The Armour

of this period is principally remarkable for its ad* ditional decoration. The lamboys, introduced during the reign of Henry VII. and described in

Henry VIII., from his great seal.

the last chapter, appear throughout this and the following reign; but when they are not appended to the breastplate, tassets and cuishes, composed of several plates instead of one, are seen upon the thigh. A magnificent suit of the former fashion is to be seen in the collection at the Tower. It was presented by the Emperor Maximilian I. to Henry VIII. on his marriage with Catherine of Arragon, and, before the inspection and arrangement of the horse armouiy by Sir S. Meyrick, was supposed to have belonged to Henry VII. The complete suit both for horse and man is beautifully engraved with legendary subjects, badges, mottoes, &c., and is precisely similar in shape to a suit preserved in the little Belvidere palace at Vienna, which belonged to Maximilian himself, and to that in which Henry is represented on his great seal. (Vide engraving on the previous page.) Raised armour, the forerunner of the embossed, was introduced in this reign; the ground is frequently kept black, and the pattern raised about the tenth of an inch, polished. Puffed and ribbed armour, in imitation of the slashed dresses of the day, is also occasionally met with; we have engraved a suit here (p. 304) from a drawing of one in the Meyrick collection, with the two-handed sword of the time resting on the shoulder.

The breastplate was still globose, but towards the middle of this reign rose to an edge down the centre called the tapul—a revival of an old fashion. Towards the end of the reign the breastplate presented a salient angle in the centre. The tilting helmet disappeared altogether about this

Suit of puffed and ribbed armour, temp. Henry VIII., in the Meyrick collection.

period, and a head-piece called a coursing-hat was worn with a mentonnière. The helmet was adorned with the streaming plumes before mentioned. (Vide engraving from great seal of Henry VIII.) The gauntlets were mostly made of overlapping plates without fingers.

To the list of weapons we have to add the per-tuisane or partizan, a variety of the pike or spontoon. The Asiatic art of inlaying weapons with gold was introduced about this period into Europe by Benvenuto Cellini, and blades so adorned were called damasqirinee, from the practice originating at Damascus. The hackbut, first mentioned in the reign of Richard III., now became common; and to the matchlock was now added the wheel-lock, also invented by the Italians. It was a small machine for producing sparks of fire by the rapid revolution of a wheel against a piece of sulphuret of iron held like the flint in the modern musket, only that the cock was on the side where the pan now is. The spring which turned the wheel was attached to a chain formed like those in watches, and wound up by an instrument called a spanner; a catch was connected with the trigger, which, being pulled, liberated the wheel, and, the cock having been previously brought down upon it, the friction of the pyrite produced the fire. This piece was called the fire-lock as well as the wheel-lock, though differing greatly from the later invention so called.

The pistol, and its variety, the dag or tacke, are also of this period, the difference consisting only in the shape of the butt-end; that of the former terminating in a knob like the pommel of a sword-hilt, and that of the latter being merely cut in a slanting direction.4

4 Vide page 317. The pistol superseded the mace in the hands of officers during this reign, and a most interesting riimen of the mace and pistol combined was purchased for national collection at the sale of Mr. Brocas's armour.

Military costume, temp. Henry VII I., from drawings in the British Museum. Cotton. MS. Augustus II.

The pike was introduced into France by the Swiss in the time of Louis XI., and soon became an infantry weapon throughout Europe. Pikemen composed a principal part of the English army from the reign of Henry VIII. to that of Wil-* liam III.

female costume.

It would be strange indeed if we were at a loss for an illustration of the female costume of any period of this reign, considering that Henry married no less than six wives in the course of thirty*

eight years, and consequently ensured us so many portraits of noble and princely dames by the best painters of his day. We must beg, however, to refer our readers to Lodge's popular and beautiful work for the prints engraved from them.

In number and name the principal parts of a lady's dress continued unchanged ; the only novelty in the latter being the mention of the partlet and waistcoat. The partlet is supposed by Mr. Strutt to have taken the place of the gorget, which had latterly been used only for mourning habiliments, and called the barbe. Our fair readers will perceive in the costumes of this period a covering for the neck and throat, similar to what is now called a habit-shirt; and this we have reason to believe was called the partlet. It sometimes had sleeves attached to it, and was made of stuffs of the most valuable and delicate kind. In the inventory we have so often quoted appear " two partelets of Venice gold, knit; two partelets of Venice gold, caul fashion ; two partelets of white thread; and two partelets of white lawn, wrought with gold about the collars." The partelets are seen in numberless portraits of this period, most beautifully embroidered with gold.

The waistcoat was a similar garment to that of the same name worn by the men. " Two wast-cotes for women, being of clothe of silver, embroidered, both of them having sleeves," is an entry in the same inventory.

The gowns of the nobility were magnificent, and at this period were open in front to the waist, showing the kirtle, as the inner garment, or what we should call the petticoat, was then termed. Their fashions were various in detail, though possessing the general character of the costume of the time.

" Gowns of blew velvet, cut and lined with cloth of gold, made after the fashion of Savoy," were worn by the ladies accompanying Henry at a masque in the sixth year of his reign ; and Anne of Cleves, the same writer tells us, wore, on her first interview with Henry VIII., " a ryche gowne of cloth of gold raised, made round, without any trayne, after the Dutch fashion."4

Seven yards of purple cloth of damask gold are allowed for a kirtle for Queen Catherine (of Arra-gon) in a wardrobe account of the eighth year of Henry's reign. The ladies' sleeves were as distinct from their body vestments as we have already found the men's, and attached at pleasure to the gown or waistcoat. Much splendour was lavished on this part of the dress, and its various fashions were singularly quaint and elegant. Amongst the inventories of this reign we find three pair of purple satin sleeves for women; one pair of linen sleeves, paned

5 A variety of gowns, single and lined, and of the most costly materials, are enumerated in an iuventory taken of the royal wardrobes at the Tower, as belonging to " her majesty and my lady the princess."

with gold over the arm, quilted with black silk, and wrought with flowers between the panes and at the hands; one pair of sleeves of purple gold tissue damask wire, each sleeve tied with aglets of gold; one pair of crimson satin sleeves, four buttons of gold being set on each sleeve, and in every button nine pearls.8

Hall, the chronicler, who revels in the description of the splendid shows and pageants of all ages, and describes with as much minuteness and confidence those which took place in the fourteenth as he does those of which he was an eye-witness in the sixteenth century, may be trusted respecting the latter, at least as far as suits our purpose. At a banquet given in the first year of Henry's reign, upon Shrove-Sunday, in the parliament-chamber at Westminster, he speaks of six ladies who formed part of

« The dress of Queen Catharine (Parr) is thus described by Pedro de Gante, secretary to the Spanish Duke de Najera, who visited Henry VIII. in the year 1543—44. " She was dressed in a 1 delentera' of cloth of gold, and a 4 say a' (t. e. petticoat or kirtle of brocade, with sleeves lined with crimson satin, and trimmed with three-piled crimson velvet; her train was more than two yards long. Suspended from her neck were two crosses and a jewel of very rich diamonds, and in her head-dress were many and beautiful ones. Her girdle was of gold, with very large pendants."

The same writer describes the princess Mary, afterwards queen, as a person of pleasing countenance, and " so much beloved throughout the kingdom that she is almost adored 1" She was dressed in a saya of cloth of gold, with a gown or loose robe (tropon) of violet-coloured three-piled velvet, with a head-dress of many rich stones.

a show towards the close of the evening, " whereof two were appareyled in crimson satyn and purpull, embrowdered with golde, and by vynettes ran floure de lices of golde, with marvellous ryche and strange tires on their heads: other two ladies in crimosyn and purpull, made like long slops, embroudered and fretted with golde after the antique fascion, and over the slop was a shorte garment of clothe of golde, scant to the knee, facioned like a tabard all over with small double rolles, all of flatte golde of damask fret and fringed golde, and on their heads skaynes (scarfs), and wrappers of damaske golde with flatte pypes, that strange it was to beholde: the other two ladies were in kirtles of crymosyne and purpull satyn, embroudered with a vynet of pomegranattes of golde ; all the garments cut compass-wise, having demy sleeves, and naked down from the elbows" (the first appearance of bare arms since the time of the ancient Britons),—" and over their garments were vochettes (? Rochettes) of plesaunces rouled with crymsyne velvet and set with letters of golde like caractes (query, characters ?). Their heades rouled in pleasauntes and typpets like the Egipicians, embroudered with golde; their faces, necks, arms, and handes covered in fine pleasaunce black; some call it lumberdynes, which is mar-veylous thinne, so the same ladies seemed to be nigrost or blackmores." What are the descriptions of the court-newsman in our days to this ? What joy for the 6 Morning Post9 or the ' Court Journal'

to have their columns filled with a report of the dresses worn at such a fancy ball as this given at Westminster in 1509, " for all the ambassadours which were here out of diverse realmes and countries!"

The various head-dresses of this period will be best understood from the engraving. The cap or coif, familiarized to us as the "Mary Queen of Scots cap," seems to have been introduced about this period. Those worn by the ladies at an entertainment given at Greenwich in the third year of Henry's reign were " all of golde." The French hood was another head-dress in fashion at this time. Holinshed tells us that Anne of Cleves, the day after her arrival in England, wore a French hood after the English fashion, which became her exceeding well. The French hood was the head-dress seen in one of the portraits of Anne Boleyn and in that of Catharine Howard. In anticipation of the attainder of the latter, Henry took possession of all her personal property, but was graciously pleased to allow her six changes of apparel and " six French hoods with edgings of goldsmith's work, but without pearl or diamond." (Lingard; State Papers, 695.) The miniver or three-cornered caps were worn throughout this reign. They were white, says Stow, and three-square, and the peaks full three or four inches from the head. The aldermen's wives made themselves bonnets of velvet, after the fashion of miniver caps, but in the time he wrote, a. d. 1631, he adds, they were almost forgotten.

the dresses op the merchants, citizens, and others, appear in numberless prints of the time.* In the history of John Winchcomb, or Witcomb, the famous clothier, called Jack of Newbury, he is described as going to Henry VIII. dressed in a plain russet coat, a pair of white kersie slopps, or breeches,8 without welt or guard (i. e. lace or border), and stockings of the same piece, sewed to his sloppes; and his widow, in the same work, is described, after having laid aside her weeds, as coming out of the kitchen in a fair train gown stuck full of silver pins, having a white cap on her head, with cuts of curious needlework under the same, and an apron before her as white as driven snow. Her wedding-dress is also specified in the same history in the following manner: the bride, being habited in a gown of sheep's russet and a kirtle of fine worsted, her head attired with a billiment (habiliment) of gold, and her hair as yellow as gold hanging down behind her, which

7 Vide in particular the " Great Bible " printed in 1539, with engravings on wood, said to have been designed by Hans Holbein.

8 The term " slopp " is now unceremoniously transferred to the nether garments—wherefore we cannot pretend to determine. A dealer in ready-made clothing is still called a slopseller.

was curiously combed and plaited according to the manner of those days, was led to church by two boys with bride laces, and rosemary tied about their silken sleeves. The maidens employed in spinning are said to have been dressed

" In petticoats of stamel red, And milk-white kerchers on their head, Their smock-sleeves like to winter's snow That on the western mountains flow, And each sleeve with a silken band Was fairly tied at the hand."

Here we have the first mention of the petticoat in the present sense of the word, and henceforward we find it used synonymously with kirtle.

Articles of dress at this period, even among the middle ranks, were frequently bequeathed in wills. William Cheryngton, yeoman, of Water-beche, 14th August, 1540, leaves " to my mother my holyday govmeNicholas Dyer, of Teversham, 29th October, 1540, " to my sister, Alice Bichendyke, 13s. 9c?., which she owed me, two kerchiefs of holland &c. John Holden, rector of Gamlingay, 29th October, 1544, leaves to Jone Grene "my clothe frock lined with sattin of cypress." These. entries are from wills in the Ely registry.

Howe, the continuator of Stow's Annals, informs us that many years prior to the reign of Queen Mary (and therefore as early as the time of Henry VIII. at least) all the apprentices of London wore blue cloaks in summer, and in the winter gowns of the same colour, blue coats or gowns being a badge of servitude about this period. Their breeches and stockings were usually made of white broad-cloth, ''that is round slopps or breeches, and their stockings sewed up close thereto, as they were all but of one piece." The " city flat cap," so often mentioned by writers of the time of James and Charles, was probably the cap of Edward VI.'s time, worn by the citizens long after it had gone out of fashion at court. When apprentices or journeymen attended upon their masters or mistresses at night, they went before them holding a lantern in their hands, and carrying a long club upon their shoulders. Some apprentices wore daggers in the daytime, behind or at the side. Sir Walter Scott has drawn an admirable picture of the brawling 'prentices of James's time from these materials in his 'Fortunes of Nigel.' In 1544, Sir William Laxton, the Lord Mayor, wore for the first time the rich collar of gold presented to the City by Sir J. Allen, the previous mayor, for the use of all the succeeding mayors of London.

the ecclesiastical costume underwent a considerable change at the Reforma- ' tion ; but we must refer our readers to the portraits in Lodge's work and the Great Bible before mentioned for their pictorial illustration. Vide also the print, after Holbein, of Henry VIII. granting their charter to the barber-surgeons, for the official costume of the reign.

reign of edward vi., 1547-1553 ; and mary, 1553-1558.

reign of edward vi., 1547-1553 ; and mary, 1553-1558.

General costume of the reigns of Edward VI. and Queen Mary. Fig. a, Sir J. Tyrell in the reign of Edward VI., from Sirutt. The rest from Fox's Book of Martyrs, temp. Mary.

The reigns of Edward VI. and Mary introduce us to the small fiat round bonnet worn on one side the head, and preserved to this day in the caps of the boys of Christ's Hospital, whose whole dress is indeed the costume of the citizens of London at the time of the foundation of that charity by the young and amiable Edward. Blue coats were the common habit of apprentices and serving-men, and yellow stockings were very generally worn at this period. The jackets of our firemen and watermen are also of this date, the badge being made in metal and placed on the sleeve in the sixteenth century, instead of embroidered 011 the breast or back of the garment itself as previously. Minstrels, players, and all retainers of the nobility were thus attired. In the year 1556 a remonstrance from the privy, council was presented to the lord president of the north, stating that certain lewd persons, to the number of six or seven in a company, naming themselves to be the servants of Sir Francis Lake, and wearing his livery or badge upon their sleeves, have wandered about these north parts representing certain plays reflecting on her majesty and King Philip and the formalities of the mass.

The preposterously broad or square-toed shoe was ousted by proclamation during Mary's reign, and the trunk-hose, as the stuffed upper stocks were now called, were nearly covered by the long flaps or skirts of the coats and doublets.

The well-known print, after Holbein, of Edward VI. founding Christ Church Hospital, presents us with the official and ecclesiastical costume of this period.

the armour of these two reigns underwent no material alteration. The projection of the tapul gradually de-

Powder Llask the reitfn of Mary, in ill? *i[■ yli'.:I* ■ n.

scended from the centre of the breast-plate till it completely disappeared, and the waist was considerably lengthened. The morion came into general p use. Brigandine jackets were worn by the archers, with steel skull-caps. In Mary's reign the waist again shortened, and by the statute of the 4th and 5th of Philip and Mary, we learn that the military force of the kingdom was composed of demi-lancers, who supplied the place of the men-at-arms; pike-men, who wore back and breast-plates with tassets, gorgets, gauntlets, and steel hats; archers, with steel skull-caps and brigandines; black bill-men or halberdiers, who wore the armour called almain rivet, and morions or sallets; and haquebutiers similarly appointed. A long wheel-lock dag and pistol of the reign of Edward VI., and a pocket wheel-lock pistol of the reign of Mary, are engraved here from the originals in the Meyrick collection; and a powder-flask of the latter period, from the

Fig. a, wheel-lock dag: ht wheel-lock pistol, temp. Edward VI.; and d pocket wheel-lock pistol, temp. Mary, from the Meyrick collection.

Fig. a, wheel-lock dag: ht wheel-lock pistol, temp. Edward VI.; and d pocket wheel-lock pistol, temp. Mary, from the Meyrick collection.

same source, presents us also with an equestrian figure in the costume of the time. The flask held the coarse powder for the charge, the finer for priming was held in a smaller case called a touch-box. Cartridges, according to Sir S. Meyrick, %were first used for pistols, and carried in a steel case called a patron, about this time.

the female costume of these two reigns was composed of the fashions which immediately preceded them, and the few novelties introduced will be found described in the next chapter, under the reign of Elizabeth.

CHAPTER XVII. reign of elizabeth, 1558-1603.

Early costume of Qaeen Elizabeth, from a miniature portrait orming patt of the collection alluded to, page 321.

We begin this chapter, as in duty bound, with the costume of the sovereign whose reign we are about to investigate; and shall proceed at once with the dress of the ladies of this period, leaving the habits of the gentlemen, both civil and military, for the conclusion of the chapter. It seems an act of supererogation to attempt to describe the personal costume of " Good Queen Bess." Her great ruff rises up indignantly at the bare idea of being unknown or forgotten. Her jewelled stomacher is piqued to the extreme, and her portentous petticoats strut out with tenfold importance at the slight insinuated against their virgin mistress, who lived but for conquest and display, and thought infinitely less of bringing a sister-queen to the block than of failing to make an impression upon a gentleman-usher. But with all due respect to her ruff and devotion to the, petticoats in general, we must beg to observe, that the best-known portraits of Elizabeth are those executed towards the close of her reign, and which belong as much to the seventeenth as to the sixteenth century.

Through the kindness of Mr. Dominic Colnaghi, we have the gratification of presenting our readers with an unpublished portrait of the queen, from a curious painting executed at the commencement of her reign, representing her in a dress as similar as possible to that of her sister and predecessor, in a portrait painted by the same hand and in the same collection; the upper dress being a sort of coat of black velvet and ermine, fastened only on the chest, and flying open below, disclosing the waistcoat and kirtle or petticoat of white silk or silver embroidered with black. She wears a ruff, it is true, but not the famous one to which she owes at least half her reputation. Her neck is also encircled by a gauze kerchief or scarf, knotted like that worn by Queen Mary.

Stubbs, who wrote bis 6 Anatomy of Abuses' in this reign, notices the peculiar fashion of this masculine habit and its enormous sleeves. "The women," says he, " have doublets and jerkins as the men have, buttoned up to the breast, and made with wings,1 welts, and pinions on the shoulder-points, as man's apparel in all respects; and although this be a kind of attire proper only to a man, yet they blush not to wear it."

About the middle of this reign the great change took place that gave the female costume of the sixteenth century its remarkable character. The body wasjmprisoned in whalebone to the hips ; the parte-let, which covered the neck to the chin, was removed, and an enormous ruff, rising gradually from the front of the shoulders to nearly the height of the head behind, encircled the wearer like the nimbus or glory of a saint. From the bosom, now partially discovered, descended an interminable stomacher, on each side of which jutted out horizontally the enormous varding ale, the prototype of that modern-antique, the hoop, which was banished the court by King George the Fourth, to the great joy of all classes of his majesty's subjects, saving only the metropolitan dressmakers. The cap or coif was oc-

1 In Ulpian FulwelFs Interlude," Like will to like, quoth the Devil to the Collier," printed in 1568, Nichol New-fan gle, the Vice, says—

" I learned to make gowns with long sleeves and wings, I learned to make ruffs like calves' chitterlings."


casionally exchanged for a round bonnet like that of the men, or the hair dressed in countless curls, and adorned with ropes and stars of jewels, and at the close of the reign (for the first time) with feathers.

The perfection of this costume is familiar to us, as we have before noticed, in the portrait of Elizabeth taken in the dress in which she went to St. Paul's to return thanks for the defeat of the Spanish armada, a.d. 1588, engraved by Crispin de Passe, from a drawing by Isaac Oliver. Vide cut, p. 323»

In addition to the ruff, she wears a long mantle of some delicate stuff, with a high-standing collar edged with lace, and expanding like wings on each side of the head. This was probably made of fine lawn or cambric.

In the second year of her reign began the wearing of lawn and cambric ruffs, they having before that time, says Stow, been made of holland, and now, when the queen had them of this new material, no one could starch or stiffen them; she therefore sent for some Dutch women, and the wife of her coachman Guillan became her majesty's first starcher.

In 1564 Mistress Dingham Vander Plasse, a Fleming, came to London with her husband, and followed the profession of a starcher of ruffs, in which she greatly excelled. She met with much encouragement amongst the nobility and gentry of this country, and was the first who publicly taught the art of starching, her price being four or five pounds for each scholar, and twenty shillings in


addition for teaching them how to seethe or make the starch.

Stubbs falls foul of'this "liquid matter which they call starch," wherein he says " the devil hath learned them to wash and dive their ruffs, which p 3

being dry will then stand stiff and inflexible about their necks." It was made, he tells us, of wheat flour, bran, or other grains, sometimes of roots and other things, and of all colours and hues, as white, red, blue, purple, and the like. He mentions also "a certain device made of wires, crested for the purpose, and whipped all over either with gold, thread, silver, or silk," for supporting these ruffs, and called " a supertasse or under-propper." These "great ruffs or neckerchers, made of hollande, lawne, cambric, and such cloth," so delicate that the greatest thread in them " shall not be so big as the least hair that is," starched, streaked, dried, patted, and underpropped by the supertasses, " the stately arches of pride," sometimes overshadowed three or four orders of minor ruffs placed gradatim one beneath the other, and all under " the master-devil ruff," which was itself clogged with gold, silver, or silk lace of stately price, wrought all over with needlework, speckled and sparkled here and there with the sun, the moon, the stars, and many other antiques strange to behold: some are wrought with open work down to the midst of the ruff and further; some with close work; some with purlid lace and other gewgaws, so clogged, so pestered that the ruff is the least part of itself. Sometimes they are pinned up to their ears, and sometimes they are suffered to hang over the shoulders like flags or windmill sails fluttering in the air.

Their gowns, continues the satirist, be no less famous than the rest, for some are of silk, some of velvet, some of grograin, some of taffata, some of scarlet, and some of fine cloth, of ten, twenty, or forty shillings the yard; but if the whole garment be not of silk or velvet, then the same must be layed with lace two or three fingers broad all over the gown; or if lace is not fine enough for them, he says they must be decorated with broad gardes of velvet edged with costly lace. The fashions too of the gown were as various as its colours, and " changing with the moon; for some be of the new fashion, and some of the olde; some with sleeves hanging down to the skirts trailing on the ground, and cast over their shoulders like cow-tails; some have sleeves much shorter, cut up the arm, drawn out with sundry colours, and pointed with silk ribbands, and very gallantly tied with love-knotts, for so they call them." Some had capes reaching down to the middle of their backs faced with velvet or fine taffata, and "fringed about very bravely;" others were plaited and crested down the back " wonderfully, with more knacks" than he can express.

Their petticoats, he says, were of the best cloth and the finest dye, and even of silk, grograin, &c., fringed about the skirts with silk of a changeable colour. " But what is more vain," he adds, " of whatever the petticoat be, yet must they have kirtles, for so they call them, of silk, velvet, grograin, taffata, satin, or scarlet, bordered with gards, lace, fringe, and I cannot tell what." Here the kirtle is again distinguished from the gown and petticoat, and is evidently the garment worn immediately under the gown, and at this time completely discovered by it, the skirt or train of the gown or robe being only just visible on each side of the figure.

The nether stocks or stockings, we are told, were of silk, jarnsey, worsted, cruel, or the finest yarn, thread, or cloth that could possibly be had; and they were " not ashamed to wear hose of all kinds of changeable colours, as green, red, white, russet, tawney, and else what not"—"cunningly knit" too, and " curiously indented in every point with quirks, clocks, open seams, and every thing else accordingly."

As early as the third year of Elizabeth, we read that Mistress Montague, the queen's silk woman, presented to her majesty a pair of black knit silk stockings, made in England, which pleased her so much, that she would never wear any cloth hose afterwards; not only on account of the delicacy of the article itself, but from a laudable desire to encourage this new species of English manufacture by her own example. Soon after this, says Stow, William Rider, then apprentice to Thomas Burdet, at the bridge foot, opposite the church of St. Magnus, seeing a pair of knit worsted stockings at an Italian merchant's, brought from Mantua, borrowed them, and having made a pair like unto them, presented them to the Earl of Pembroke, which was the first pair of worsted stockings knit in this country.

In Stubbs's time we perceive stockings of silk, worsted, and yarn, had become common.

In 1599, William Leej master of arts, and fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, invented a stocking-frame. Lee was born at Woodborough, in Nottinghamshire, and is said to have been heir to a good estate. Tradition attributes the origin of his invention to a pique he had taken against a towns woman with whom he was in love, and who, it seems, neglected his passion. She got her livelihood by knitting stockings, and with the ungenerous object of depreciating her employment he constructed this frame, first working at it himself, then teaching his brother and other relations. He practised his new invention some time at Calverton, a village about five miles from Nottingham, and either he or his brother is said to have worked for Queen Elizabeth. The other stocking manufacturers used every art to bring his invention into disrepute; and it seems they effected their purpose for that time, as he removed from Calverton, and settled at Rouen in Normandy, where he met with great patronage; but the murder of Henry IV. of France, and the internal troubles subsequent to that event, frustrated his success, and he died at Paris of a broken heart. Stow says that Lee not only manufactured stockings in his frame, but " waistcoats and divers other things."

The ladies* shoes were of many fashions. " They have corked shoes, puisnets, pantoffles, and slippers," says Stubbs; "some of black velvet, some of white, some of green, and some of yellow, some of Spanish leather, and some of English, stitched with silk and embroidered with gold and silver all over the foot, with other gewgaws innumerable."

The cork shoes here mentioned continued in fashion amongst the ladies the greater part of the seventeenth century.

" Then," exclaims the censor, " must they have their silk scarfs cast about their faces, and fluttering in the wind, with great lapels at every end, either of gold, or silver, or silk, which they say they wear to keep them from sun-burning. When they used to ride abroad, they have masks and visors made of velvet, wherewith they cover their faces, having holes made in them against their eyes whereout they look; so that if a man knew not their guise, he would think that he met a monster or devil."

Again: "their fingers must be decked with gold, silver, and precious stones; their wrists with bracelets and annulets of gold and costly jewels; their hands covered with sweet-washed («. e. perfumed) gloves, embroidered with gold and silver; and they must have their looking-glasses carried with them wheresoever they go;" and he is especially indignant against those who " are not ashamed to make holes in their ears, whereat they hang rings and other jewels of gold and precious stones."

A pocket looking-glass was the common companion of the fashionables of both sexes at this time. The ladies carried it either in their pockets or hanging at their sides, and sometimes it was inserted in the fan of ostrich or other feathers-one of the most elegant appendages to the costume of this period, and lately brought again into fashion, though more as an ornament for a room than as a substitute for the folding fan of ivory, which, however beautifully carved, is certainly not comparable to it either for use or elegance.

We have slightly mentioned the fashion of wearing the hair at the commencement of this chapter; we will conclude with the more elaborate account by Stubbs. He says it must be curled, frizzled, crisped, laid out in wreaths and borders from one ear to the other, and, lest it should fell down, must be "underpropped with forkes, weirs," &c., and ornamented with great wreathes of gold or silver, curiously wrought, bugles, ouches, rings, glasses, and other such gewgaws, which he being " unskillful in women's teams," cannot easily recount. "Then upon the toppes of their stately turrets stand their other capital ornaments; a French hood, hatte, cappe, kircher, and such-like, whereof some be of velvet, some of this fashion, and some of that;" cauls made of net-wire that the cloth of gold, silver, or tinsel, with which the hair was

Varieties of the French Hood.

Figs, a and b, from J. Boissard, 1582; c and d, Monument m Westminster Abbey, 1596 j e, Bulwer's Pedigree of English Gallant, 1653.

Fig. a, English lady of quality, 1577, from Wei gel's wood-cuts; b, English lady of quality, 1588, from Caspar Rutx.

sometimes covered, might be seen through ; and lattice caps8 with three horns or corners like the forked caps of popish priests :u and every merchants or artificer's wife or mean gentlewoman indulged in these extravagant fashions."

Fig. a, English lady of quality, 1577, from Wei gel's wood-cuts; b, English lady of quality, 1588, from Caspar Rutx.

8 In an ordinance for the reformation of gentlewomen's head-dress, written in the middle of Elizabeth's reign, it is said that none shall wear an ermine or lattice bonnet unless she be a gentlewoman born, having arms. Harleian MSS. No. 1776. Lattice, or Lettice, in Italian Latizzi, was a sort of fur which from an anecdote in Bonnard appears to have somewhat resembled ermine.

In the

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