5 From frères (brothers). " A frère there was, a wanton and a merry." Chaucer's Canterbury Tales.

from their black cloak and capuchon they were popularly termed Black Friars. The Franciscans planted themselves at Canterbury in 1220, and at Northampton soon after. Their grey vestments obtained for them the additional name of Grey Friars.

Regal costume.

CHAPTER IX. &2siqns OF EDWARD i. and ii., 1272-1327.

Regal costume.

Fig. «, Edward I., from a seal attached to a charter of the ci'y of Hereford; 6, regal personage, from a MS. of this reign, in the library of H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex.

edward i., 1272-1307.

Edward I., that chivalric and temperate prince, who, despite a ferocity which was perhaps the vice of his age more than the bent of his natural disposition, must be ranked as one of the greatest monarchs that ever swayed the English sceptre, was as simple in his dress as he was magnificent in his liberalities. He never wore his crown after the day of his coronation, and preferred to the royal garments of purple the dress of a common citizen. Being asked one day why he did not wear richer apparel, he answered, with the consciousness of real worth, that it was absurd to suppose he could be more estimable in fine than in simple clothing. Under such a king it is natural to suppose that foppery could not flourish; and we therefore hear of no preposterous fashions amongst the knights and nobles of his court. The shafts of satire are directed in his reign against the ladies only.

There is no monumental effigy of Edward; but on opening his tomb in Westminster Abbey, a.d. 1774, his corpse was discovered arrayed in a dalmatica or tunic of red silk damask and a mantle of crimson satin fastened on the shoulder with a gilt buckle or clasp four inches in length, and decorated with imitative gems and pearls. The sceptre was in his hand, and a stole was crossed over his breast of rich white tissue, studded with gilt quatrefoils in filagree-work, and embroidered with pearls in the shape of what are called true-lovers' knots. The gloves, it is presumed, had perished, for the ornaments belonging to the backs of them were found lying on the hands. The body from the knees downwards was wrapped in a piece of cloth of gold, which was not removed. The regal ornaments were all of metal gilt, and the stones and pearls false; a piece of economy unusual at this period. In a fine MS. of this time, in the library of His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, several figures in regal costume have a stole crossed on their breasts splendidly embroidered, and one of these we have selected for the engraving at the commencement of this chapter. The crowned head beside it is that of Edward I. from a seal.

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