Info

It was unnecessary to engrave the portraits of at least the two first of these sovereigns. The images of Bluff King Hal and his son Edward are amongst the earliest recollections of our childhood. The first picture-books illustrative of English history contain their livelie effigies, handed down from the woodcuts of their own time while all the previous monarchs are, like the visioned line of Banquo, imaginary creations, with so strong a family resemblance, even in their dresses, that we may...

The Armour

Of the time of Henry VII. will perhaps be best understood from the engraving in p. 281. The breastplate is globular, and of one piece, as in the time of Edward IV., but beautifully fluted, as are all the other pieces except the jambs. The sollerets are widened at the toes in accordance with the new fashion of the shoes, the armour invariably taking its general form from the civil costume of the day. The helmet assumes the form of the head, having moveable lames or plates at the back to guard...

Chapter Iv

Reigns op edward the confessor and harold ii., a.d. 1042-1066. The short interval between the Danish and Norman conquests, during which the crown of England reverted to the Saxon line, furnishes us with only-two anecdotes of costume worth recording. The first is the general complaint of William of Malms-bury, that in the time of the Confessor the English had transformed themselves into Frenchmen and Normans, adopting not only their strange manner of speech and behaviour, but also the ridiculous...

Chapter Xxii

Costume op the eighteenth century, from the accession op anne, and to the present period. Gentlemen of the reigns of Queen Anne, George i, and ii., from Jeffrey's collection, published in 1757. fl, 1700-15 b, 1735 i c, 1745 d, 1755. Gentlemen of the reigns of Queen Anne, George i, and ii., from Jeffrey's collection, published in 1757. fl, 1700-15 b, 1735 i c, 1745 d, 1755. We have at length arrived at the last period the fashions of which can be a subject of interest or inquiry to our readers....

The Militaby Costume

The helmet is now seldom worn, and the full flowing wig contrasts itself most ridiculously with the steel cuirass. Carabineers, so called from the fire-arm they carried, began to be embodied in James II.'s time, and were formed into regiments in the reign of William III. They wore breast and back plates, and iron skull-caps sewn in the crowns of their hats (vide engraving, page 383). They were armed with swords, and carried pistols in holsters the carbine slung behind by a belt and swivel....

T

Too gallant to feel annoyed by the information that their long-cherished uniform was first worn by a lady. In 1748 George II. accidentally met the Duchess of Bedford on horseback in a riding-habit of blue faced with white, and was so pleased with the effect of it that, a question having been just raised as to the propriety of deciding upon some general dress for the royal navy, he immediately commanded the adoption of those colours 14 a regulation which appears never to have been gazetted, nor...

The Female Costume

Comprises, like that of the other sex, all the previous fashions with fantastic additions and variations too numerous to detail in words. Gowns with enormous trains, girded tightly at the waist, and with turn-over collars of fur or velvet coming to a point in front, and disclosing sometimes a square-cut under vest or stomacher of a different colour to the robe, are of the termination of this reign. The sleeves are of all descriptions, but the waist is exceedingly short, as in Henry Ws reign....

S

Some leader of the ton, or in commemoration of some public event. The famous battle of Ramilies, for instance, introduced the Ramilie cock of the hat, and a long gradually-diminishing plaited tail to the wig, with a great bow at the top, and a smaller one at the bottom called a Ramilie tail, and the peruke itself a Ramilie wig, which was worn as late as the reign of George III. Tying the hair is said to have been first introduced by the noted Lord Bolingbroke. (See Nash's Collect, for...

Male Costume

An entire change was perfected in this reign. We say perfected, because it had commenced almost invisibly during the reigns of Henry VIII. in England, and still earlier abroad and during the brief reigns of Edward YI. and Queen Mary had made gradual progress, and apparently in the very opposite direction to fashions in general that is, from the lowly to the noble till at the accession of Elizabeth, the peculiar habit which has taken its name from her, viz., the Elizabethan costume, appeared in...

Chapter Ii

Anglo-saxon period, a.d. 450 1016. anglo-saxon period, a.d. 450 1016. Anglo-Salon weapon and ornaments, a, a dagger 6, a sword e, the head of a spear a spni, from ntt's Horda Angel Gynan e. the iron boss of a shield from a barrow in Lincolnshire, and now in the Meyrick collection f, a row of amber beads found in a tumulus on Chatham Lines. Anglo-Salon weapon and ornaments, a, a dagger 6, a sword e, the head of a spear a spni, from ntt's Horda Angel Gynan e. the iron boss of a shield from a...

Chapter Y

From the Bayeux tapestry. The best pictorial authority for the habits of our Norman ancestors, at the time of their conquest of England, exists in that curious relic the Bayeux tapestry,1 which if not worked by the Conqueror's wife Matilda, as currently reported, is certainly not a great deal later than that memorable event, and fully entitled to our confidence as a faithful representation of the habits, armour, and weapons of William and his followers. The Saxons, as...

The Navy Op England

Was distinguished by no particular costume from that of the army till the time of George II. Naval commanders wore scarlet in the reign of Elizabeth by her Majesty's order, and that order was confirmed by James I., as we have stated in the proper place. During the subsequent reigns that regulation was neglected, and naval officers appear to have been I habited according to their own fancy,18 and armed like the military, while their ships' companies were sometimes clothed, like the land forces,...

Mourning Habits

First appear in monuments and illuminations of this reign and the earliest mention of them also seems to be by Chaucer and Froissart, both writers of this period. Chaucer, in his 6 Knight's Tale,* 6peaks of Palamon's appearing at Arcite's funeral In clothes black dropped all with tears aud in his c Troylus and Creseyde * he describes his heroine In widdowe's habite of large samite brown and in another place, says, Creyseyde was in wisdowe 1 habite blacke l Gough says, it does appear on the...

The Dress Of The British Females

May be ascertained from Dion Cassius's account of the appearance ofBoadicea, Queen of the Iceni. Her light hair fell down her shoulders. She wore a torque of gold, a tunic of several colours, all in folds, and over it, fastened by a fibula or brooch, a robe of coarse stuffc Necklaces, armlets, and other ornaments of bone or ivory, and of a substance known by the name of Kimmeridge Coal, are continually discovered in the early British barrows. Some, found in Derbyshire in 1846, have been...

Chapter Xv

At length we have emerged into the broad light of day. The pencils of Holbein, of Rubens, and Vandyke will henceforth speak volumes to the eye, and lighten the labours of the pen. With this reign we bid adieu to monumental effigies and illuminated MSS. Not without gratitude, however, for the services they have rendered us through ages of darkness and difficulty through scenes of barbaric magnificence, which, however dimly they have been shadowed forth, have yet considerably illustrated the...

A

Here is another sufficient reason for the adoption of an ostrich feather by the prince as a general allusion to his warlike propensities, or by the whole family of Edward III. as a type of their determination to fight in support of his French claim and as to the motto, suppose, as Camden asserts, that it had no connexion originally with the badge, but was merely associated with it accidentally. It certainly appears on the tomb at Canterbury upon the small scrolls attached to...

Chapter Xi

The march of fpppery was accelerated under the reign of the weak and luxurious Richard of Bordeaux. Fashions from proud Italy, and many imported by Queen Anne from Bohemia, infected even the menial servants. The vanity of the common people in their dress was so great, says Knighton, that it was impossible to distinguish the rich from the poor, the high from the low, the clergy from the laity, by their appearance. What it was impossible to do then we may be surely excused attempting now and...

Chapter Xiii

John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, in the habit of the order of the Garter, presenting a book to King Henry VI. and his Queen Margaret, from an illumination in the volume so presented, marked Royal, 15, E. 6. If any proof were wanting of the confusion and disorder of this unfortunate monarch's reign, it might be drawn from the apparel of his people, which appears to have been a jumble of all the fashions of past ages with every thing most ridiculous and extravagant that could be invented or...

Iii415

Scotch brooch of silver . . 425 Prince Charles Edward Stuart. 435 axe, Lochaber axe . . 443 An Andria Ferara, with its Highland firelock-tack battle-axes of the Edinburgh and Aberdeen town-guards . . 449 Ancient Irish weapons and Irish costume of the 12th century 454 and his toparchs 461 Irish of the reign of Elisabeth 470 Archer, a Jesuit O'More, an civil Irish man and woman 475 Irish gentleman and woman . 476

B

The Phoenicians, or perhaps to the Gauls, who also wore them of brass, and of a similar form. The hilt was cased on each side with horn, whence the British adage A gavas y earn gavas y llavyn, He who lias the horn has the blade.8 British weapo ofbtonte in their earliest nd improved states. Pig. a, earliest specimen of spear-blade 6, the llaooawr, or blade-wea-pon, found in the New Forest, Glamorganshire c, the spear-head, improved with a socket for the shaft, found in Ireland d, bead of hunting...

The Military Habit

Of this period is generally recognised by a greater admixture of plate with the chain. The hauberk and chausses are now nearly covered with wrought iron. Brassarts connect the shoulder with the elbow-pieces, and avant-bras or vant-braces defend the arm from the latter to the wrist. Greaves of one plate protect the fore-part of the leg, and on the breast are fastened sometimes one, sometimes two round plates, called mamelieres from their position, to which are appended chains, attached at the...

G

A fr re there was, a wanton and a merry. Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. from their black cloak and capuchon they were popularly termed Black Friars. The Franciscans planted themselves at Canterbury in 1220, and at Northampton soon after. Their grey vestments obtained for them the additional name of Grey Friars. CHAPTER IX. & 2siqns OF EDWARD i. and ii., 1272-1327. Fig. , Edward I., from a seal attached to a charter of the ci'y of Hereford 6, regal personage, from a MS....

The Habits Of The Nobles

The long tunic and mantle, varied sometimes by the cyclas, and the bliaus composed of rich stuffs 1 and lined with ermine and other costly furs, was the general costume of the court. Caps of various shapes, and a hat like the classical petasus slung behind to 1 The rich stuff called cloth of tars is mentioned in this reign. It was Latinized tarsicus and tartarinus, and we read of dalmatics and tunics of slate-colour, and light blue cloth of tars embroidered with...

Q

In another part of the same poem we find a chaplet of roses worn over the garland of gold u Ung chappel de roses tout frais Eat dessus le chappel d'Orfrays. Cloth stockings embroidered with gold are amongst the articles of dress ordered by Henry III. for his sister Isabel. In the Squier of Low Degree,' a romance written towards the end of the thirteenth century, the King of Hungary is made thus to address his daughter To-morrow ye shall yn hunting fare* And yede my daughter in a chare Yt shall...

Q3

The long-waisted or peasecod-bellied doublet remained in vogue, and the conical-crowned hat and large Gallic or Venetian hosen, slashed, quilted, stuffed, and guarded (or laced), were worn as before. The increase in size, from the quantity of stuffing used in the garments, we may partly trace to the pusillanimous character of the new monarch. Dalzel, a contemporary of James, informs us, in his 6 Fragments of Scottish History,' that that monarch had his cloathing made large,...

The Dress Of The Commonalty

Also remains as in the last century, or indeed as from the time of the Conquest, with the addition of the bliaus or blouse (the smock-frock of the present day), made generally of canvass or fustian, worsted, and sometimes adorned with figures of animals and other devices, besides the veined pattern from which it derived its name, is also mentioned in the same account, Tunica de quodam panno marmoreo spisso, cum rods et grifonibus. and worn by both sexes. Russet, birrus or burreau, cordetum, and...

Coronation Robes

Of Richard we have a detailed account in a book, to which is prefixed an indenture, witnessing that Piers Courteys, the king's wardrober, hathe taken upon him to purvey by the 3d day of Juyell next coming the parcels ensying agaynst the coronation of our Sovereigne Lorde. We therein find that the day before his coronation he was to ride from the Tower to Westminster in a doublet and stomacher of blue cloth of gold, wroght with netts and pyne apples,1 a long gown of purple velvet furred with...

Chapter

Beions op edward v. and richard iii., It seems absurd at first sight to separate in a work of this description two years from the three or four and twenty preceding or following them, merely because two monarchs during that short period sat upon the throne of England but so great a change in costume followed the accession of Henry VII. that it would be perplexing to join these reigns to his, and there are sufficient variations in the dress of Richard III.'s time from that of his brother...

The General Male Costume

Of this period may be gathered from the following extracts from the Chronicles of Monstrelet and Paradin's Histoire de Lyons, for there was no fashion so ridiculous started in France, but then, as now, it was immediately adopted in England. The former writer tells us that the jackets, doublets, or pourpoints, were cut shorter than ever, and the sleeves of them slit, so as to show their large, loose, and white shirts the shoulders were padded out with large waddings called mahoitres, and so...

Chapter Xxiv

Casting aside the wild romances with which the early history of Ireland is interwoven, to a greater degree perhaps than that of any other nation, we shall proceed at once, upon the authority of Tacitus, to state that the manners of the Irish differed little in his time from those of their ancient British brethren and to add that, from every evidence, historical or traditional, the difference was occasioned by the introduction at some very remote period, either by conquest or colonization, of a...

I

Royal Habits of the commencement of the 18th century, from Cotton MS.Jfiero, C. 4. The Normans and the Flemings who accompanied the Conqueror into England, and those who fol lowed him in great numbers after his establishment upon the throne, are said by our early historians to have been remarkable for their ostentation and love of finery. Personal decoration was their chief study, and new fashions were continually introduced by them.1 Habits of the commencement of the 12th century, from Cotton...

The Habits Of The Nobility

Were of course more influenced by fashion and the reign of Rufus is stigmatized by the writers of the period for many shameful abuses and innovations. The king himself set the example, and clergy and laity became alike infected with the love of extravagant and costly clothing. The short tunic was lengthened and worn fuller, and the sleeves particularly so. The long tunic, worn on state occasions, and the interula, or linen vestment worn beneath it, positively trailed upon the ground. The...

The Armour And Weapons

Of the time of the Conquest continued with little variation to the close of the twelfth century. William Rufus (1087-1100) is represented on Richard, Constable of Creator temp. Stephen. his great seal in a scaly suit of steel or leather armour, with, in lieu of the nasal helmet, a new head-piece, called by the Normans a chapelle-de-fer, an iron cap of a very Tartar-like shape, which will be better understood by referring to the engraving. He carries a gonfanon and a kite-shaped shield. Henry I....

H

Habergeon, Haubergeon, 116 Hackbut, 305 Haketon, Hauqueton, 108 Halbard, Halbert,258 Halbercum, Halben, t. Hauberk Halsberg, v. Hauberk Hand-cannon, 247 Hand-gun, 249 Hangers, 369 Hange-guns, 298 Hauselines, 193 Harquebus, v. Arquebus Hatt, Hatte, Hat-fellen, 43 Hauberk, 76 Hause-col, 234 Head-rail, Heafod's ragel, 37 Helrae-leathem, 42 Helmet-tilting, 232 Herlots, 195 Hessian boots, 404 Heuk, 229 Hood, 75 Houpeland, 217 Housseaulx, 229 Humerale, 301

L

He have not left them behind him in France ' that is, in the provinces belonging to the French crown, the greater part of Picardy being at this time an English province. In an old English poem on the siege of Bouen, a.d. 1418, Henry is described as riding On a bronne stede j Of blak damaske was his wede, A peytrelle of golde full brygt Aboute his necke hynge down rigt, And a pendaunte behind him did honge Unto the erthe, it was so longe.8 The peytrelle. orpoitral was a piece of horse-furniture...

The Civil Costume

Of this short but busy reign differs in no visible degree from its immediate precursors. The long and short gowns, with sweeping sleeves, fancifully indented at the edges, or the pokys or bagpipe sleeves, mentioned by the monk of Evesham, formed the general upper garments of high and low, according to their own goodwill and pleasure, and in contempt of all parliamentary enactments. A peti orpettite coat of red damask is mentioned as remaining amongst the apparel of Henry V. and as it is...

To The New Edition

During the thirteen years this little work has been before the public, the spirit of Archaeology has made rapid progress in the world of Art, and the example set by the highest personage in the realm, on two recent occasions of Royal Festivity, has had an equally beneficial effect in the world of Fashion. The value of some correct ideas on the subject of Ancient Costume, has no longer to be pointed out either to the professional student or the general reader. The utility of such a knowledge in...

The Nobility

They consisted of hose or long stockings (the Norman chausses, in fact) tied by points, as the laces were called, to the doublet, which was sometimes open in front, about halfway down the breast, show- in g a placard or stomacher, over which it was laced like a peasant's bodice. This was a fashion just introduced. Over the doublet was worn either a long or a short gown, according to fancy or circum stances the former hanging loose, the latter full of plaits before and behind, but plain at the...

K

Over the jupon, and therefore by gipon we are not to understand the splendidly emblazoned garment generally at this period covering the breast-plate or plastron, but a plain fustian just-au-corps, and by habergeon, the plastron or breast-plate itself. In the French metrical history of the deposition of Richard II. (Harleian MS. 1319) Bolingbroke is seen with a breast-plate, worn over a black jupon or just-au-corps. In the rhyme of Sir Topas, Chaucer gives a fuller description of the dress and...

The Anglosaxon Females

Of all ranks wore long loose garments reaching to the ground, distinguished in various documents by the names of the tunic, the gunna or gown, the cyrtle or kirtle, and the mantle. The first and last articles describe themselves but the terms gown and kirtle have caused much disputation from the capricious application of them to different parts of dress. The British gown, Latinized gatmacum by Varro, we have already seen was a short tunic with Anglo-Saxon Females. Fig. a, Etheldrytha, a...

The Military Costume

Partook of the sumptuous extravagance of the age. .The alterations made in the armour during the reign of Edward III. were perfected in that of his grandson, and the era of plate may be said to commence from the accession of Richard II. The camail, the gussets of chain at the joints, and the intended edge of the chain apron, are all that remain to be seen of the complete suit of double-ringed mail worn at the commencement of this century. Milan was the grand emporium from whence the most...

The Seventeenth Century

Brings the pencil once more to the aid of the pen. Mr. Walker has engraved what he terms tc a rude but faithful delineation of O'More, a turbulent Irish chieftain, and Archer, a Jesuit retained by him, both copied from a map of the taking of the Earl of Ormond in 1600. O'More, ne tells us, is dressed in the barrad, or Irish conical cap, and a Archer, a Jesuit, and O'More, an Irish Chief, from Walker's Hist. scarlet mantle. Archer's mantle is black, and he wears the high-crowned hat of the time....

1

Fig. a, Highland target b, a dirk or bidag c, a Jedburgh axe dt a Lochaber axe all in the Meyrick collection. hauberk of the Norman, soon found their way across the border, but were adopted by the sovereign and his Lowland chiefs alone for though the early monarchs of Scotland appear upon their seals in the nasal helmet, and the mascled, ringed, or scaly armour of the Anglo-Normans, we find the Earl of Strathearne, at the battle of the Standard, in 1138, exclaiming I wear no armour, yet they...

The Female Habit

Seems to have resembled to a very late period the dress in which Boadicea has been described by Dion Cassius a tunic or robe gathered and girdled round the waist, and a large mantle fastened by a brooch upon the breast. The former, called by Martin the arisad, appears from the poems of Alexander MacDonald to have been worn as late as 1740. Martin says it is a white plaid, having a few small stripes of black, blue, and red plaited all round, and fastened beneath the breast with a belt of leather...

Introduction To The First Edition

The true spirit of the times is in nothing more perceptible than in the tone given to our most trifling amusements. Information of some description must be blended with every recreation, to render it truly acceptable to the public. The most beautiful fictions are disregarded unless in some measure founded upon fact. Pure invention has been de-clared by Byron to be but the talent of a liar, and the novels of Sir Walter Scott owe their popularity as much to the learning as to the genius displayed...

Chapter L

Ancient British weapons of bone and flint. Fig. a, arrow-head of flint, in the Meyrick collection 5, another, engraved in Archseologia, vol. xt. pi. 2 c. d, lance-heads of bone, from a barrow on Upton Lovel Downs, Wiltshire, engraved in same plate e, spear-head of stone, in the Meyrick collection , battle-axe head of black stone, in ditto g, another, found in a barrow in Devonshire, and new in the same collection. Respecting the original colonists of Britain the more adventurous members of the...

National Costume Of Scotland

Logan's work. No rational doubt can exist of the great antiquity of the national costume of Scotland that the chequered stuff which still forms it is the variously-coloured garment of the Gauls described by Diodorus, at one time the common habit of every Celtic tribe, but now abandoned by all their descendants except the hardy unsophisticated Gaelic mountaineer, is admitted, we believe, by every antiquary who has made public his opinion on the subject. But to...

Ecclesiastical Costume

The figure of a bishop of this period represents him in a bonnet, slightly sinking in the centre, with the pendent ornaments of the mitre vittae or infulae attached to the side of it. The chasuble retains its original shape the dalmatica appears to be arched at the sides the pastoral staff is exceedingly plain, and reminds us strongly of the Roman lituus, which is said by some writers to have been its prototype. A Bishop of the close of the 11th century, Cotton MS. Nero, C. 4. A Bishop of the...

The Weapon8

Irish Glibbe

Used by the Irish in the bloody combats to which this unprovoked insult and aggression gave birth are thus described by Giraldus The Irish use three kinds of arms short lances and two darts, as also broad axes excellently well steeled, the use of which they borrowed from Norwegians and Ostmen. They make use of but one hand to the axe when they strike, and extend their thumb along the handle to guide the blow, from which neither the crested helmet can defend the head, nor the iron folds of the...

The Uniform Of The British Army

Dates from the commencement of the eighteenth century. Scarlet and blue had long been the two principal colours of the cloth ordered for the array of the king's troops, in accordance with the blazon of the royal standard the guide from the commencement of heraldry for the liveries of retainers and domestics having been the armorial bearings of their lord or leader. But the men-at-arms were, during the early periods of our history, covered with mail or plate, and of the lighter armed troops the...

Arms And Armour

Of the knights of the reign of Henry IV. we have no novelty to remark, except that the soleret or steel shoe was sometimes supplied by footed stirrups, and the jambs or leg-pieces in such cases terminated at the instep. Increase of splendour is however visible in the military equipment. A rich wreath or band surrounds the bascinet of the 5 Rymer's Feeders, vol. ix. Ibid., page 299. knight, and the border of the jupon is still cut into elegant foliage, notwithstanding the strict prohibition of...

The Military Equipment

Warwick Harness 15th Century Effigy

Of this period is remarkable for the introduction of Ashmole's Hist of the Order. the panache w the graceful decoration of feathers having been hitherto confined to heraldic crests upon helmets, and never appearing as a mere ornament in England till the reign of Henry V.lx its a, Tilting helmet of the commencement of the 15th centnry. with heraldic crest, from the Tomb of Sir Edward de Thorpe, Ashwelthorpe Church, Norfolk 6, Tilting helmet and shield from the tomb of Henry V., Westminster...

Chapter Viii

Balandrana Cloak

Effigy of Henry III. in Westminster Abbey. The long reign of Henry III. embraces the greater portion of the thirteenth century but its costume is more remarkable for increase of splendour than Effigy of Henry III. in Westminster Abbey. The long reign of Henry III. embraces the greater portion of the thirteenth century but its costume is more remarkable for increase of splendour than for alteration of form. Matthew Paris, the monk of St. Albatn's, a faithful...

Military Habits

We have first to notice the more general usage of the emblazoned surcoat. The cyclas, the bliaus, and the cointise, all worn over the shirt of mail as well as over the more peaceful tunic, were richly embroidered either with fanciful devices or the armorial bearings of the owner Towards the close of this reign those curious ornaments called ailettes, or little wings, from their situation and ap 9 Roman de Garin and of Percival de Galois j and Ginart, Hist. Franc, sab anno 13Q4. pearance, are...

Armour And Weapons

Henry With Pike Poly Olbion

James I. is stated to have remarked of armour, that it was an excellent invention, for it not only, saved the life of the wearer, but hindered him from doing hurt to any body else. The increasing use and improvements in fire-arms combined with other causes to bring it into disrepute and before the close of this reign the armour of the heaviest cavalry terminated at the knees. Henry, Prince of Wales, appears only armed to the waist in the following engraving, copied from Drayton's Polyol-bion....

Twelfth Century

The Irish wear thin woollen clothes, mostly black, because the sheep of Ireland are in general of that colour the dress itself is of a barbarous fashion. They wear moderate close-cowled or hooded mantles caputiis , which spread over their shoulders and reach down to the elbow, composed of small pieces of cloths of different kinds and colours, for the most part sewed together 8 beneath unsuspicious documents relative to the early history of Ireland. The book of Glen Daloch, popularly attributed...

Civil Costume

He was perhaps the greatest fop of the day. He had a coat estimated at thirty thousand marks, the value of which must have arisen chiefly from the quantity of precious stones with which it was embroidered 1 Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, however, furnishes us with some characteristic dresses, which we shall notice in regular rotation. this fashion obtaining greatly during the fourteenth century, as did that also of working letters and mottoes on the dress, and...

Go1 jgle

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