part of Elizabeth's. The long-waisted or peasecod-bellied doublet remained in vogue, and the conical-crowned hat and large Gallic or Venetian hosen, slashed, quilted, stuffed, and guarded (or laced), were worn as before. The increase in size, from the quantity of stuffing used in the garments, we may partly trace to the pusillanimous character of the new monarch. Dalzel, a contemporary of James, informs us, in his 6 Fragments of Scottish History,' that that monarch had "his cloathing made large, and even the doubletts quilted for (fear of) stellets (stilettoes) ; his breeches in great plaits and full stuffed. He was naturally of a timorous disposition, which was the gretest reason of his quilted doubletts."
The ruff was occasionally exchanged for a wide stiff collar, standing out horizontally and squarely, made of the same stuff, and starched and wired as usual, but plain instead of plaited or pinched, and sometimes edged like the ruff with lace. These collars were called bands.1
Towards the close of James's reign, however, we perceive a slight alteration. Short jackets or
1 Both the band and the ruff were in this reign stiffened with yellow starch, in preference to all other. This fashion is said to have been introduced from France by a Mrs. Turner, who was afterwards executed for poisoning Sir Thomas Overbury. Vide pace 372. In the play of Albumazzar, published aj>. 1614, Armelina asks Trincalo, "What price bears wheat and saffron, that your band is so stiff and so yellow?" Bulwer speaks of the "Cobweb-lawn yellow starched ruffe.1' Pedigree of the English Gallant, p. 536*
doublets, with tabs and false sleeves hanging behind, succeed to the long-waisted doublets, and the hose, instead of being slashed or laced, were covered with loose broad straps, richly embroidered or adorned with buttons, and discovering the silk or velvet trunk at the narrow intervals between them. Vide portrait of Henry, Prince of Wales, page 355. The stockings were gartered beneath the knee, and the garters fastened in a large bow or rosette on one side. The ldose Gallic hosen were still worn, and fastened to the doublet or jacket just above the tabs by innumerable points.
In a MS. in the Harleian Library is the following description of the dress of the famous George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, the favourite of James I. " It was common with him at any ordinary dancing to have his clothes trimmed with great diamond buttons, and to have diamond hatbands, cockades, and earrings; to be yoked with great and manifold knots of pearl, in short, to be manacled, fettered, and imprisoned in jewels; insomuch that, at his going over to Paris in 1625, he had twenty-seven suits of clothes made, the richest that embroidery, lace, silk, velvet, gold and gems could contribute; one of which was a white uncut velvet, set all over, both suit and cloak, with diamonds, valued with fourteen thousand pounds, besides a great feather stuck all over with diamonds, as were also his sword, girdle, hatband, and spurs." The following extract from a letter of James I. to the same nobleman, and to the Prince of Wales, whom Buckingham had accompanied to Madrid in 1623, relates also to the fashion of wearing jewels in the hat:—
" I send you," writes the king to his son, " for youre wearing, the three brethren that ye knowe full well, but newlie sette, and the mirroure of Fraunce, the fellow of the Portugall dyamont, quiche I wolde wishe you to weare alone in your hatte, with a little blakke feather and to Bucking, ham he says," as to thee, my sweete gossippe, I send thee a faire table dyamont, quiche I wolde once have gevin thee before if thou wolde have taken it, and I have hung a faire pearle to it for wearing on thy hatte, or quhaire thou plaisis, and if my Babie" (as he always called Charles) " will spaire thee the two long dyamonts in forme of an anker, with the pendant dyamont, it were fit for an admiral to weare.* If my Babie will not spaire the anker from his mistresse, he may well lend thee his rounde brooche to weare, and yett he shall have jewells to weare in his hatte for three great dayes."
In Dekker's Horn-book, dated 1609, we read, " When your noblest gallants consecrate their hours to their mistresses and to revelling, they wear feathers then chiefly in their hats, being of y* Purest ensigns of their bravery;" and John Taylor,
* The Duke of Buckingham was Lord High Admiral.
the water-poet, reprobates the spendthrift and the gallant, who
" Wear aferm in shoe-strings edged with gold, And spangled garters worth a copyhold ; A hose and doublet which a lordship cost; A gaudy cloak three mansions'price almost; A beaver band and feather on the head, Prised at the church's tythe, the poor man's bread»"
Silk, worsted, and thread stockings were now almost universally worn, and cloth or woollen stockings considered unfashionable.
In £ The Hog hath lost its Pearl,' a play by Robert Taylor, printed 1611, one of the characters remarks, that good parts, without the habiliments of gallantry, are no more set by than a good leg in a woollen stocking.
In the History of Jack of Newbury, a merchant is described in a grave-coloured suit, with a black cloak; and in a comedy by Dekker, published a.d. 1612,* a man is told to walk " in treble ruffs like a merchant."
The hat worn by the knights of the Garter at this time was high crowned, and feathers having been latterly neglected (perhaps in favour of the jewelled hatband, which is frequently seen in this reign unaccompanied by a plume), were re-introduced in the tenth year of James's reign. Some variation appears also in the colour of the mantle of foreign princes; that sent to Frederick, Duke
* Entitled 'If this be not a good Play the Devil's in it.'
of Wurtemberg, in the fourth year of his reign, is stated to have been " of a mixed colour 5 to wit, purple and violet."
The riband also, to which the lesser George, or medal, was appended round the neck, was during this reign changed from black to blue. One of blue, or sky colour, is ordered in the twentieth of James I.4
The viscount's coronet, composed of an unlimited number of pearls round a circlet of gold, dates from this reign, and was first worn by Yiscount Cranbourn, created 20th August, second of James I.
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