Chapter Ii

Anglo-Salon weapon« and ornaments, a, a dagger; 6, a sword; e, the head of a spear; a spni, from ntt's Horda Angel Gynan ; e. the iron boss of a shield from a barrow in Lincolnshire, and now in the Meyrick collection ; f, a row of amber beads found in a tumulus on Chatham Lines.

Fob upwards of three centuries Britain was the seat of Roman civilization and luxury. The Saxons made descents upon it at the close of the fourth ^ century, and were repulsed by Theodosius and the natives. Abandoned by its conquerors and instructors, divided into numberless petty sovereignties, harassed by barbarians from without, and ravaged by a frightful pestilence within, the handful of strangers who landed by accident or invitation in 449, became first the subsidiaries of its principal chiefs, and ultimately masters of the greater part of i <<

the island. In seven years from their arrival at Ebbsfleet in the Isle of Thanet, the province of Cantium became the Saxon kingdom of Kent, under one of the leaders of that wandering band; and Aneurin, a Welsh bard who flourished early in the sixth century, and fought in person against the in- < vaders, gives us the following account of the

MILITARY HABITS OF THE PAGAN SAXONS, in his famous poem called the Gododin, which procured for him amongst his countrymen the title of " King of the Bards." There were present at the battle of Cattraeth " three hundred warriors arrayed in gilded armour, three loricated bands with three commanders wearing golden torques." They were armed with " daggers," " white sheathed piercers," and " wore four-pointed (square) helmets." Some of them carried spears and shields, the latter being made of split wood.- Their leader had a projecting shield, was harnessed in " scaly mail," armed with " a slaughtering pike," and wore (as a mantle probably) the skin of a beast. His long hair flowed down his shoulders, and was adorned, when he was unarmed, with a wreath of amber beads; round his ^ neck he wore a golden torque.1 The scaly mail of which Aneurin speaks was the well-known armour of the Sarmatian and Gothic tribes, from whence the Romans derived their lorica squamataMael

1 Gododin, by Aneurin, passim.

8 The Sarmatians made theirs of thin slices of horses' hoofs, cut in the shape of scales or feathers, and sewn in was indeed but the British word for iron. The tunic covered with rings, to which the word mail was afterwards applied by the Norman French, was literally called by the Saxons gehrynged bym, ' ringed armour. The British word Uuryg in like ? manner, or the Roman loricat from which it was derived, was used generally for defensive body armour ; and it is only by a welcome adjective, as in this instance the word " scaly," that we discover the peculiar sort of armour alluded to. It is the want of attention to the true meaning of words in the original authors, and a careless trust in translations, that have caused the very obscurity and apparent discrepancy of which writers on antiquarian subjects so frequently complain. ' The square or four-pointed helmet was worn as late as the ninth century in France, by the guards of Lothaire and Charles the Bald; and square crowns are frequently seen in the Anglo-Saxon illuminations.8 Amber beads are continually found in Saxon tumuli. The row engraved at the head of this chapter (fig./) was found in a tumulus on Chatham Lines. The iron umbo or boss of an Anglo-Saxon J shield above it (fig. e) was found in a barrow in Lincolnshire, and is now in the Meyrick collection.

rows upon an under garment of coarse linen. Pausanias saw and inspected one of them that was preserved in the temple of Esculapius at Athens. Lib. i. p. 50.

s An indication of the square helmet is discernible in an Anglo-Saxon MS. of the eleventh century in the Harleian collection ; but the figures are 60 small and so rudely drawn with a pen that no reliance can be placed upon the details.

In a MS. in the Cotton collection, marked Claudius, B. 4, we find one of the earliest specimens of the ringed byrn, borrowed from the Phrygians, which was formed of rings sewn flat upon a leathern tunic. The wearer is a royal personage, crowned and armed with the long, broad, straight iron sword, found in Saxon tumuli, and the projecting or convex shield. He is attended by a page or soldier, in a plain tunic with sleeves, and a cap completely Phrygian in form, bearing also a shield of the same fashion as his sovereign, who is in fact intended to represent no less a person than Abraham fighting against the five kings to rescue his brother Lot, and who wears a crown as an emblem of superiority and chief command (vide figs, a and b, page 40). To the invariable practice, however, of the early illuminators, of pour-traying every personage habited according to the fashion of the artists' own time, we are deeply indebted. Had they indulged their fancy in the invention of costumes, instead of faithfully copying that which they daily saw, our task would have been almost impracticable; for it is seldom, if ever, that the most minute description can oonvey to the mind an object so successfully as the rudest drawing, and the impression received by the eye is as lasting as it is vivid.

As we are now entering upon the period when illuminated MSS. become our principal guides, it is necessary to notice an error into which Mr. Strutt has fallen, and consequently led those who have implicitly confided in him. We allude to his own belief in the dates affixed to the MSS. in the printed catalogues at the British Museum. Where the MS. is itself without date, or from its subject does not admit of allusions to persons or eventscontemporary with its execution, there is much difficulty in ascertaining its I age, with anything approaching to precision, in these early times, when there are no monumental i effigies by which we can put its illuminations to the test of comparison.

The MS. just quoted, containing the figure of Abraham, is stated by Strutt to be of the eighth century ; and another, marked Junius XI., in the Bod-' leian Library at Oxford, from which he has taken the third figure in his fifth plate in the work on , 4 Habits and Dresses,' is also said to be of the same period. The latter is now generally acknowledged to be as late as the close of the tenth, perhaps the commencement of the eleventh century, and the former is certainly not much its senior. Again, the very first figure of his first plate, subscribed ' Rustics of the Eighth Century/ is taken, according to his own reference, from a Harleian MS. marked 603, which in that very reference is said to be of the tenth ? century; and two warriors are afterwards given from it in their true chronological order. The MS. is, we should say, even later than that. The kite-shaped shield and the gonfanon occur in it; and in the last illumination in the volume is a figure of Goliath, armed precisely like -the warriors in the

Bayeux tapestry.4 These circumstances, with other internal evidence, would induce us to date it about the reign of Harold II., and an illumination, representing Harold crowned and enthroned, is engraved in Montfaucon's ' Monarchie Française/ the style of which perfectly corresponds with that of the miniatures in the Harleian MS.

The earliest illuminated Saxon MSS. in the British Museum, on the dates of which we can depend, are, a splendid copy of the Gospels, written by Eadfrid, Bishop of Durham, and illuminated by Ethelwold his successor, about the year 720, and a book of grants by King Edgar to the Abbey of Winchester, written in letters of gold, a.d. 966. The first of t hese contains representations of the four Evangelists, copied, it is probable, from some of the paintings brought over by the early missionaries, and affording us therefore no information on the subject of Anglo-Saxon costume. The latter is embellished with a figure of the monarch (vide fig. a in the following engraving), and presents us therefore with the regal and, we may add, noble costume of the first half of the tenth century. For the remainder of the Anglo-Saxon era we have authorities enough ; but we have digressed, and must return.

Some change must have taken place in the apparel of the Anglo-Saxons after their conversion to Christianity at the beginning of the seventh century, 4 Vide chap. v.

for at a council held at the close of the eighth, it was said, " You put on your garments in the manner of pagans whom your fathers expelled from the world; an astonishing thing that you imitate j those whose life you always hated."® The acknow-[ ledgment, however, of this return to their ancient habits, authorizes us to consider Aneurin's description as applicable to their dress in the eighth as in the sixth century; and indeed, from an inspection of numerous Anglo-Saxon MSS. illuminated during the tenth century, and the testimony of various writers of the sixth, we are led to conclude that little alteration in dress took place amongst the new masters of Britain for nearly four hundred years. And, strange as this i may seem, we have strong collateral evidence in support of this belief in the unvarying costume of the Franks during nearly as long a period.8 Of the same Oriental origin, they seem to have adhered to their national dress with the same Oriental tenacity; and though they may not, like the Persians, have handed down the identical clothes from father to son as long as they could hang together, the form of their garments appears to have been rigidly preserved and f the material unaltered.

9 Concil. Calchut; Spelman, Concil. p. 300.

8 Vide Monfaucon's Monarchic Frangaise. The Frankish dress was, as nearly as possible, the Anglo-Saxon; and Egin-hart's elaborate description of Charlemagne's is a most valuable authority for the costume of this period.

The general civil costume of the anglo-saxons, from the eighth to the tenth century, consisted then of a linen shirt,7 a tunic of linen or woollen, according to the season, descending to the knee, and having long close sleeves, but which set in wrinkles, or rather rolls, from the elbow to the wrist.8

Civil costume of the Anglo-Saxons.

Fig. a, King Edgar, from his Book of Grants to the Abbey of Winchester, a.d. 966 ; Cotton MSS. marked Vespanianus, A. viii.; a figure in regal costume, from the splendid Benedictional of St Ethelwold, in the possession of his grace the Duke of Devonshiie; c, a noble Saxon youth, from Cotton MS. Claudius, B. iv.

7 Charlemagne's shirt is expressly said to have been of linen," Camisiam lineam." Eginhartus de Vita Caroli Magni.

8 In some instances these rolls are so regular as to present

It was made like the shirt, and open at the neck to put on in the same manner. It was sometimes open at the sides, and confined by a belt or girdle round the waist. Its Saxon name was roc or rooc, and it was either plain or ornamented round the collar, waists, and borders, according to the rank of the wearer.' Over this was worn a short cloak (mentil) like the Roman pallium or Gaulish sagum, fastened sometimes on the breast, sometimes on one or both shoulders with brooches or fibulae. It appears that when once fastened it might be removed or assumed by merely slipping the head through; as in an illumination of the tenth century representing David fighting with a lion, he is supposed to have thrown his mantle on the ground, and it is seen lying still buckled in the form represented in our engraving, page 46.

the appearance of a succession of bracelets, and when painted yellow they probably are intended so to do, as Malmsbury tells us the English at the time of the Conquest were in the habit of hading their arms with them (brachia onerati); but it is also evident that generally the marks are merely indicative of a long sleeve wrinkled up, and confined by a single bracelet at the wrist, by removing which, perhaps, the sleeve was pulled out of its folds and drawn over the hand as a substitute for gloves, a custom of which we have hereafter historical notice.

• Charlemagne's was bordered with silk: " Tunicam quse limbo serico ambiebatur."—Eginhart Paulas Diaconus, describing the dress of the Lombards, says, their vestments were loose and flowing, and consisted, like those of the Anglo-Saxons, chiefly of linen, ornamented with broad borders, woven or embroidered with various colours. De Gestis Longobardorum, lib. iv. c. 23.

Drawers reaching half way down the thigh, and stockings meeting them, occur in most Saxon illuminations, and are alluded to by writers under the names of brech and hose.19 Scin hose and leather hose are also mentioned, and may mean a species of buskin or short boot now and then met with, or literally leathern stockings.

Over these stockings they wore bands of cloth, linen, or leather, commencing at the ankle and terminating a little below the knee either in close rolls like the haybands of a modern ostler, or crossing each other sandal-wise, as they are worn to this day by the people of the Abruzzi and the Apennines, and in some parts of Russia and Spain. They are called in Saxon scanc-beorg, literally shank or leg-guard, and Latinized fasciohse crurum. In the ancient canons the monks are commanded to wear them of linen, to distinguish them from the laity, who wore woollen.11 Those of fig. in the last engraving, are of gold in the original.

In some illuminations a sort of half-stocking or

10 The femoralia or drawers of Charlemagne were of linen. E^inhart. The monk of St. Gall speaks of tibialia vel cox-aha (stockings or drawers) of linen of one colour, but ornamented with precious workmanship, lib. i. c. 36. By the following note, we shall perceive he meant long drawers, or hose and drawers in one, like the Gaulish braccse.

u Du Cange, in voce Fasciola. The Monk of St Gall says that over the stockings or drawers they (the Franks) wore long fillets, bound crosswise in such a manner as to keep them properly upon the legs. These were worn as late as the sixteenth century in France by the butchers, and called to Ungettit. Archffiologia, vol. xxiv. p. 37.

sock, most likely the Saxon socca, is worn over the hose instead of the bandages. It is generally bordered at the top, and reminds one of the Scotch stocking, which probably, from the red cross-gartering imitated upon it, is a relic of the ancient Saxon or Danish dress.

The Saxon shoe {sceo or scoh) is usually painted black, with an opening down the instep, and secured by a thong." Labourers are generally represented barelegged, but seldom barefooted.18

The above articles composed the dress of all classes from the monarch to the hind. The bretwald or king, the ealderman, and the thegn were distinguished by the ornaments and richness, not the form, of their apparel; except perhaps upon state occasions, when the nobler classes wore the tunic longer and the mantle more ample: but the same articles of dress appear to have been common to Anglo-Saxons of all conditions.

Towards the tenth century the national dTess certainly became more magnificent; silk, which was known as early as the eighth century, but from its cost must have been exceedingly rare, was afterwards much worn by the higher classes. Bede mentions

18 The terms uh/pe-tceo and unhege-sceo seem to imply slippers or shoes, in contradistinction to the boots or buskins sometimes met with. The buskins of Louis le Debonaire, the fon of Charlemagne, were of gold stuff or gilt, ocreai aureus. Theganus, in Vita ejus. The shoes and buskins of Anglo-Saxon princes or high ecclesiastical dignitaries are generally represented of gold.

" For caps and gloves, see pages 42, 43,46, and 50.

silken palls of incomparable workmanship,14 and his own remains were enclosed in silk, as were also those of Dunstan and other distinguished personages.15 Adhelm, Bishop of Sherborne, who wrote in the seventh century, speaks of" the admirable art" exhibited in the weaving and embroidery of the English females even at that early period,18 and that reputation increased to such a degree as to cause the name of Angltcum opus to be given on the Continent to all rare work of that description.17 A variety of colours appears to have been much admired. Red, blue, and green are most common in the illuminations. The hose are generally red or blue.

Their ornaments consisted of gold and silver chains and crosses, bracelets of gold, silver, or ivory, golden and jewelled belts, strings of amber or other beads, rings, brooches, buckles, &c. elaborately wrought. The metal articles were sometimes beautifully enamelled.18 A jewel of gold, enamelled and circumscribed " JElfred me haet ge-wercan " (Alfred ordered me to be made), was found in the Isle of Athelney, whither that monarch

" Bede, p. 297. 14 Anglia Sacra, vol. ii. 18 De Virgi-nitate. £

17 Guli. Pictavensis, p. 211; Gesta Gulielmi Ducis, apud Duchene.

if< " Charlemagne on state occasions wore a jewelled diadem; a tunic interwoven with gold; a mantle fastened with a brooch of gold; his shoes were adorned with gems; bis belt was of gold or silver; and the hilt of his sword composed of sold and precious stones." Eginhart. Vid« also Adhelm, William of Malmsbury, Dugdale, Hickes, &c, for notices of Saxon jewellery and ornaments.

retired on the invasion of Godrun. It is now in the Ashmolean Museum, and is engraved here (from a print in the possession of Sir Henry Ellis). No doubt is entertained of its authenticity, though i various opinions exist respecting the article itself. ( If hung round the neck, the figurewould be reversed.

Some suppose it to have been the top of a small | staff or sceptre ;

f the ring of King Athelwulf, Alfred's father, is in the British Museum and has been engraved by Mr. Shaw in his i Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages.'

That most widely diffused perhaps of all barbaric customs—the practice of tatooing or puncturing the skin, declared by the oldest historian extant to ' have existed amongst the Scythians and Thracians,

and still at this day considered' a badge of courage or nobility amongst the savages of the South Pacific was not unknown or unadmired by the Saxons. Whether it was a national one originally, or adopted in imitation of the Britons, we have no mode of ascertaining; but that they practised it in the eighth century is proved by a law having been passed against it, a.d. 785.19 Yet as late as the Norman Conquest we find included in the list of prevailing English vices that of puncturing designs upon the skin,90 by which it appears that Fashion was, as usual, too strong for the legislature.

Long hair was the distinguishing characteristic of the Teutonic tribes.81 It was a mark of the highest rank amongst the Franks, none of whom, but the first nobility and princes of the blood, were permitted to wear it in flowing ringlets," an express law commanding the people to cut their hair close round the middle of the forehead.88 The beard was also held by them in the greatest reverence, and to touch it stood in lieu of a solemn oath.84 Amongst the Anglo-Saxons the law made no invidious distinctions; but the clergy preached for centuries against the sinfulness of long hair, which seems most perversely to have grown the faster for the

19 Wilkins's Concilia, torn. i.

80 Malmsbury, De Gestis Regum Anglise, lib. ill. .

81 Tacitus, De Morib. Germ.

83 Aa frontem mediam circumtonsos. Jus Capillitii.

prohibition. In the illuminations it appears not ungracefully worn, being parted on the forehead, and suffered to fall naturally down the shoulders J the beard is ample, and generally forked, and the character of the face immediately designates the age wherein the early portraits of Christ, which have been reverently copied to the present day, were originally fabricated.85

It is a curious circumstance that the hair and beard in the majority of Anglo-Saxon MSS. are painted blue. In representations of old men this might be considered only to indicate grey hair; but even the flowing locks of Eve are painted blue in one MS., and the heads of youth and age exhibit the same cerulean tint. Strutt says, " I have no doubt in my own mind that arts of some kind were practised at this period to adorn the hair, but whether it was done by tinging or dyeing it with liquids prepared for that purpose, according to the ancient Eastern custom, or by powders of different hues cast into it, agreeable to the modern practice, I shall not presume to determine."98 We may add

85 The Anglo-Saxon dress, both male and female, has indeed been handed down to us by the "painters of scriptural subjects, who took of course for their models the effigies of the Apostles and Saints as designed by the monks in the early ages of Christianity. Compare for instance the usual representations of the Virgin Mary, with the female figures, page 47, or any others in the Saxon or early Norman MSS.

26 Dress and Habits of the People of England, vol. i. j). 77. The hair being painted sometimes green and orange is in favour of his argument, but such instances are very rare, and may have arisen from the idleness of the illuminator, that, if it were a fashion, we trust there is no chance of its revival, though we will not affirm that a generation whose fathers still wear powder are justified in condemning in their remoter ancestors the use of powder-blue.

Figs, a and bt from Claudius,' B. iv.; c, from Harleian MS. 603; rf, from Benedictional of St, Ethelwold.

who daubed it perhaps, with the nearest colour at hand* The custom of washing the hair with a lixivium made of chalk, in order to render it redder, was practised by the Gauls, and the Arabs dye their beards with henna, after the example set them by their prophet Mahmood and his successor Abu-Bekr; but so singular a fashion as staining the hair blue or green could scarcely have escaped the monkish censors, who are so severe upon the minutest follies of their time, had it existed to such an extent as the illuminations would seem to imply. It occurs also in MSS. of the time of Edward I.

Figs, a and bt from Claudius,' B. iv.; c, from Harleian MS. 603; rf, from Benedictional of St, Ethelwold.

The military habits of the Anglo-Saxons.

The military habits of the Anglo-Saxons.

the mi lit art habit differed in no very great degree from the civil, in the earlier Anglo-Saxon times.

The Saxons were all soldiers, as their successors the Danes were all sailors. The addition of a sword or a spear, a shield, and sometimes, but not invariably, a helmet, was only wanting to make them as ready for the fray as for the feast. We should rather say the shield only had to be assumed, for the spear or the sword was the usual companion of a peaceful walk, and to go unarmed was enjoined in the ancient canons as a severe penance.*7 The short linen tunic was preferred to all other vestments, as the one in which they could most freely wield their weapons,18 and the only addition to it appears to have been a border of metal to the collar, which acted as a pectoral, and is most probably alluded to under the name of broest-beden or broest-beorg, breast-defenceor breast-guard.

But though this remained, during the whole Anglo-Saxon era, their general habit in war as well as in peace, they were not unacquainted with defensive body armour, as we have already proved on the evidence of Aneurin; and the enigma of Adhelm, Bishop of Sherborne, who died in 709, proves that as early as the eighth century they were familiar with the byrne, or tunic of rings, t7 Canones dati sub Edgaro.

w Alcuinus, lib. de Offic. Divin. Alcuin wrote in the eighth century.

derived from the Phrygians, and Latinized indiscriminately with other armour lorica,

" I was produced," runs the enigma, " in the cold bowels of the dewy earth, and not made from the rough fleeces of wool; no woofs drew me, nor at my birth did the tremulous threads resound; the yellow down of silkworms formed me not; I passed not through the shuttle, neither was I stricken with the wool-comb; yet, strange to say, in common discourse I am called a garment; I fear not the darts taken from the long quivers."28

The ringed byrne is not, however, of frequent appearance in the Anglo-Saxon illuminations, but in the poems of the tenth century we hear of " the shining iron rings," the " battle-mail by hard hands well locked," the " mailed host of weaponed men," and " the grey vestments of war." It is probable, therefore, that it did not become general till the continual descents of the heavily-armed Danes compelled the Saxons to assume defences equal to those of their enemies.

Coverings for the head are exceedingly rare in paintings representing peaceful occupations, but in battles we perceive the Phrygian-shaped cap before mentioned, apparently made of leather, and sometimes bound and bordered with metal. The " leather helme" is continually mentioned by Saxon writers, as is also the fellen hat, the felt or woollen

»Aldhelmi iEnigmatum, headed "De Lorica." MS. Itoyal, marked 15, A. 16.

hat, which is the same sort of cap made of those materials, as the term camb on hcette, or camb on helme, is clearly explained by the serrated outline occasionally forming the comb or crest of these Phrygian-looking head-pieces.10 A cap or helmet, completely conical and without ornament, occurs in some MSS., and appears from its shape the immediate predecessor of the nasal helmet of the eleventh century.

The Anglo-Saxon shields were oval and convex, with a peculiarly-shaped iron umbo or boss. They were gilt or painted in circles, but the ground was generally white, and they were held at arm's length in action, like those of the Britons. Some of them were large enough to cover nearly the whole figure, but we not only see, but also read of " little shields99 and " lesser shields," as well as of " the targan " or target.81 The body of the shield was made of leather, and the rim as well as the boss was of iron, either painted or gilt.

Their weapons were all formed of iron, and consisted of long broad swords double-edged, daggers, javelins, and long spears, some of which were barbed and others broad and leaf-shaped. They had also axes with long handles which they called bills, and which continued in use almost to our time, and the so Haett signifies merely a covering for the head, and indicates no such particular form as our modern associations are likely to conjure up for it. The word used by the Latin writers of the time is pileus.

Will of Ethelstah, son of Ethelred II., dated 1015.

double-axe or bipennis (twy-bill). Tradition has attributed to the Saxons a curved sword and dagger,** called the long seax and the hand seax, from the use of which it has been supposed they derived their name; while, however, there is evidence of the existence of a Scythic tribe, called Sacassani and Saxones, as early as the days of Cyrus, there is little reason to seek further for the origin of the national name.88 Our business is with the national weapon. The command of the Saxon leader, previous to the celebrated massacre of the Britons at the festal board, as related by Nennius, " Nimed eure seaxes"—" Take your seaxes" they having concealed them about their persons, would go far to prove them short swords or daggers, but for one unfortunate circumstance: there is no positive proof of the massacre itself! The venerable Bede tells us that Edwin, King of Northumbria, narrowly escaped an assassin sent by Cwichelm, King of Wessex, a.d. 625, who entered the unsuspecting monarch's presence armed with a poisoned two-edged sica; and, while pretending to deliver a message from his sovereign, made a blow at Edwin, who was off his guard and defenceless. Lilla, an attendant thegn, saw the king's danger, but had no shield. With a noble devotion he flung himself

31 A short curved sword without a hilt is placed in the hands of the Dacians in the combats sculptured on the Trajan column.

88 Vide Turner's Hist. Ang. Saxons, vol. i. p. 115, where this subject is admirably discussed.

between the assassin and his intended victim, and received the weapon in his own body. The thrust was given with such good will that the sictt went through the royal thegn, and slightly wounded Edwin. The assassin was cut to pieces by the attendants, but not before he had stabbed another knight with the weapon he had withdrawn from the body of Lilla. The word sica is in King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Version translated seax, and has been rendered u a dagger " by Mr. Sharon Turner, and " a sword " by Mr. Palgrave.84 It may have been either, and must have been used for cutting as well as thrusting, from the expression " two-edgedbut whether crooked or straight does not appear from this story. If a dagger, it must, however, have been a tolerably long one to have gone through one man's body and wounded another. The Saxon swords, in all the illuminations we have inspected, are long, broad, and straight, as we have already described them, and perfectly corresponding with those found in the earliest tumuli.

Robert "Wace, the Norman poet, of whom more hereafter, mentions the gisarme as an exceedingly destructive weapon used by the Saxons at the battle of Hastings; but by the gisarme he evidently means the byl, to which he gives a Norman name.**

89 A staff, with curved lateral blades, is engraved in the following page, from a Harleian MS. of the eleventh century, marked 603. It appears to be a variety of the bill hook and the prototype or the Gisarme, the Falcastrum, and similar weapon».

Spurs appear in the Saxon illuminations. They have no rowels, but a simple point like a goad, and were therefore called pryck spurs, and the goad itself the spur speare (vide fig. d, p. 25). They were fastened with leathers, nearly as at present.

Anglo-Saxon mantle, caps, and weapons. Harleian MS. 603; Cotton, Junius, xi.; Claudius, l>. iv., &c.

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