S

Sabrina, 4 784 Sack gown, 3 572 Sack suit, 4 683-84 911 (ill.), 920, 926, 929 Sainte-Marie, Buffy, 5 909 Sakkos and sphendone, 1 142 Salville Row, 4 786 Samite, 2 262-63, 270 Samoa, 2 341 (ill.) Samurai, 2 208-9, 209 (ill.), 215 Sandals, 1 46-47, 46 (ill.), 65 (ill.), 66-67, 157-58, 158 (ill.). See also Footwear 1919-1929, 4 773 African, 2 443 Birkenstocks, 5 957, 958-60, 959 (ill.) Egyptian, 1 46-47, 46 (ill.) Greek, 1 157-58, 158 (ill.) Mesopotamian, 1 65 (ill.), 66-67 Native American, 2 385...

T

Tabard, 2 309-10, 309 (ill.) Tabis, 2 252-53, 252 (ill.) Taffeta, 4 730 Tahiti, 2 331 (ill.) Tailored suit for women, 4 747-49, 748 (ill.) 5 972 Tailor-mades, 4 685-86 Tailors, 2 298-300 4 794 Taj Mahal, 1 70 (ill.) Takada, Kenzo, 5 979 Tang dynasty, 2 231, 247 Tanning, 5 953-56, 954 (ill.), 1011 Tapesties, 2 294 (ill.) Target, 5 979 Tattooing, 2 244-46, 343, 343 (ill.), 346-47, 346 (ill.), 377-78, 381-82 5 1012-13, 1012 (ill.) Asian, 2 244-46 henna, 1 99 Mayans, 2 401 Native American, 2...

Veu

519-20, 520 (ill.) Fanny Farmer candy stores, 4 723 Fans, 2 240-41, 241 (ill.) 3 497, 539, 539 (ill.), 645 Farrah Fawcett look, 5 935, 939-40, 939 (ill.) Farthingales, 3 476-77 Fashion The Mirror of History, 1 22-23, 39, 180 2 293 3 471 5 852 563 (ill.) Fashion industry, 4 663-64. See also specific styles and designers Fashion magazines, 3 512 4 784 Fashions in Hair, 2 285 3 490, 533 4 695, 751, 818, 820 Fasteners. See Zippers Fawcett, Farrah, 5 935, 939-40, 939 (ill.) Fearn, John, 2 334...

Info

Van Mander Karel Painting

Neckwear was an important component of dress for both men and women in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and they devised many ways to decorate the neck. Most popular in the sixteenth century were the ruff, a stiffly frilled collar that encircled the neck, and the whisk, a wide fanned collar around the back of the neck. By the mid-seventeenth century, when clothing styles were more subtle and understated, the band was more popular and it came in two primary styles the standing band and...

1

Vallee, Rudy, 4 740 Van Der Zee, James, 4 740 Vandals, 2 275 Vanderbilt, Gloria, 5 986 Vanity Rules, 5 881 Vedder, Eddie, 5 989 Veils, 1 61-62 driving and, 4 675 fifteenth century, 3 457 Mesopotamian, 1 61-62 Muslim, 1 62, 84, 85, 86 Velour, 5 932 Velvet, 4 730 Versace, Gianni, 5 906 Vests, 4 684 5 906-8, 907 (ill.) Victoria (Queen of England), 3 601, 608-9 4 826 Viet Nam Generation, 5 942 Vietnam War, 4 829, 836 5 890, 935 Vikings, 2 278, 282 (ill.), 289 (ill.) Vionnet, Madeleine, 4 726, 787...

Ozq

Backpack Purses 5 1006 515 752 459 Barbershops 4 698 Bases 3 473 Bathing Costumes 3 608 Beaded Handbags 4 707 435 Beards 1 185 Beehives and Bouffants 5 869 902 Berber Dress 2 421 Beret 2 312 853 Birkenstocks 5 958 361 300 Bloomers (Nineteenth Century) 3 611 Bloomers (1900-18) 4 668 Body Painting (Oceania) 2 344 Body Painting (African Cultures) 2 436 Bold Look 5 855 473 Boots (Ancient Greece) 1 156 Boots (Seventeenth Century) 3 546 Boots (Nineteenth Century) 3 654 Boubou 2 422 Bowl Haircut 2 313...

Juj

Dagging and slashing, 3 452-53, 452 (ill.) Dallas, 5 972, 977 Dalmatica, 1 169-70 2 261, 262 (ill.), 263-64 Dance, 4 695-97, 697 (ill.), 727. See also Castle, Irene The Dandy, 3 620-21 Dansikis, 2 416, 417 Dark Ages, 1 114-15 2 291 Dating, 4 727 Davidson, Carolyn, 5 1020 Davis, Angela, 5 938 Davis, Jacob, 3 613 Davis, Sammy, Jr., 5 924 Dean, James, 4 809 5 874 Deerstalker cap, 3 635-36, 635 (ill.) 4 678 Delineator, 4 770 Denium, 3 612-13 Department stores, 4 723 Derby, 4 728, 756-57, 757 (ill.)...

Steeple Headdress

Body Decoration

The steeple headdress, which became popular among women in France and then throughout Europe in the fourteenth century, was one of the most distinctive forms of headwear worn in human Mary of Burgundy, standing center, wears a tall steeple headdress draped in a long veil. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann CORBIS. Mary of Burgundy, standing center, wears a tall steeple headdress draped in a long veil. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann CORBIS. history. The steeple headdress began simply as...

W

Walking sticks, 3 593-94, 593 (ill.) War of the Spanish Succession, 3 553 Warner Brothers Corset Company, 4 671 Watches, 3 585-86, 583 (ill.), 648 4 709-11, 710 (ill.) Wealth, 1 161-63 3 469-71 Weatherproof clothing driving clothes and, 4 674-75 trench coats, 4 688-90 Weaving, 2 337 Weejuns, 4 839 Weismuller, Johnny, 4 806 Welch, Raquel, 5 855 Western dress. See also specific Western countries Africa, 2 411, 411 (ill.), 443 Native Americans, 2 358 Western Europe, 2 277 (ill.). See also Europe,...

Kabuki Makeup

Kabuki Makeup Fashion

ICabuki is a style of traditional Japanese theater that includes music, dance, and drama. First performed by females, after 1629 BODY DECORATIONS OF EARLY ASIAN CULTURES 241 only male actors could take part in Kabuki, and they played both the male and female characters. Kabuki characters are often drawn from Japanese folklore, and a major part of the Kabuki performance is the dramatic makeup worn by the actors. This makeup is applied heavily to create a brightly painted mask that uses colors in...

Asian Cultures

W W hile both Chinese and Japanese cultures have some interesting and even spectacular traditions of body decoration, what is perhaps most striking is how little these early Asian cultures depended upon ornament. Both cultures valued simplicity. They did not wear large amounts of jewelry, nor did they have complicated ways of painting their faces with makeup. They did, however, have particular items of their overall costume that allowed for more display. Most of their body decoration customs...

Ddw

Calceus, 1 198, 199-200 California Native Americans, 2 352 Calvin Klein. See Klein, Calvin Calvin Klein Limited, 5 977 Cameo, 3 584-85 Cameo and Intaglio, 1 146 See also Walking sticks Canute (King of Denmark), 2 278, 282 (ill.) Capes, Coats and, 3 559-60 Caps, 3 578-79. See also Headwear deerstalker, 3 635-36, 635 (ill.) 4 678 fez, 2 430-31, 430 (ill.) Phrygian, 1 139-41, 140 (ill.) 2 266 Capucci, Roberto, 5 849 Cardin, Pierre, 5 898, 904, 920 Carey, Mariah, 5 913 Carmichael, Stokely, 5 938...

Aso Oke Cloth

A so oke cloth is an intricately woven cloth used for ceremonial garments. Made by the Yoruba men of Nigeria, Aso oke cloth is decorated with elaborate patterns made from dyed strands of fabric that are woven into strips of cloth. These strips of cloth are sewn together to form larger pieces. Some Aso oke cloth, called prestige cloth, has a lace-like appearance with intricate open patterns. Patterns and colors used for Aso oke cloth have special meanings. A purplish-red colored dye called...

Batik Cloth

Body Decoration

Batik cloth has been important in Africa for nearly two thousand years. Batik is a method of applying pattern to fabric. A resist-dyeing technique, batik involves coating fabric with a dye-resistant substance and submerging the fabric in colored dye. Typically the dye-resistant substance is made of the cassava root or rice flour and the chemicals alum, a type of salt found in the earth, or copper sulfate, a naturally occurring mineral. The substance is boiled with water to make a thick paste....

So

France Clothing The 1700s

A model wearing a hip-hugging corduroy skirt at a 1966 fashion show. First popular during the 1700s, corduroy was again trendy during the 1960s and 1970s. Reproduced of AP Wide World Photos. > ometimes called the poor man's velvet, corduroy is a soft, durable fabric that has been popular among people of all classes for almost two centuries. Usually made of cotton or cotton blended with such man-made fabrics as rayon and polyester, corduroy is woven with loose threads that are then cut to...

Revised

C. 476 Upper-class men, and sometimes women, in the Byzantine Empire (476-1453 c.e.) wear a long, flowing robe-like overgarment called a dalmatica developed from the tunic. c. 900 Young Chinese girls tightly bind their feet to keep them small, a sign of beauty for a time in Chinese culture. The practice was outlawed in 1911. c. 1100-1500 The cote, a long robe worn by both men and women, and its descendant, the cotehardie, are among the most common garments of the late Middle Ages. 1392 Kimonos...

Fifteenth Century Body Decorations

The fifteenth century was a time of transition in the ways that people ornamented their bodies. The use of jewelry and accessories became more and more prevalent and showy over the course of the century, reflecting the growing richness of the various kingdoms of Europe and paving the way for the absolute excess of display that occurred in the sixteenth century. As in the early Middle Ages (c. 500-c. 1500), bathing was not a regular practice throughout most of Europe, except for in Italy....

Liii

Europeans during the Age of Exploration that began in the fifteenth century. Volumes 3 through 5 offer chronological coverage of the development of costume and fashion in the West. Volume 3 features the costume traditions of the developing European nation-states in the fifteenth through the nineteenth centuries, and looks at the importance of the royal courts in introducing clothing styles and the shift from home-based garmentmaking to shop-based and then factory-based industry. Volumes 4 and 5...

G

Gabardine, 4 728 Gable, Clark, 4 785 Gainsborough chapeau, 3 636-37, 636 (ill.) 4 703 Gainsborough, Thomas, 3 636 Gallicae, 1 198, 202-3 Ganache and gardcorps, 2 303 Gandhi, Mahatma, 1 72, 82, 108 Gandouras, 2 416 Gap, 5 970, 979, 982 GapKids, 5 970 GapShoes, 5 970 Garbo, Greta, 4 785 Garcia, Jerry, 5 906 Gardcorps, Ganache and, 2 303 Garden, Mary, 4 761 Garland, Judy, 4 784 Garters, 4 676-77 Gaucho pants, 5 909-12 Gauls, 2 276 braccae, 2 281 clothing, 2 282 footwear, 2 289 headwear, 2 285...

Head Flattening

A ncient peoples in the Americas practiced head flattening as a mark of social status. Head flattening is the practice of shaping BODY DECORATIONS OF MAYANS, AZTECS, AND INCAS 403 the skull by binding an infant's head. Typically the skull would be wrapped or bound between two boards to form an elongated conical shape. Mayans shaped the heads of the highest ranking children, those of priests and nobles, between two boards for several days after birth. Some Incas also shaped the heads of male...

Omt

Goodrich Company, 4 693 B-52s (musical group), 5 870 BabyGap, 5 970 Babylonians, 1 49-50, 53, 55, 63, 66, 84 Backpack purses, 5 1006-7, 1006 (ill.) Bacon, Sir Francis, 3 488 (ill.) Baggy jeans, 5 982-83 Baldric, 3 515-16 Balenciaga, Cristobal, 5 849, 878 Bali Company, 5 996 Bandhani, 5 930 Bangladesh, 1 72 Bara, Theda, 4 763 Barbarians, 2 275-90 287 (ill.) clothing, 2 281-83, 282 (ill.) culture, 2 275-79, 277 (ill.) footwear, 2 289-90, 289 (ill.) headwear, 2 285-86 Barbe, 3 458, 459...

Mandarin Shirt

Female Loincloth Costume

What westerners now call a mandarin shirt is actually a form of dress that dates back to the ancient Han dynasty (207 b.c.e. 200 c.e.) in China. At that time it was called the ju and was characterized by its high round neckline that was fastened off center. It was characteristically worn with a pleated skirt called a chun that was also fastened off center. Ancient and modern mandarin shirts are very fitted to the body and are closed on the right side of the neckline and shoulder. They In their...

For More Information

Fashion From Ancient Egypt to the Present Day. Edited by James Laver. New York Odyssey Press, 1965. Symons, David J. Costume of Ancient Rome. New York Chelsea House, 1987. Yates, James. Pallium. Smith's Dictionary Articles on Clothing and Adornment. (accessed on July 24, 2003). See also Volume 1, Ancient Greece Himation Volume 1, Ancient Rome Stola

Rams Horn Headdress

Wealthy Europeans in the Middle Ages (c. 500-c. 1500) loved headwear. They wore coverings on their head almost all the time, and over time they developed styles of headwear that were large and sculpted. Along with the steeple headdress, the ram's horn headdress, also known as the horned hennin, was one of the more extravagant headdresses from late in the Middle Ages. The ram's horn headdress got its name from the two sculpted horns that stuck out from either side of the temple. These horns, or...

Bonnets

Woman Covering Her Body Drawing

A red spoon bonnet in the lower, left corner. Designed to protect the head and hair from sun, wind, and rain, bonnets did not sit on top of the head, but fit around the head, usually tying under the chin with long, decorative ribbons. Reproduced by permission of Historical Picture Archive CORBIS. instead of a brim, was a piece of fabric called a curtain, which protected the wearer's neck. A bonnet's primary function was to cover a woman's head and even part of her face, both for modesty and to...

And Incas

I eople in Central and South America went barefoot most of the time. The warm climate did not require clothing for warmth. However, foot coverings did make the rugged terrain easier to manage. Mayan, Aztec, and Inca royalty and soldiers wore various styles of sandals. Typically these sandals were made of leather from a goat, llama, or sheep, or from plant fibers and tied to the foot with leather or woven fabric straps. The Incas wore an unusual type of sandal called usuta, which had a short...

Footwear of Early Asian Cultures

Chinese Shoes That Deformed Feet

I he Chinese were one of the first ancient peoples to develop a wide range of footwear. Shoes made from woven and stitched straw have been dated to about 5000 b.c.e. and tanned leather footwear with stitching has been dated to about 2000 b.c.e. Given the wide ranges of climate found in China, the types of shoes worn varied considerably by region. People in the warmer coastal areas wore straw sandals, while those in the colder mountainous regions wore thick leather shoes and knee-length boots....

Jewelry

Body Decorations Mayans

The jewelry worn by the Mayan, Aztec, and Inca people was rich in variety and quite beautiful. Without metalworking skills, Mayans made jewelry from many other materials. Mayan men wore nose ornaments, earplugs, and lip plugs made of bone, wood, shells, and stones, including jade, topaz, and obsidian. Necklaces, bracelets, BODY DECORATIONS OF MAYANS, AZTECS, AND INCAS Map of the Americas showing the Mesoamerican civilizations of the Middle Ages Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas. Reproduced by...

Footwear of Native American Cultures

The North American continent has been occupied since 10,000 b.c.e. and active civilizations have been recorded across the continent as far back as 3,000 b.c.e. The continent's wide variety of climates required the people living in different regions to wear different footwear. For the most part, the inhabitants of the southern regions and the temperate regions of the north preferred to go barefoot, even in the snow. Footwear was used, however, especially for traveling. Crude sandals made from...

Foot Binding and Lotus Shoes

For over a thousand years, tiny feet were symbols of feminine beauty, elegance, and sexuality in China. In order to achieve the goal of tiny three-inch lotus feet (the lotus was a kind of flower), most young Chinese girls had their feet bound tightly with strips of cloth to prevent growth. Once the process was completed, the deformed feet were placed into beautiful, embroidered lotus shoes, tiny pointed slippers that were made especially for bound feet. Though no one knows exactly when foot...

Fragrant Oils and Ointments

I he Egyptians, write fashion historians Michael and Ariane Batterberry in Fashion The Mirror of History, were as clean as any people in history. They bathed regularly, shaved their bodies of any excess hair, including that on the head, and used fragrant oils and ointments to keep their skin smooth and sweet smelling. The first female queen of Egypt, Queen Netocris, who is believed to have ruled around 2170 b.c.e., recommended regular bathing and scrubbing with a paste of clay and ashes. To...

Puka Chokers

Surfer Fashion The 1960s

Strings of white puka shell beads emerged as a teen fashion trend in the early 1970s. Puka shells are the leftover parts from the shell of the cone snail found on beaches in Hawaii. The empty conical shells, closed at the larger end, are swept back into the surf. In Strings of puka shells being sold as souvenirs in Hawaii. Traditional garb for Hawaiians, the shells were worn by surfers in the 1960s and fashion trendsetters in the 1970s. Reproduced by permission of Tim Thompson CORBIS. the waves...

Sixteenth Century Body Decorations

The personal grooming habits of people in the sixteenth century seem strange to us today. On the one hand, wealthy people took great care with their hairstyles and, in the case of women, with their makeup. On the other hand, the practice of bathing was infrequent among even the wealthiest people and quite rare among the poorer classes. Europeans in the sixteenth century simply misunderstood the nature of disease and believed that they could get sick if they used water to clean themselves....

Tailored Suit for Women

Tailored Suit Woman

A t the turn of the twentieth century tailored suits for women, consisting of a matching or coordinated jacket and skirt, were popular outfits for office work, afternoon social visits, travel, and leisure activities such as walking. For the first few decades of the 1900s, tailored suits were made up of loose-fitting waist-length or hip-length A woman wearing a tailored suit belted, below the knee, and de-emphasizing the female form. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann CORBIS. A woman wearing a...

Where to Learn More

The following list of resources focuses on material appropriate for middle school or high school students. Please note that Web site addresses were verified prior to publication but are subject to change. Batterberry, Michael, and Ariane Batterberry. Fashion The Mirror of History. New York Greenwich House, 1977. Bigelow, Marybelle S. Fashion in History Apparel in the Western World. Minneapolis, MN Burgess Publishing, 1970. Boucher, Fran ois. 20,000 Years of Fashion The History of Costume and...

Calceus

The calceus was the first shoe in history to look like modern dress shoes. A special type of calceus had been worn by Etruscan kings, who ruled parts of the Italian peninsula before the Romans. In common usage beginning in the Roman Republic (509 27 b.c.e.), the calceus had a leather upper secured to a sole that could be made of leather or wood. Calcei (the plural of calceus) were worn outside with the toga, the traditional outer garment worn by Roman citizens. Along with the solea, or sandal,...

Clothing of Oceania

Maloriof New Zealand

The sunny climate of Oceania did not require people to wear bulky clothing for warmth. The inhabitants of the more than thirty thousand islands exposed most, or all, of their bodies. Men and boys went about naked, and women often wore only a skirt made of plant fibers or grasses around their waists. Instead of clothes, the peoples of Oceania developed intricate and meaningful body decoration traditions. Weaving developed in the Philippines and other parts of Oceania in 2000 b.c.e. Although...

Pumps

Alligator Hide Pumps

Pumps, low-cut, slip-on shoes, developed from the shoes worn at royal courts in Europe in the 1870s and have been popular in a variety of versions ever since. The earliest varieties had thick one- to two-inch heels. But after World War II (1939-45) women embraced ultrafeminine styles and wore pumps with higher, slimmer heels. By the 1950s women teetered on pointy-toed pumps with four-inch-high stiletto heels. But throughout the 1960s and 1970s pumps became more practical for walking, with...

Cameo

19th Century Fashion Costume For Men

A cameo is a kind of jewelry produced by artisans, or craftsmen, who engrave a bas-relief, or raised, image on a range of single-colored or multicolored materials. In the eighteenth century cameos were made of onyx, sardonyx, ivory, agate, coral, seashell, lava, and glass. If the substance was multicolored, one color was uncovered and became a background for the image engraved on the second color. During the eighteenth century, cameos came in all sizes and shapes occasionally they were made of...

Pajamas

Body Decoration

Pajamas could be made out of expensive fabrics such as silk and were popular attire for lounging at the beach. Reproduced by permission of John Springer Collection CORBIS. ajamas were loungewear and sleepwear that consisted of pants and jacket tops. The word derived from two Hindi terms pa(y), for leg, and jamah, for garment. It entered the English language around 1880 as pyjamas, after the British colonized India, where Hindi was spoken. Americans adopted the term from the British as pajamas....

Eighteenth Century Body Decorations

Eighteenth Century Fashions For Men

Lany of the body decorations and accessories of the seventeenth century continued into the eighteenth century. Women and some men made their faces pale with white makeup made from lead powder, a corrosive substance that led to health problems for many and death for some. Red cheeks were also quite fashionable. Wealthy people used rouge made of crushed red beetles, called cochineals, on their cheeks. Others dabbed berry juice on their cheeks. In addition, women and some men continued to paste...

Fifteenth Century Footwear

Europeans wore a wide variety of footwear during the fifteenth century, from simple pull-on leather moccasins to highly decorated poulaines, extremely long, pointed shoes. Shoes were generally made of leather, with either wood or leather for soles. They might be held to the foot with laces or with buckles. Working people generally wore heavier leather shoes and boots, but the upper classes, who provide most of the information about clothing styles since they were the ones who often left the...

Hair Coloring

Hair coloring dates to ancient times, when Greeks, Romans, and others altered their hair by applying soaps and bleaches. Many Romans preferred a black dye that consisted of leeks and boiled walnuts, while Saxons added such unlikely colors as orange, green, and blue to their hair and beards. The initial chemical hair coloring was produced in France in 1909. It consisted of a mixture of ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and the chemical paraphenylenediamine. During the post-World War II (1939-45)...

Peg Top Clothing

The great fashion shift of 1908 brought important changes to both men's and women's silhouettes, the outline of the body that is the basic form of a new style. One of the most important changes was the introduction of a tapered look from the hips to the ankles. Before 1908, for example, the silhouette for women called for an S-shape, with protruding breasts and buttocks, and bulky, flowing skirts. After 1908 the silhouette became much more natural, with clothes staying closer to the actual...

E

I uropean history in the seventeenth century was dominated on the one hand by the rise of France as the greatest power in the region, and on the other hand by the great fight for political power that occurred between the monarch and the governing body of Parliament in England. These were the great social issues of the age, and they had a great influence on the way people lived and dressed. More subtle historical changes, such as the growth of the middle class and the growing differences between...

B

Map Western Europe 4th Century

'eyond the borders of the great early empires the Roman Empire (27 b.c.e.-476 c.e.), the Byzantine Empire (476-1453 c.e.), and early empires in India and China lived bands of people whose level of civilization lagged well behind that of the powerful empires. Within the borders of empires were farmers, traders, institutions of learning, government, laws, and order outside the borders of empires, at least according to those within, were barbarians, crude people who lived without order or law....

Watches

Ancient Timepieces

A watch is a portable timepiece, most commonly carried in a pocket or strapped on the wrist. Pocket watches can be as large as three inches in diameter, while wristwatches are smaller, so that they do not interfere with the wearer's movement. Though they are usually worn for practical reasons, so that the wearer can keep track of the time, watches are also pieces of jewelry, which express the wearer's wealth, social status, and sense of style. Watches have become not only treasured family...

Headwear 19802003

The early 1980s brought a return of interest in high fashion after the comfort trend of the 1970s, which saw many people rejecting designer clothing. Fashion designers became celebrities by marketing collections of ready-to-wear (off-the-rack) clothing, cosmetics, and accessories to the huge middle class. Hairstylists became similarly celebrated, creating looks for film stars and television actors and then marketing hair care products for the general public. The wealthy also continued to...

Nineteenth Century Industrialization

He nineteenth century witnessed an amazing transformation in the political and economic life of Europeans and Americans alike. During the first decade of the century almost all of Europe was under the power of France's ruler, Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 1821), or other members of his family who controlled the outer regions of the empire. With widespread support for overturning the old systems of Europe, Napoleon had built a vast French empire. Although Napoleon was defeated in 1814 at Waterloo and...

Bathing Costumes

1920s Bathing Costumes

The development of special clothing for swimming went through important changes during the 1800s and early 1900s. Though people of various cultures had bathed in oceans, rivers, and lakes for centuries, the nineteenth century saw a dramatic rise in the popularity of swimming as a recreational activity. Late in the eighteenth century, scientists had learned more about the causes of disease which in turn rid the Western world of a fear of bathing, and people began to embrace the water as a...

Indian Headwear

O ver thousands of years, Indians perfected the art of looping, knotting, and twisting fabric into elaborate and elegant outfits. They applied similar techniques to their hair, twisting and tying their hair into a variety of styles too numerous to count. Hair arrangement became an art form in India. Terra-cotta, or clay, figurines and sculptures from the Indus Valley civilization dating back as far as 2500 b.c.e. depict intricate hairstyles for both men and women that reveal differences between...

High Top Boots

Renaissance Footwear

W omen's skirt lengths began to rise after about 1908, opening up a whole new world for the display of women's shoes. Skirt lengths did not raise much but just enough to display women's ankles and, perhaps, the lower length of her calf. For the woman who dared to wear the new higher skirts but was still modest, the high-top boot was the best choice of footwear. Stylish yet not revealing, it was one of the most popular shoes of the period. The typical high boot was made of shiny black leather...

The Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Decor

He people who we know today as the Byzantines called themselves Romans, spoke Greek, and lived in modern-day Turkey. (The name Byzantine came from the founder of the empire's capital, a Greek man named Byzas, who may have existed only in legend.) While the areas that were once ruled by the Roman Empire fell into disorder as conflicting tribes fought for control of their territory, the Byzantines maintained a legacy of learning and a civilization inherited from the Greeks and Romans for more...

Rogaine

Rogaine is the brand name for a drug called minoxidil, developed, manufactured, and marketed by the Upjohn Pharmaceuticals Company. First offered to the public in 1988, minoxidil was promoted as the first successful cure for baldness. With an estimated 66 percent of men experiencing some hair loss by the age of thirty-five, according to Upjohn, and many women who also have hair loss, the new drug had many potential users hoping for a miracle cure. Within a few years, however, it became apparent...

Purdah

The word purdah comes from the Hindu word meaning curtain or veil. Purdah is a complex set of rules, followed in some Muslim and Hindu societies, which restrict a woman's movements both in the outside world and within her own home. Meant to separate the family as a unit from those outside the family, purdah requires a woman to isolate herself from those who are not in her immediate family by veiling her body and face or sitting behind screens or curtains. The custom of purdah originated among...

Wo

Single White Female Shoe Scene

Omen have worn high-heeled shoes for hundreds of years, but the heel has never been so tall and narrow as on the stiletto heels that became popular in the early 1950s. A stiletto heel, named after a thin Italian dagger, could be as tall as four or five inches, and it narrowed to a point as small as three-eighths of an inch in diameter. The shoes forced women to stand on their tiptoes, clench their calf muscles, and thrust their chest forward for balance. The dramatic stance that the heels...

Body Decorations 19001

In an age of extravagant dresses and immense feathered hats for women, and conservative suits and carefully chosen hats for men, body decorations and accessories faded in significance. It wasn't that such items were not important to people in the early years of the twentieth century rather, they were simply overshadowed by the showiness of other parts of the outfit, as in the case of women, or were very understated, as in the case of men. Women were certainly highly ornamented, especially in...

Body Decorations 191929

fter World War I (1914-18) both women and men changed the way they adorned themselves. No longer needing to follow the rules set by the military, men began getting their fashion guidance from newly popular film actors and public figures, such as Edward VIII, the Prince of Wales (1894-1972), or created their own styles on college campuses throughout Europe and the United States. The decade brought more changes for women than for men. Women began to experiment with makeup. Bold use of cosmetics...

Derby

Drawing Man Bowler Hat

Derby hats were rigid head coverings that traditionally were made of woolen felt. They featured slender, rolled brims and rounded, or dome-shaped, tops. Conventional, or traditional, derbies primarily were worn by men. The traditional colors were black, gray, and brown. Derbies usually featured a matching silk ribbon band tied at the side with a flattened bow. Derby hats were named for Edward Stanley (1752-1834), the twelfth earl of Derby. In 1780 the earl organized a horse race. The race was...

Clothing of Native American Cultures

The clothing of Native Americans was closely related to the environment in which they lived and their religious beliefs. Ranging from tropical and desert regions, to woodlands and mountains, to Arctic tundra, Native Americans developed diverse styles of clothing. In the warmest regions, little clothing was worn. Among the peoples of California, for example, men were normally naked, but women wore simple knee-length skirts. In the cooler regions, more clothing styles developed. Among the tribes...

Earth Shoes

I n the late 1960s and early 1970s, young people began dressing less formally. Even footwear became more casual, as girls and women shunned high heels and boys and men avoided dress shoes even for formal occasions. Out of this desire for attire that was more comfortable came the advent of the earth shoe footwear, often made of soft tanned leather, which featured a heel that was positioned lower than the toes. This design was said to align the body so that the pelvis and shoulders naturally...

Clothing 191929

Male Working Knees Silhouette

Ks the Western world celebrated the end of World War I (1914 18) clothing styles changed to reflect the enthusiasm of the time. The most striking differences came in the silhouettes, or shapes, of men's and women's outfits. In general, women's clothes went from flaring skirts to a tubular line, featuring flat chests and low waists, and men's clothes became much fuller, even baggy. The changes in women's clothes came from new attitudes about life and work. During this decade women won the right...

Foot Decorating

A foot decorated with henna, a reddish powder or paste. Reproduced by permission of Jeremy Horner CORBIS. The foot has had religious and social significance in India since ancient times. Deities are represented by a set of divine footprints on items ranging from paintings and woven shawls to amulets ornaments that are worn to protect the wearer. The feet of older people are revered by youth, lovers show their affection for each other by caressing each other's feet, and Indian mothers take...

Ditto Suits

The mid-nineteenth century saw the introduction of a type of men's suit that would become the dominant form of Western men's dress clothing of the next century. The ditto suit, as it was called, featured a jacket, vest, and trousers made from the same fabric. Also called the sack suit, the new style was characterized by a loose-fitting jacket which hung straight from the shoulders with no seam or fitting at the waist. The ditto suit was a fairly informal type of dress clothing, and it was...

Wigs

Body Decorations

Upper-class Egyptian men and women considered wigs an essential part of their wardrobe. Wearing a wig signaled a person's rank in Egyptian society. Although a shaved head was a sign of nobility during most of the Egyptian kingdoms, the majority of Egyptians kept their heads covered. Wigs were worn in place of headdresses or, for special occasions, with elaborate headdresses. Egyptian law prohibited slaves and servants from shaving their heads or wearing wigs. The base of an Egyptian wig was a...

Footwear of African Cultures

The available evidence about ancient African cultures suggests that most Africans did not wear shoes for much of their early history. Although many northern tribes had contact with people who wore sandals and shoes, including the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, and later Arabs and Persians (from present-day Iran), a complete record of when or how Africans adopted foot coverings does not exist. The most common depictions of Africans from statues, artwork, and examples of traditional dress still...

Footwear 193045

Decoration Military Offices

The types of shoes worn by men and women during the 1930s were greatly determined by the effects of the Great Depression (1929 41) on their lives. Those impoverished by the Depression wore old styles, sometimes with holes in the soles. Others, who were lucky enough to gain wealth during this difficult time, set new trends in leisure wear that would influence the clothing of the masses following World War II (1939-45). Rationing, or limiting, of materials needed for shoes, such as leather and...

High Heeled Shoes

A s hemlines began to rise by the mid-1920s, the adornment of women's feet became an essential part of a fashionable outfit. High-heeled shoes with low-cut uppers emphasized women's dainty ankles. For the most part high-heeled shoes had one- or two-inch chunky heels. At the beginning of the decade the uppers fastened to the foot with laces or straps with buttons on one side. As the decade continued, the ornamentation on these shoes became fancier and many shoes were designed to match whole...

Footwear 191929

Steven Stipelman Illustrations

hoe and boot styles altered little for men, but a great deal for women, during the 1920s. For everyday occasions men continued to wear either plain or two-toned oxfords with rounded toes, sometimes with spats (linen or canvas shoe coverings) that covered their ankles and the tops of their shoes. As sports became more popular during the decade both men and women wore shoes made especially for sports, like the tennis shoes first popularized in the nineteenth century. Shoes with two colors and...

Headwear 196179

W W omen s hairstyles in this period transformed from the stiff, artificial styles favored at the beginning of the 1960s to striking, short mod styles of the mid-1960s and then to the longer, loose, feathered tresses of the 1970s. Whether the styles were dramatic geometrically-shaped bob styles, longer bobs with flipped out ends, or the soft layers of the Farrah Fawcett look, the general trend in women's hairstyles was toward freer, softer styles. Hats and hair ornaments were not as important...

Nail Polish

The fashion of decorating the fingernails and toenails with color began in ancient societies, mainly among those of the upper classes. Carefully tended and adorned nails showed that one belonged to a leisure class that did not have to do manual labor. By the early twentieth century, advances in industry had made many products more affordable to a wide range of people, and luxuries, such as cosmetics and nail polish, became available to those of all classes. This, along with advances in paint...

Patent Leather Look

M en had for some time carefully groomed their hair to give it shine. But in the 1920s a smooth glossy finish called the patent leather look became very popular. Film stars such as Rudolph Valentino (1895-1926) and George Raft (1895-1980) wore the patent leather look and helped spread its appeal. Men slicked down their short hair with grease to make the flat, perfectly styled look. Some men added a stiff wave to their plastered-down hair. Most men parted their hair on the side, but some men,...

Oxfords

Simply designed, low-cut shoes that lace up the front and have flat heels and thin soles, oxfords are the most common modern shoe for Western men. Many women wear them as well. Oxfords were worn in Europe as early as the 1640s, but they first became popular in Great Britain during the late 1800s and later throughout Europe and the United States. By about 1910 most men and boys wore lace-up oxford shoes for many social occasions. During the 1800s both men and women wore boots or high-topped...

TStrap Sandal

Ancient Mesopotamian Shoes

He women's T-strap sandal was first popularized during the 1920s as women began to show off more of their legs and feet. The style featured a pointed toe with a strap that reached toward the ankle from the center of the toe to a horizontal strap circling the ankle. The style covered just the woman's heel and toes but otherwise showed a great deal of the foot, in keeping with the revealing styles of time. Typically the shoes had a one- to two-inch heel. The T-strap was one of the more popular...

Footwear 19802003

The emphasis on business attire that went along with the 1980s trend for power dressing, or dressing for business success, triggered a surge in the fashion for stiff, formal shoes. Men wore shiny leather wing tips, oxfords, and other styles, and women wore pumps to work. Some of these dressy styles were uncomfortable, and people soon embraced new styles of shoes that were comfortable as well as fashionable. Before the 1980s comfortable formal shoes were often only available in styles suited to...

Polo Shirt

A polo shirt is a knitted, short-sleeved pullover shirt with a buttoned placket, a small opening at the neckline, and attached collar. Polo shirts were first knit from wool jersey but soon were knit with cotton and other soft materials. The first polo shirts were part of the uniforms worn by polo players on teams in England and the United States starting at the beginning of the nineteenth century. (Polo is a game in which two teams on horseback use long-handled mallets to drive a ball into the...

Lipstick

Cosmetic products intended to color the lips have been used for thousands of years, by both women and men, in a variety of shades, depending on the fashion of the time. Modern lipstick, consisting of waxes, oils, and pigments pressed into a cylinder and packaged in a metal tube, has been sold to women since 1915. Some women feel almost undressed without their lip coloring, and industry experts estimate that the average twenty-first century woman uses between four and nine pounds of lipstick in...

Navy Blue Blazer

The first navy blue blazer, a type of jacket, appeared in the late 1830s. The designer of the blazer was the captain of the British ship the HMS Blazer. He had the jacket made out of navy blue serge, a smooth twill fabric, for his crew to wear for a visit from Queen Victoria (1819-1901). The double-breasted (two rows of buttons down the front) blazers sporting bright brass buttons impressed the queen immensely, and she made sure other sailors had blazers to wear. Other men began to wear the...

Sportswear

During the 1920s many men and women began to participate in such sports as golf, tennis, and swimming. Affluent people enjoyed yachting and polo. To provide comfort and ease of movement, new styles of sportswear were designed. Additionally, with young people increasingly aware of style trends, sportswear designs reflected the spirited, celebrity-conscious sensibilities of the decade. Famous athletes inspired some of the more popular styles of sportswear. American tennis star Bill Tilden...

Barbershops

The traditional American barbershop was an emporium where men congregated to have their hair cut, faces shaved, and fingernails manicured. Barbershops, particularly those in small towns, also served a wider purpose within the community. They were places where men gathered, relaxed, read magazines, and enjoyed each other's company while passing gossip, sharing the latest joke, talking sports and politics, and debating the events of the day. For many centuries a man's hair was trimmed at home,...

Sack Suit

The men's suit had been evolving ever since the seventeenth century, when men first began wearing a coat over a shirt and vest. By the end of the nineteenth century the basic suit had reached the form that we know today, with trousers, sleeveless vest, and coat made from the same material. While suits could take many forms, including the dressy tuxedo with tails and the self-indulgent lounge suit, a loose-fitting suit with longer tails on the jacket, the least formal and most often worn suit...

General hair care

Hairdressing was very important among most Native American tribes since the beginning of their civilization. Men and women washed their hair with plants such as soapwort or yucca. Hair was shined with animal grease, or fat, and was sometimes colored or decorated with colored clay. Brushes were carved out of wood or made of bundled grasses, stiff horsehair, or porcupine hair. Men often plucked their facial hair, although the men of the Aleuts in the Arctic and the tribes of the Northwest, as...

Clothing 190018

Very Narrow Waist Corsets

The period from the turn of the twentieth century to the end of World War I (1914-18) was one of great transition in the world of fashion. Not only did styles for women undergo a dramatic shift in their basic silhouette, or shape, but the very system through which new styles were introduced and popularized also changed. Paris, France, was the center of the world of fashion, but more and more people got their fashion ideas from magazines and their fashionable clothes, ready-to-wear, from...

Makeup

Greek women embraced the use of makeup to enhance their beauty. Evidence of how females made up their faces can be found in such different places as on palace frescos, paintings directly on the wall, from Knossos, the royal city on the ancient Greek island of Crete, dating back to 1500 b.c.e. and in the descriptive poems written during the Greek Classical Period from 500 to 336 b.c.e. Although the practice was limited to women of wealth and influence, probably because of the cost, makeup was...

Footwear of Oceania

escriptions from early explorers and early photographs show that most of the peoples of Oceania went barefoot. No information about the development of traditional footwear in Oceania is known. Although many people in the island countries now wear Western-style sandals and shoes, especially in the urban areas, those living in the most remote areas continue to go barefoot. Lal, Brij V., and Kate Fortune, eds. The Pacific Islands An Encyclopedia. Honolulu, HI University of Hawaii Press, 2000.

Pschent

The single most important piece of headwear in all of Egyptian history was the pschent, the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. Historians believe that Upper Egypt (surrounding the upper Nile River in the south of present-day Egypt and in Sudan) and Lower Egypt (most of present-day Egypt) were united in about 3100 b.c.e. by King Menes. The rulers of Upper and Lower Egypt each wore a different type of crown. The White Crown of Upper Egypt, known as the hedjet, was a white helmet that was shaped much...

Indian Footwear

I n the chilly Himalayan mountain northern regions of India, a variety of boots and shoes have been made over the centuries to protect the feet from cold and rainy weather. These boots and shoes are made of leather, wool, and plant fibers. But since the weather in most of India is warm, shoes were not necessary, and for much of history, Indians went barefoot. Without the need for footwear, Indian culture developed a unique history of praising the feet. Mothers massage the feet of their babies....

Headwear 194660

The late 1940s and 1950s were a time in fashion history when many people were concerned with dressing just right, and the way they styled their hair and chose their hats was no exception. As with other areas of fashion, hat styles had been simplified during World War II (1939-45) in order to conserve precious materials that were needed for the war effort. French designer Christian Dior's (1905-1957) New Look, introduced in 1947, called for a range of accessories. Dior's New Look outfits and...

Body Decorations 194660

W roper accessories, makeup, and undergarments were an extremely important part ofwomen's fashion in the late 1940s through the 1950s. The major fashion trends of the late 1940s, inspired by the New Look fashions of designer Christian Dior (1905-1957), called for a carefully assembled outfit that included such accessories as white gloves and umbrellas to accompany carefully chosen shoes, hat, and dress. The New Look called for tasteful but understated jewelry. One of the most important...

Spiritual decoration

When making jewelry, Native Americans selected materials for their spiritual or magical qualities. Animal claws, crystals, shells, sticks, cornhusks, beads made of grass seed, dried rose hips, silver-berries from silverberry shrubs, and later metal and glass beads, among other things, were used to create necklaces, bracelets, armlets, and earrings, as well as many other unique adornments worn by both men and women. Hunters of northeastern and other tribes would adorn themselves with animal...

Body Decorations of the Byzantine Empire

Body Decoration

Byzantine emperor Justinian I, with crown, displays the intricately jeweled clasp that fastens his cloak. Reproduced by permission of the Granger Collection. Lt the beginning of the Byzantine Empire (4761453 c.e.), Byzantine customs surrounding body decoration and accessories closely resembled those of their fellow Roman countrymen. Byzantines in the capital city of Constantinople developed public baths similar to those found in Rome, and public bathing was a daily ritual for many. Byzantines...

Headwear of the Byzantine Empire

B ike so much of their costume tradition, the Byzantines inherited their basic hairstyles and forms of headwear from the Romans who preceded them in ruling the Mediterranean world. Men tended to wear their hair short and cut straight across the forehead in what is today known as the Caesar cut, named after the Roman general and statesman Julius Caesar (100 44 b.c.e.). Women wore their hair quite long and tended to braid or pile it on top of their head in a variety of different fashions. They...

And Barbarians

Body Decoration

Ur lack of knowledge about the costume traditions of nomads and barbarians is especially severe in the area of body decoration and accessories. While even prehistoric humans left wall paintings and carvings and small statues that indicated that they wore tattoos and painted their bodies, we have no such records from the barbarian tribes that ransacked Europe in the last years of the Roman Empire (27 b.c.e.-476 c.e.). It is simply not known whether such groups as the Huns and the Goths had body...

Haori

The outer garment worn over the kosode (a sort of robe) by both men and women, the haori is cut like a kimono but is shorter, varying in length from mid thigh to mid calf. The haori has one layer of silk, like a kimono, and is lined with another layer of silk or cotton. It is loose-fitting and T-shaped. Unlike the kimono, the haori front does not overlap and is not secured by an obi, a type of sash. It is fastened at the center front by means of braided silk cords. Geisha, professional...

India

Mauryan Dress

I ndia is a vast subcontinent, or landmass that is part of a continent but is considered an independent entity, that contains many varied geographical regions. The Himalayan mountain range, which includes the highest mountains in the world, stretches across the north of the country along its border with Tibet. Three of India's largest rivers originate in the Himalayas the Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra. These rivers feed a vast flat plain at the foothills of the Himalayas called the...

Headwear of the Middle Ages

Women Tonsure Photos

I eople living in Europe during the long period of history known as the Middle Ages (c. 500-c. 1500) wore a variety of different hairstyles and headwear. As with other elements of medieval costume, these styles were fairly simple up until about the twelfth century, when increasing wealth and changes in social life brought an upsurge in decoration, especially in headwear. Less is known about hairstyles in the Middle Ages than in many other eras, in part because of people's fondness for headwear....

Sari

Woman Wearing Grenier Half Slip

The sari, sometimes spelled saree, is a draped dress, created from a single piece of fabric five to nine yards long, which is wrapped around a woman's body in a variety of ways. The resulting garment can be practical working attire or an elegant ceremonial gown, depending on the type of fabric used and the style of draping. While women wear the sari, men wear a version of the wrapped garment called a dhoti. A daily garment worn by approximately 75 percent of the female population of India...

Sixteenth Century Footwear

Body Decoration

Y the sixteenth century footwear construction methods had grown quite advanced. The shoes of common people were generally made of leather, and while they were fairly simple in construction they were also very durable. Soles were made of wood, cork, or extra layers of leather, and uppers, or the tops of shoes, were either tied or buckled in place. Shoemakers, called cobblers, also developed the ability to make very tall boots for riding or fieldwork. These boots came up to the thigh and had a...

Body Decorations of Oceania

Oceania Body Art

I n the warm climate of the thousands of islands that make up Oceania, people wear few clothes. Uncovered, their skin is considered a blank canvas for decoration. Among the many different cultures living on the islands, body decoration is very important to social and religious practices. Body painting is a temporary method of adorning the body. Much as westerners wear dress clothes to weddings, the peoples of Oceania paint their bodies for rituals and festive occasions. Other body markings are...

Tattooing

Tattooing was practiced among members of Native American tribes for thousands of years. Native Americans tattooed themselves by cutting their skin with sharp objects and rubbing dye into the cuts. Cactus needles, fish bones, pine needles, bird bones, sharp stones, or other sharp objects pricked the skin and pigments such as charcoal, cedar-leaf ashes, or other materials were used to make red, blue, or green tattoos on the skin. People, especially men, would often tattoo themselves, though some,...