The General Male Costume

of this period may be gathered from the following extracts from the Chronicles of Monstrelet and Paradin's Histoire de Lyons, for there was no fashion so ridiculous started in France, but then, as now, it was immediately adopted in England. The former writer tells us that the jackets, doublets, or pourpoints, were cut shorter than ever, and the sleeves of them slit, so as to show their large, loose, and white shirts; the shoulders were padded out with large waddings called mahoitres, and so capricious were the beaux of the period, that he who to-day was shortly clothed, was habited to-morrow down to the ground. They wore their hair so long that it came into their eyes, and they covered their heads with bonnets of cloth a quarter of an ell or more in height; all of them, as well knights as squires, wore chains of gold of the most sumptuous kind. Even boys wore doublets of silk, satin, and velvet; and almost all, e^ecially in the courts of princes, had points at the toes of their shoes a quarter of an ell long and upwards, which they now called poulaines. Paradin is still more descriptive on the subject of shoes. "The men," he says, " wore shoes with a point before, half a foot long; the richer and more eminent personages wore them a foot, and princes two feet long, which was the most ridiculous thing that ever was seen; and when men became tired of these pointed shoes, which were called poulaines, they adopted others in their stead denominated duck-bills, having a bill or beak before, of four or five fingers in length. After* wards, assuming a contrary fhshion, they wore slippers so very broad in front as to exceed the measure of a good foot."—p. 271.

In the third year of Edward's reign he endeavoured to check some of these extravagances, and an act was promulgated, by which cloth of gold, cloth of silk of a purple colour, and fur of sables, were prohibited to all knights under the estate of lords. Bachelor knights were forbidden to wear cloth of velvet upon velvet, unless they were knights of the Garter; and simple esquires or gentlemen were restricted from the use of velvet, damask, or figured satin, or any counterfeit resembling such stuffs, except they possessed a yearly income to the value of a hundred pounds, or were attached to the king's court or household.

The richer furs were also forbidden to any persons who were not in the enjoyment of forty pounds yearly income; and girdles of gold, silver, or silver gilt, or any way ornamented with such materials, were also forbidden to them.

No one under the estate of a lord was permitted to wear the indecently short jackets, gowns, &c. mentioned by Monstrelet, or pike or poulaines to his shoes and boots exceeding two inches in length. No yeoman, or person under the degree of a yeoman, was allowed bolsters, or stuffing of wool, cotton, or cadis, in his purpoint or doublet under a penalty of six shillings and eight-pence fine and forfeiture awarded; and to every tailor making such short or stuffed dresses, or shoemaker or cobbler manufacturing such long-toed shoes for unprivileged persons, Stow adds, the pain of cursing by the clergy for the latter offence, as well as the forfeit of twenty shillings; one noble to the king, another, to the cordwainers of London, and the third to the chamber of London.10

A similar statute was passed in the twenty-second year of Edward IV., when the former statutes were repealed, and woollen cloth manufactured out of the king's dominions was strictly prohibited to all persons under the rank of nobility. The lord mayor of London ranked as a knight bachelor; and the recorder and aldermen of Londont the mayors, bailifis, &c. of all cities, towns, shire towns, boroughs, cinque-ports, and the barons of the same, were permitted the use of apparel allotted to esquires and gentlemen having possessions to the annual amount of forty pounds.

The collar of suns and roses, to which was some-

10 Chronicle, p. 419.

10 Chronicle, p. 419.

times appended the white lion of the house of March, was given by Edward IV. to his adherents, and is seen on many of the effigies of this period. It is here engraved as seen on the effigy of the Countess of Arundel, at Arundel (fig. a), and that of Sir John Crosby in the church of Great St. Helen's, London (fig. b). In both instances the ornament or figure appended is destroyed, but the remains of it attached to Sir J. Crosby's collar bear evidence to its having been the representation of some animal, if not the lion of March. The suns and roses of the other collar are linked by thé Arundel badges of oak leaves.

Casquetel of the reign of Edward IV., in the Meyrick collection.

Casquetel of the reign of Edward IV., in the Meyrick collection.

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