) While the areas that were once ruled by the Roman Empire fell into disorder as conflicting tribes fought for control of their territory, the Byzantines maintained a legacy of learning and a civilization inherited from the Greeks and Romans for more...

Rogaine

Rogaine is the brand name for a drug called minoxidil, developed, manufactured, and marketed by the Upjohn Pharmaceuticals Company. First offered to the public in 1988, minoxidil was promoted as the first successful cure for baldness. With an estimated 66 percent of men experiencing some hair loss by the age of thirty-five, according to Upjohn, and many women who also have hair loss, the new drug had many potential users hoping for a miracle cure. Within a few years, however, it became apparent...

Purdah

The word purdah comes from the Hindu word meaning curtain or veil. Purdah is a complex set of rules, followed in some Muslim and Hindu societies, which restrict a woman's movements both in the outside world and within her own home. Meant to separate the family as a unit from those outside the family, purdah requires a woman to isolate herself from those who are not in her immediate family by veiling her body and face or sitting behind screens or curtains. The custom of purdah originated among...

Wo

Single White Female Shoe Scene

Omen have worn high-heeled shoes for hundreds of years, but the heel has never been so tall and narrow as on the stiletto heels that became popular in the early 1950s. A stiletto heel, named after a thin Italian dagger, could be as tall as four or five inches, and it narrowed to a point as small as three-eighths of an inch in diameter. The shoes forced women to stand on their tiptoes, clench their calf muscles, and thrust their chest forward for balance. The dramatic stance that the heels...

Body Decorations 19001

In an age of extravagant dresses and immense feathered hats for women, and conservative suits and carefully chosen hats for men, body decorations and accessories faded in significance. It wasn't that such items were not important to people in the early years of the twentieth century rather, they were simply overshadowed by the showiness of other parts of the outfit, as in the case of women, or were very understated, as in the case of men. Women were certainly highly ornamented, especially in...

Body Decorations 191929

fter World War I (1914-18) both women and men changed the way they adorned themselves. No longer needing to follow the rules set by the military, men began getting their fashion guidance from newly popular film actors and public figures, such as Edward VIII, the Prince of Wales (1894-1972), or created their own styles on college campuses throughout Europe and the United States. The decade brought more changes for women than for men. Women began to experiment with makeup. Bold use of cosmetics...

Derby

Drawing Man Bowler Hat

Derby hats were rigid head coverings that traditionally were made of woolen felt. They featured slender, rolled brims and rounded, or dome-shaped, tops. Conventional, or traditional, derbies primarily were worn by men. The traditional colors were black, gray, and brown. Derbies usually featured a matching silk ribbon band tied at the side with a flattened bow. Derby hats were named for Edward Stanley (1752-1834), the twelfth earl of Derby. In 1780 the earl organized a horse race. The race was...

Clothing of Native American Cultures

The clothing of Native Americans was closely related to the environment in which they lived and their religious beliefs. Ranging from tropical and desert regions, to woodlands and mountains, to Arctic tundra, Native Americans developed diverse styles of clothing. In the warmest regions, little clothing was worn. Among the peoples of California, for example, men were normally naked, but women wore simple knee-length skirts. In the cooler regions, more clothing styles developed. Among the tribes...

Earth Shoes

I n the late 1960s and early 1970s, young people began dressing less formally. Even footwear became more casual, as girls and women shunned high heels and boys and men avoided dress shoes even for formal occasions. Out of this desire for attire that was more comfortable came the advent of the earth shoe footwear, often made of soft tanned leather, which featured a heel that was positioned lower than the toes. This design was said to align the body so that the pelvis and shoulders naturally...

Clothing 191929

Male Working Knees Silhouette

Ks the Western world celebrated the end of World War I (1914 18) clothing styles changed to reflect the enthusiasm of the time. The most striking differences came in the silhouettes, or shapes, of men's and women's outfits. In general, women's clothes went from flaring skirts to a tubular line, featuring flat chests and low waists, and men's clothes became much fuller, even baggy. The changes in women's clothes came from new attitudes about life and work. During this decade women won the right...

Foot Decorating

A foot decorated with henna, a reddish powder or paste. Reproduced by permission of Jeremy Horner CORBIS. The foot has had religious and social significance in India since ancient times. Deities are represented by a set of divine footprints on items ranging from paintings and woven shawls to amulets ornaments that are worn to protect the wearer. The feet of older people are revered by youth, lovers show their affection for each other by caressing each other's feet, and Indian mothers take...

Covering the head

For the most part, Native Americans went bareheaded. Most often their elaborate hairstyles were decorated with simple headbands or ornaments. However, headgear was important for ceremonies and cold or rainy weather. Both men and women in the Northwest wore large woven hats to protect them from the rain. These hats were often painted with designs or woven in shapes to identify the social status of the wearer. Men of the Haida tribe, for example, would wear tall, wide-brimmed hats woven of spruce...

Ditto Suits

The mid-nineteenth century saw the introduction of a type of men's suit that would become the dominant form of Western men's dress clothing of the next century. The ditto suit, as it was called, featured a jacket, vest, and trousers made from the same fabric. Also called the sack suit, the new style was characterized by a loose-fitting jacket which hung straight from the shoulders with no seam or fitting at the waist. The ditto suit was a fairly informal type of dress clothing, and it was...

Backpack Purses

Backpack Instead Purse

A woman carrying a small dog in a backpack purse. The backpack purse gained popularity in the 1990s for its stylishness as well as its practical qualities. Reproduced by permission of Pat Doyle CORBIS. For a time in the mid-1990s legions of women began carrying their necessities in small, stylish backpacks instead of purses. The accessory proved to be a popular and practical alternative to the handbag. The origin of the backpack as a fashion item is traced to Italian designer Miuccia Prada (c....

Footwear of African Cultures

The available evidence about ancient African cultures suggests that most Africans did not wear shoes for much of their early history. Although many northern tribes had contact with people who wore sandals and shoes, including the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, and later Arabs and Persians (from present-day Iran), a complete record of when or how Africans adopted foot coverings does not exist. The most common depictions of Africans from statues, artwork, and examples of traditional dress still...

Footwear 193045

Decoration Military Offices

The types of shoes worn by men and women during the 1930s were greatly determined by the effects of the Great Depression (1929 41) on their lives. Those impoverished by the Depression wore old styles, sometimes with holes in the soles. Others, who were lucky enough to gain wealth during this difficult time, set new trends in leisure wear that would influence the clothing of the masses following World War II (1939-45). Rationing, or limiting, of materials needed for shoes, such as leather and...

High Heeled Shoes

A s hemlines began to rise by the mid-1920s, the adornment of women's feet became an essential part of a fashionable outfit. High-heeled shoes with low-cut uppers emphasized women's dainty ankles. For the most part high-heeled shoes had one- or two-inch chunky heels. At the beginning of the decade the uppers fastened to the foot with laces or straps with buttons on one side. As the decade continued, the ornamentation on these shoes became fancier and many shoes were designed to match whole...

Footwear 191929

Steven Stipelman Illustrations

hoe and boot styles altered little for men, but a great deal for women, during the 1920s. For everyday occasions men continued to wear either plain or two-toned oxfords with rounded toes, sometimes with spats (linen or canvas shoe coverings) that covered their ankles and the tops of their shoes. As sports became more popular during the decade both men and women wore shoes made especially for sports, like the tennis shoes first popularized in the nineteenth century. Shoes with two colors and...

Headwear 196179

W W omen s hairstyles in this period transformed from the stiff, artificial styles favored at the beginning of the 1960s to striking, short mod styles of the mid-1960s and then to the longer, loose, feathered tresses of the 1970s. Whether the styles were dramatic geometrically-shaped bob styles, longer bobs with flipped out ends, or the soft layers of the Farrah Fawcett look, the general trend in women's hairstyles was toward freer, softer styles. Hats and hair ornaments were not as important...

Nail Polish

The fashion of decorating the fingernails and toenails with color began in ancient societies, mainly among those of the upper classes. Carefully tended and adorned nails showed that one belonged to a leisure class that did not have to do manual labor. By the early twentieth century, advances in industry had made many products more affordable to a wide range of people, and luxuries, such as cosmetics and nail polish, became available to those of all classes. This, along with advances in paint...

Patent Leather Look

M en had for some time carefully groomed their hair to give it shine. But in the 1920s a smooth glossy finish called the patent leather look became very popular. Film stars such as Rudolph Valentino (1895-1926) and George Raft (1895-1980) wore the patent leather look and helped spread its appeal. Men slicked down their short hair with grease to make the flat, perfectly styled look. Some men added a stiff wave to their plastered-down hair. Most men parted their hair on the side, but some men,...

Oxfords

Simply designed, low-cut shoes that lace up the front and have flat heels and thin soles, oxfords are the most common modern shoe for Western men. Many women wear them as well. Oxfords were worn in Europe as early as the 1640s, but they first became popular in Great Britain during the late 1800s and later throughout Europe and the United States. By about 1910 most men and boys wore lace-up oxford shoes for many social occasions. During the 1800s both men and women wore boots or high-topped...

TStrap Sandal

Ancient Mesopotamian Shoes

He women's T-strap sandal was first popularized during the 1920s as women began to show off more of their legs and feet. The style featured a pointed toe with a strap that reached toward the ankle from the center of the toe to a horizontal strap circling the ankle. The style covered just the woman's heel and toes but otherwise showed a great deal of the foot, in keeping with the revealing styles of time. Typically the shoes had a one- to two-inch heel. The T-strap was one of the more popular...

Footwear 19802003

The emphasis on business attire that went along with the 1980s trend for power dressing, or dressing for business success, triggered a surge in the fashion for stiff, formal shoes. Men wore shiny leather wing tips, oxfords, and other styles, and women wore pumps to work. Some of these dressy styles were uncomfortable, and people soon embraced new styles of shoes that were comfortable as well as fashionable. Before the 1980s comfortable formal shoes were often only available in styles suited to...

Polo Shirt

A polo shirt is a knitted, short-sleeved pullover shirt with a buttoned placket, a small opening at the neckline, and attached collar. Polo shirts were first knit from wool jersey but soon were knit with cotton and other soft materials. The first polo shirts were part of the uniforms worn by polo players on teams in England and the United States starting at the beginning of the nineteenth century. (Polo is a game in which two teams on horseback use long-handled mallets to drive a ball into the...

Lipstick

Cosmetic products intended to color the lips have been used for thousands of years, by both women and men, in a variety of shades, depending on the fashion of the time. Modern lipstick, consisting of waxes, oils, and pigments pressed into a cylinder and packaged in a metal tube, has been sold to women since 1915. Some women feel almost undressed without their lip coloring, and industry experts estimate that the average twenty-first century woman uses between four and nine pounds of lipstick in...

Navy Blue Blazer

The first navy blue blazer, a type of jacket, appeared in the late 1830s. The designer of the blazer was the captain of the British ship the HMS Blazer. He had the jacket made out of navy blue serge, a smooth twill fabric, for his crew to wear for a visit from Queen Victoria (1819-1901). The double-breasted (two rows of buttons down the front) blazers sporting bright brass buttons impressed the queen immensely, and she made sure other sailors had blazers to wear. Other men began to wear the...

Sportswear

During the 1920s many men and women began to participate in such sports as golf, tennis, and swimming. Affluent people enjoyed yachting and polo. To provide comfort and ease of movement, new styles of sportswear were designed. Additionally, with young people increasingly aware of style trends, sportswear designs reflected the spirited, celebrity-conscious sensibilities of the decade. Famous athletes inspired some of the more popular styles of sportswear. American tennis star Bill Tilden...

Barbershops

The traditional American barbershop was an emporium where men congregated to have their hair cut, faces shaved, and fingernails manicured. Barbershops, particularly those in small towns, also served a wider purpose within the community. They were places where men gathered, relaxed, read magazines, and enjoyed each other's company while passing gossip, sharing the latest joke, talking sports and politics, and debating the events of the day. For many centuries a man's hair was trimmed at home,...

Sack Suit

The men's suit had been evolving ever since the seventeenth century, when men first began wearing a coat over a shirt and vest. By the end of the nineteenth century the basic suit had reached the form that we know today, with trousers, sleeveless vest, and coat made from the same material. While suits could take many forms, including the dressy tuxedo with tails and the self-indulgent lounge suit, a loose-fitting suit with longer tails on the jacket, the least formal and most often worn suit...

General hair care

Hairdressing was very important among most Native American tribes since the beginning of their civilization. Men and women washed their hair with plants such as soapwort or yucca. Hair was shined with animal grease, or fat, and was sometimes colored or decorated with colored clay. Brushes were carved out of wood or made of bundled grasses, stiff horsehair, or porcupine hair. Men often plucked their facial hair, although the men of the Aleuts in the Arctic and the tribes of the Northwest, as...

Clothing 190018

Very Narrow Waist Corsets

The period from the turn of the twentieth century to the end of World War I (1914-18) was one of great transition in the world of fashion. Not only did styles for women undergo a dramatic shift in their basic silhouette, or shape, but the very system through which new styles were introduced and popularized also changed. Paris, France, was the center of the world of fashion, but more and more people got their fashion ideas from magazines and their fashionable clothes, ready-to-wear, from...

Makeup

Greek women embraced the use of makeup to enhance their beauty. Evidence of how females made up their faces can be found in such different places as on palace frescos, paintings directly on the wall, from Knossos, the royal city on the ancient Greek island of Crete, dating back to 1500 b.c.e. and in the descriptive poems written during the Greek Classical Period from 500 to 336 b.c.e. Although the practice was limited to women of wealth and influence, probably because of the cost, makeup was...

Footwear of Oceania

escriptions from early explorers and early photographs show that most of the peoples of Oceania went barefoot. No information about the development of traditional footwear in Oceania is known. Although many people in the island countries now wear Western-style sandals and shoes, especially in the urban areas, those living in the most remote areas continue to go barefoot. Lal, Brij V., and Kate Fortune, eds. The Pacific Islands An Encyclopedia. Honolulu, HI University of Hawaii Press, 2000.

Indian Footwear

I n the chilly Himalayan mountain northern regions of India, a variety of boots and shoes have been made over the centuries to protect the feet from cold and rainy weather. These boots and shoes are made of leather, wool, and plant fibers. But since the weather in most of India is warm, shoes were not necessary, and for much of history, Indians went barefoot. Without the need for footwear, Indian culture developed a unique history of praising the feet. Mothers massage the feet of their babies....

Headwear 194660

The late 1940s and 1950s were a time in fashion history when many people were concerned with dressing just right, and the way they styled their hair and chose their hats was no exception. As with other areas of fashion, hat styles had been simplified during World War II (1939-45) in order to conserve precious materials that were needed for the war effort. French designer Christian Dior's (1905-1957) New Look, introduced in 1947, called for a range of accessories. Dior's New Look outfits and...

Body Decorations 194660

W roper accessories, makeup, and undergarments were an extremely important part ofwomen's fashion in the late 1940s through the 1950s. The major fashion trends of the late 1940s, inspired by the New Look fashions of designer Christian Dior (1905-1957), called for a carefully assembled outfit that included such accessories as white gloves and umbrellas to accompany carefully chosen shoes, hat, and dress. The New Look called for tasteful but understated jewelry. One of the most important...

Spiritual decoration

When making jewelry, Native Americans selected materials for their spiritual or magical qualities. Animal claws, crystals, shells, sticks, cornhusks, beads made of grass seed, dried rose hips, silver-berries from silverberry shrubs, and later metal and glass beads, among other things, were used to create necklaces, bracelets, armlets, and earrings, as well as many other unique adornments worn by both men and women. Hunters of northeastern and other tribes would adorn themselves with animal...

Body Decorations of the Byzantine Empire

Body Decoration

Byzantine emperor Justinian I, with crown, displays the intricately jeweled clasp that fastens his cloak. Reproduced by permission of the Granger Collection. Lt the beginning of the Byzantine Empire (4761453 c.e.), Byzantine customs surrounding body decoration and accessories closely resembled those of their fellow Roman countrymen. Byzantines in the capital city of Constantinople developed public baths similar to those found in Rome, and public bathing was a daily ritual for many. Byzantines...