In another part of the same poem we find a chaplet of roses worn over the garland of gold—

u Ung chappel de roses tout frais Eat dessus le chappel d'Orfrays."

Cloth stockings embroidered with gold are amongst the articles of dress ordered by Henry III. for his sister Isabel.

In the {Squier of Low Degree,' a romance written towards the end of the thirteenth century, the King of Hungary is made thus to address his daughter:—

" To-morrow ye shall yn hunting fare* And yede my daughter in a chare; Yt shall be covered with velvet red, And clothes of fine gold all about yonr head; With damask white and azure blewe Well diappered with lillies new ; Your mantle of ryche degree, Purple pall and ermyne free."

The word diaper is derived by some writers from " D'Ipres," t. e. " of Ypres," a town in Planders, famous for its manufactory of rich stuffs and fine linen before the year 1200. Du Cange derives it from the Italian diaspro, the jasper, which it resembles in its shifting lights; but the first is by &r the most plausible conjecture ; and though we read of diapers of Antioch, it is only because Ypres having given its name to its peculiar manufacture, any similar cloth received the same appellation. Thus we see in the

Hoes above quoted that the " damask white and azure blewe " is to be well " diappered with lillies," that is to say, covered all over with a pattern of lilies, in the style of the cloth made at Ypres. In the same manner, Damascus itself having obtained a reputation for its manufactures of ornamental stuffs and steel, to damask a sword blade became a familiar phrase; and damasks of Ypres might have been spoken of with as much propriety as diapers of Damascus or of Antioch.

The fashion of wearing the hair was completely altered during this reign. The plaited tails were unbound, and the hair turned up behind, and confined in a net or caul of gold thread; but the veil and wimple frequently prevent its being seen on the monumental effigies of this period.

The richly embroidered garments of the clergy at this period occasioned Innocent IV. to exclaim, " O England, thou garden of delights, thou art truly aH inexhaustible fountain of riches! From thy abundance much may be exacted !" and he forthwith proceeded to exact as much as he could, by forwarding bulls to several English prelates, enjoining them to send a certain quantity of such embroidered vestments to Rome for the use of the clergy there. Some of these sacerdotal habits were nearly covered with gold and precious stones, and others were exquisitely embroidered with figures o 2

of animals and flowers. The red hat is said to have been first given to the cardinals by Pope Innocent at the Council of Lyons in 1245 ; and, according to De Curbio, they wore it for the first time in 1246, on occasion of an interview between the Pope and Louis IX. of France. It was not flat, as at present, but of the shape here represented from a MS. of the commencement of the fourteenth century, marked Royal MS. 16

During this reign the two orders of friars,8 the Dominicans, or preaching friars, and the Franciscans, or friars minors, were established in this country. St. Dominic founded his order in the year 1215, and the first Englishman that is recorded to have become a Dominican was the ecclesiastical physician, Johannes iEgidius. Forty-three houses of this order were in time raised in England, where •

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