Revised

c. 476 ■ Upper-class men, and sometimes women, in the Byzantine Empire (476-1453 c.e.) wear a long, flowing robe-like overgarment called a dalmatica developed from the tunic.

c. 900 ■ Young Chinese girls tightly bind their feet to keep them small, a sign of beauty for a time in Chinese culture. The practice was outlawed in 1911.

c. 1100-1500 ■ The cote, a long robe worn by both men and women, and its descendant, the cotehardie, are among the most common garments of the late Middle Ages.

1392 ■ Kimonos are first worn in China as an undergarment. The word "kimono" later came to be used to describe the native dress of Japan in the nineteenth century.

MIDDLE AGES ■ Hose and breeches, which cover the legs individually, become more common garments for men.

FOURTEENTH CENTURY TO SIXTEENTH CENTURY ■ Cuts and openings in garments made from slashing and dagging decorate garments from upper body coverings to shoes.

1470 ■ The first farthingales, or hoops worn under a skirt to hold it out away from the body, are worn in Spain and are called vertugados. These farthingales become popular in France and England and are later known as the Spanish farthingale.

FIFTEENTH CENTURY AND SIXTEENTH CENTURY ■ The doublet—a slightly padded short overshirt, usually buttoned down the front, with or without sleeves—becomes an essential men's garment.

330 1016

Constantine I names Viking Canute I, the

Constantinople as 710 Great begins rule as capital city of Sugar is planted king of England, 1421

Byzantine Empire in Egypt Denmark, and Norway Mohammed I dies

330 1016

Constantine I names Viking Canute I, the

Constantinople as 710 Great begins rule as capital city of Sugar is planted king of England, 1421

Byzantine Empire in Egypt Denmark, and Norway Mohammed I dies

350 c.e.

700 c.e.

1050 c.e.

1400 c.e.

LATE FIFTEENTH THROUGH THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY ■ The ruff, a wide pleated collar, often stiffened with starch or wire, is worn by wealthy men and women of the time.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY ■ Worn underneath clothing, corsets squeeze and mold women's bodies into the correct shape to fit changing fashions of dress.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY ■ People carry or wear small pieces of animal fur in hopes that biting fleas will be more attracted to the animal's skin than to their own.

LATE MIDDLE AGES ■ The beret, a soft, brimless wool hat, is the most popular men's hat during the late Middle Ages and into the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, especially in France, Italy, and Spain.

1595 ■ Europeans land on the Marquesas Islands in Oceania and discover native inhabitants covered in tattoos.

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY ■ The Kuba people, living in the present-day nation of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, weave a decorative cloth called Kuba cloth. An entire social group of men and women is involved in the production of the cloth, from gathering the fibers, weaving the cloth, and dyeing the decorative strands, to applying the embroidery, appliqué, or patchwork.

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY ■ Canes become carefully crafted items and are carried by most well-dressed gentleman.

1643 ■ French courtiers begin wearing wigs to copy the long curly hair of the sixteen-year-old king, Louis XIV. The fashion for long wigs continues later when, at the age of thirty-five, Louis begins to cover his thinning hair with wigs to maintain his beloved style.

1502

First slaves are shipped to the New World

1558

Elizabeth I begins her forty-five-year reign as queen of England

1618

Louis XIV is crowned king of France

1500

1550

1600

1650

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ■ French men tuck flowers in the buttonholes of their waistcoats and introduce boutonieres as fashionable nosegays for men.

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ■ The French Revolution (1789-99) destroys the French monarchy and makes ankle-length trousers fashionable attire for all men. Trousers come to symbolize the ideas of the Revolution, an effort to make French people more equal, and soon men of all classes are wearing long trousers.

1778 ■ A la Belle Poule, a huge hairstyle commemorating the victory of a French ship over an English ship in 1778, features an enormous pile of curled and powdered hair stretched over a frame affixed to the top of a woman's head. The hair is decorated with a model of the ship in full sail.

1849 ■ Dark blue, heavy-duty cotton pants—known as blue jeans— are created as work pants for the gold miners of the 1849 California gold rush.

1868 ■ A sturdy canvas and rubber shoe called a croquet sandal is introduced and sells for six dollars a pair, making it too expensive for all but the very wealthy. The shoe later became known as the tennis shoe.

1870 ■ A French hairstylist named Marcel Grateau invents the first long-lasting hair waving technique using a heated iron to give hair curls that lasts for days.

LATE 1800s TO EARLY 1900s ■ The feathered war bonnet, traditional to only a small number of Native American tribes, becomes known as a typical Native American headdress with the help of Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West Show, which features theatrical representations of the Indians and cowboys of the American West and travels throughout America and parts of Europe.

Aesop's Fables is published

1692

c. 1750

Industrial Revolution begins in England

1804

Napoléon Bonaparte is crowned emperor of France ■

1861-65

American Civil War ■

1690

1750

1810

1870

1900s ■ Loose, floppy, two-legged undergarments for women, bloomers start a trend toward less restrictive clothing for women, including clothing that allows them to ride bicycles, play tennis, and to take part in other sport activities.

1915 ■ American inventor T.L. Williams develops a cake of mascara and a brush to darken the lashes and sells them through the mail under the name Maybelline.

1920s ■ Advances in paint technology allow the creation of a hard durable paint and fuel an increase in the popularity of colored polish for fingernails and toenails.

1920s ■ The navy blue blazer, a jacket with brass buttons, becomes popular for men to wear at sporting events.

1920s ■ A fad among women for wearing short, bobbed hairstyles sweeps America and Europe.

1930s ■ Popular as a shirt for tennis, golf, and other sport activities for decades, the polo shirt becomes the most popular leisure shirt for men.

1939 ■ For the first time, Vogue, the respected fashion magazine, pictures women in trousers.

1945 Servicemen returning home from World War II (1939-45)

continue to wear the T-shirts they had been issued as undershirts during the war and soon the T-shirt becomes an acceptable casual outershirt.

1946 ■ The bikini, a two-piece bathing suit, is developed and named after a group of coral islands in the Pacific Ocean.

1950s ■ The gray flannel suit becomes the most common outfit worn by men working at desk jobs in office buildings.

1910 1929

Mexican Revolution 1914-18 Great Depression 1939-45

begins World War I begins World War II

1910 1929

Mexican Revolution 1914-18 Great Depression 1939-45

begins World War I begins World War II

1910

1920

1930

1940

1957 ■ Liquid mascara is sold at retail stores in tubes with a brush inside.

1960s AND 1970s ■ The afro, featuring a person's naturally curly hair trimmed in a full, evenly round shape around the head, is the most popular hairstyle among African Americans.

c. 1965 ■ Women begin wearing miniskirts with hemlines hitting at mid-thigh or above.

1980s ■ Power dressing becomes a trend toward wearing expensive, designer clothing for work.

1990s ■ Casual Fridays becomes the name given to the practice of allowing employees to dress informally on the last day of the work week.

1990s ■ Grunge, a trend for wearing old, sometimes stained or ripped clothing, becomes a fashion sensation and prompts designers to sell simple flannel shirts for prices in excess of one thousand dollars.

2000s ■ Versions of clothing available during the 1960s and 1970s, such as bell-bottom jeans and the peasant look, return to fashion as "retro fashions."

1947

Jawaharlal Nehru

2001

becomes the first prime

1963

Terrorists attack the

minister of an

U.S. president John F.

1989

World Trade Center and

independent India

Kennedy is assassinated

Berlin Wall falls

the Pentagon

1945

1965

1985

2005

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