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lete in that sense. Here is another sufficient reason for the adoption of an ostrich feather by the prince as a general allusion to his warlike propensities, or by the whole family of Edward III. as a type of their determination to fight in /support of his French claim ; and as to the motto, suppose, as Camden asserts, that it had no connexion originally with the badge, but was merely associated with it accidentally. It certainly appears on the tomb at Canterbury upon the small scrolls attached to the three feathers, and upon the large one over each shield that contains them. But what says the prince in his will ? " We will that round the said tomb shall be twelve escocheons of laton, each of the breadth of a foot, six of which shall be of our arms entire, and the other six of ostrich feathers : and that uptfn each escocheon shall be written $ that is to say upon those of our arms, and upon thé others of ostrich feathers, ' Houmout ' " (high spirit). Here is another puzzle ! The motto " Ich dien " is not mentioned, yet it has in every instance been placed with and over the feathers, and the word " Houmout " only over the shield of arms by those who minutely fulfilled the directions of the will in every other particular 114

" Sir N. Harris Nicolas has recently discovered a document to which the Prince has appended both mottoes 4< Houmout Ich dien." And from the manner in which they are arranged on the tomb it has oecnrred to me that they might be read as one motto, viz. " High spirit I serve" or M I obey the dictates of a high spirit." Vide my reasons at

The motto <f Ich dien" does not appear on the scrolls of the feathers on the seals of the Black Prince, of Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, or of Richard II., or Henry V, when Prince of Wales, or on the monumental tablet of John, Duke of Bedford, but it does appear on the seal of Edward Plantagenet, Duke of York, slain at Agincourt, $nd who was no way connected with Wales — a sufficient proof that it can have no relation to that principality, Bichard II. is seen in an illumination in a Barleian MS., in a surcoat powdered with golden ostrich feathers, and the bardings of his horse and his pennon are similarly blazoned. Sir Roger de Clarendon, the natural son of Edward the Black Prince, bore for his arms Or, on a bend Sable, three ostrich feathers Argent, the quills transfixed through as many scrolls of the first. To his son Richard, the Black Prince leaves a blue vestment embroidered with gold roses and ostrich feathers, and "a hall of worsted " (that is, tapestry for a hall), embroidered with mermaids of the sea, and the border paly red and black, broidered with swans with ladies' heads, and ostrich feathers; and he gives " a hall of ostrich feathers, of black tapestry, with a red border wrought with swans with ladies' heads/' to the church of Canterbury; but in no case does he mention the motto " Ich dien;" and the feathers singly, as we have already length in Archseologia, vol. xxxiLpart i. and Sir H. N.'s paper, vol. xxxi. part SU

observed, appear with blank scrolls upon the seals or tombs of nearly all the princes of the housed of York and Lancaster, down to Arthur, Prince of Wales, son of Henry VII., upon whose monument at Worcester they first appear as a plume in a coronet as well as singly; plumes having come into fashion towards the close of the fifteenth century.15

The story of Edward being called the Black Prince from the colour of his armour has already been exploded by Sir Samuel Meyrick, and rested on no better foundation than did the tradition of the feathers. Barnes, in his Life of Edward III., merely says, " Edward, the young Prince of Wales, whom, from this time, the French began to call Le Neoir, or the Black Prince," and quotes apparently a certain chapter of Froissart, in which decidedly there is no mention of any such title. At tournaments he might have worn a sable surcoat, with ostrich feathers upon it, in accordance with his shield of peace, and the caparisons of his horse being'of the same funereal hue might have suggested the appellation; but it is equally probable that he was called " the Black " from the terrors his deeds inspired in the bosoms of his enemies; and JEneas Sylvius, the historian of Bohemia, expressly says, 61 on the feast of St. Rufus the battle of Cressy was fought between the French and the English; hence is that day still accounted black, dismal, and un-

15 Vide three feathers in a plume on the Equestrian Statue of Cosmo de' Medicis, in Litta " Celebri Famiglia."

lucky, which took away the lives of two kings by the sword of the enemy/' alluding to John, King of Bohemia, and James, King of Majorca; the fall of the latter monarch is, however, disputed. The first mention of Edward as the Black Prince, in England, occurs in a parliamentary paper of the second year of the reign of Richard II

In the twenty-second year of Edward III.'s reign was founded the most noble Order of the Garter. The circumstance that suggested his choice of this symbol is another mystery; but all writers' of any credit combine to reject the popular tradition, which assigns it to the accidental fall of a lady's garter (the Queen's or a Countess of Salisbury's) at a grand festival, and the motto, *6 Honi soit qui mal y pense," to the gallant indignation of the monarch at the sneer of the courtiers. Sir E. Ashmole, in his History of the Order, considers the garter as a symbol of union, and in his opinion he is followed by Sir Walter Scott and Sir Samuel Meyrick. We are not aware of any evidence that would shake such high authority; but one curious question occurs to us, connected with the subject of our work,—costume,—from whence did Edward derive the garter? Camden says, he gave forth his own garter as a signal for a battle that sped well, which Du Chesne takes to be that of Cressy. When the first edition of this book appeared, I doubted if garters were worn by men in those days. No indication of such an article occurs upon any monument or in any illumination of the time, nor would it appear there was any need of such an assistant; the chaus&s or long hose being attached to the doublet, or at least ascending to the middle of the thigh, where they were met by the drawers. The leg-bandages, abandoned in the previous century, have no affinity to the short garter and buckle, which forms the badge of this celebrated Order, while, in the absence of all proof, probability is in favour of such garters being worn by the ladies, whose hose were in shape precisely the stockings of the present day, as may be seen in an illumination of the time of Edward II,, engraved in Strutt's Dress and Habits, from Royal MS. 2, B. 7, I have since found mention made, however, of a pair of garters belonging to a man, by Bocqacciof in the second novel of the second day; where Rinaldo, who has been robbed and stripped of even his stockings and shoes, gets back all but his garters (" un paio di cintolini"). The Decamerone was written in the reign of Edward III.; and in the portraits of Cimabue the painter, by Simon Memmi, engraved in Bonnard's Costumes, both legs am gartered with gold beneath the knee.

But whatever may have been the origin of the garter itself, the recorded one for the foundation of the order is the uniting not only of the native knights one with another, but of foreigners with them in the bonds of unity and peace; and our principal business is with the vestments by which

they were distinguished. These were originally a mantle, tunic, and capuchon, of the fashion of the time, all of blue woollen cloth ; those of the knights companions differing only from the sovereign's by the tunic being lined with miniver instead of ermine. The tunic and capuchon were powdered, that is to say thickly embroidered with garters of blue and gold, the mantle having one larger than all the rest on the left shoulder, inclosing a shield Argent, with the cross of St. George Gules. Edward III. had 168 garters embroidered on His tunic and capuchon.

In the thirty-fourth year of his reign the colour of the tunic was changed to black, as a sign of humiliation, in consequence, Ashmole supposes, of the pestilence then raging; and in the thirty-seventh year it was made of cloth sanguine in grain, by which is generally understood purplq. The capuchon always varied with the colour of the tunic. The garter was of blue and gold, as at present, and worn round the left knee, as appears from the effigy of Sir Richard Pembridge (the fiftieth knight), in Hereford cathedral. The effigy indeed, in its present state, has a garter round both knees; and Gough, in his i Sepulchral Monuments,' mentions this as a curious circumstance; but the story prevalent at Hereford accounts for it in a most ludicrous manner. Part of the roof of the cathedral having fallen in, and broken the right leg of the effigy, which is of alabaster, a carpenter was employed to carve a wooden substitute, and taking for a pattern the (in both senses of the word) left leg, he very carefully placed a garter round that of his own fabrication. It is perhaps a more curious circumstance, that the garter is not visible on the monuments of Edward the Black Prince, Sir Oliver Ingham,1® or of any other original knight of the Garter, or in any illumination of the period, and that no mention of a garter, to be worn round the knee, occurs in any wardrobe account of the time!

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