the state dresses consist of long robes with or without sleeves, lined and trimmed with furs, or having only capes or collars of ermine descending half way to the elbow, with bars of ermine beneath, according to the rank of the wearer.
Garlands or coronets, and chains or collars of gold and jewels, are worn as before.
The robes of the knights of the Garter underwent some alteration in this reign. The colour of the surcoat and chaperon was changed to scarlet1 in the thirteenth year of Henry VI., and afterwards back again to white. The number of garters to be embroidered on them was limited in this reign to one hundred and twenty for a duke, and less by ten for a marquis, by twenty for an earl, and so on, down to a knight bachelor, who wore sixty. The king was unlimited, and on Henry's surcoat and hood there were one hundred and seventy-three. The mantle about this period was first made of velvet, and lined with white damask or satin.® Legal and other official habits are composed invariably of long and full gowns, sometimes of two colours,8 girdled round the waist, and hoods with
1 And in confirmation of this, we perceive that the surcoat of the Earl of Shrewsbury, in the illumination engraved at the head of this chapter, is so painted; the hood is also red, but lighter.
8 " Of older times," says Stow, " I read that the officers of this city wore gowns of party-colours, as the right side of long tippets by which they are occasionally slung over the shoulder. The gowns are trimmed and lined with furs according to the rank of the wearer.
When Henry YI. returned to England after being crowned in France, a.d. 1432, the lord-mayor of London rode to meet him at Eltham, being arrayed in crimson velvet, a great velvet hat furred, a girdle of gold about his middle, and a baldrick of gold about his neck trailing down behind him. His three henchmen4 in one suit of red spangled with silver. The aldermen in gowns of scarlet with purple hoods, and all the commonalty of the city in white gowns and scarlet hoods, with divers cognizances embroidered on their sleeves.5
one colour and the left side of another. As for example, I read in books of accounts in Guildhall, that in the nineteenth year of King Henry VI. there was bought for an officer's gown two yards of cloth coloured mustard villars, a colour now out of use, and two yards of cloth coloured blew, price two shillings the yard, in all eight shillings more, paid to John Pope, draper, for two gown-cloths, eight yards, of two colours, eux ombo deux de rouge or red medley, brune and porre (or purple) colour. Price the yard two shillings. These gowns were for Piers Rider and John Buckle, clerks of the chamber." Mustard villars has been said to be a corruption of moitié" velours, and consequently to signify the species of stuff; and not the colour ; but Stow speaks of it here as a colour distinctly. A town called Moustiers de FilHers, near Harfleur, is mentioned by the historians of the preceding reign in their accounts of Henrys expedition, and most probably gave its name to the dye or the 6tuff there manufactured.
4 Pages so called. The royal henchmen were abolished by Queen Elizabeth.
Figs, a and 6, two salades of the reign of Heniy VI., one with a moveable visor; c, a figure from an ivory cross-bow (of the same reign, showing the salade covering the face; d, a bill, and e, a dagger called dague a roelle from its handle j all from the originals at Goodrich Court.
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