The Armour

of the time of Henry VII. will perhaps be best understood from the engraving in p. 281. The breastplate is globular, and of one piece, as in the time of Edward IV., but beautifully fluted, as are all the other pieces except the jambs. The sollerets are widened at the toes in accordance with the new fashion of the shoes, the armour invariably taking

its general form from the civil costume of the day. The helmet assumes the form of the head, having moveable lames or plates at the back to guard the neck, and yet allow the head to be thrown back with ease, as seen in the casquetel of the reigns of Henry VI. and Edward IV. It opened to receive the head by throwing up the mentonnière, or lower part that guarded the chin and throat, as well as the visor, which turned upon the same screw. Towards the latter end of this reign the panache, which had first appeared on the apex of the bascinets of Henry V.'s time, was changed for the plume, inserted in a pipe affixed for the purpose to the back of the helmet, just above the neck-plates, and, instead of consisting of at most but three, was now composed of a profusion of magnificent feathers that streamed down the, shoulders almost to the crupper of the horse ; and, instead of the tassets and tuiles, a new feature in armour called the lamboys, from the French lambeaux, a sort of petticoat of steel, in imitation of the puckered skirts or petticoats of cloth or velvet worn at this time, was introduced, for the better understanding of which we shall refer our readers to the next chapter. The pass-guard was introduced during this reign, being plates rising perpendicularly upon the shoulders to ward off the thrust or blow of a weapon at the side of the neck. The tabard was still worn occasionally. Henry VIL is represented on his great seal in an emblazoned one, but it became rarer as the armour was made more splendid; and not only fluted suits, but some that are ribbed and exquisitely engraved, made their appearance during this reign.

The tilting helmet was oval-shaped, but presenting a salient angle in front, and was surmounted, as before, with the orle, or chaplet and crest.

The shield was pentangular, or square and concave, and of various other fantastic shapes.

The sword tapers to a point, and has a ridge down the centre on both sides of the blade.

The halberd, which is first mentioned in the reign of Edward IV., is now a weapon in common use, and halberdiers appear for the first time amongst the English infantiy.

As the hand-gun or cannon was first generally known in England during the reign of Edward IV., the next improvement in fire-arms, that of placing a sort of lock to the iron tube with a cock to hold the match suggested by the cross-bow, and from that circumstance called the arc-a-bouche or arc-a-bousa, corrupted into arquebus, was familiarized to the English by Henry VII., who, on establishing the body of yeomen of the guard in 1485, armed half of them with bows and arrows, and the other half with arquebuses. This cock was also called the serpentine, being in the form of the letter S reversed, and turning on a pivot in the centre; so that the upper part which held the match was brought down upon the pan by pushing back the under. Hans Burgmair's plates of the triumph of the Emperor Maximilian I. represent the appearance and equipment of the harquebussiers at the commencement of the sixteenth century. Suspended from their necks are powder-flasks of a circular form, or powder-horns; they have a bullet-bag at the right hip, and a sword at the left, while they carry the match-cord in their hands. Their armour consists of a back and breast plate, pieces for the arms and thighs, and chain-mail gorgets for the neck.

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