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Institute of Commercial Arl, Inc.


Wash drawings, tike photographs, consist ol graded tones ol black. They have on advantage over a photograph because the artist may use his Own style and still produce a photographic effect whereas the camera is limited to the absolute tar simile of the subject. When making wash drawings for reproduction, it is bet' 'o use about two values of gray, with block and white, in order to produce the greatest contrast. You start in the usuol manner by making a careful guide drawing on tissue which is alto used to trace through onto a good sheet of wash board. It pays to use the best boord you can get. This will insure good reproduction (rom a half-tone plate.

This method is used to produce an effect of half-lone without the use of a half tone pfale. Ross board is a pebble-surfaced board which comes in various degrees of density. Make the usual careful pencil drawing and Irace if down. The basic drawing is done in ink with a brush, then the graded lones are added with o lilho crayon or grease pencil. To produce The rone, stort by stroking Ihc surface of the board lightly with the croyon which, coming in contact with the lop of the pebbled finish, produces a light lone. By increasing the pressure on the crayon slightly where desired, the lone can be mode darker, and you can even make some areas dork or dense enough lo join with solid blacks. A line plale is made for reproduction because oil of the lines and dots are black, os you can see lor yourself by examining your drawing with an enlarging glass.

Mode Tekenen Leren

Working for different media Courtesy Vfadmir Gregory In line work, it It important lo consider the medium in which the drawing is to oppear. For newspapers, where the paper is coarse, lines must be far enough oport to prevent the ink from filling in between them. In magazine work, on paper of finer quality, lines can be closer together without danger of getting q bod reproduction.

1 Make a clean, sharp 0 Cover the drawing with 0 Use a sharp fritkel

' line drowing ond be *• a sheet of Zip-A-Tone ** knife to cut lightly sure lo erose all pencil rubbed down lightly through the Zip-A-Tone marks. with some blunt inslru- sheet, removing all ar-

menl, such as an ivory eas except those you burnisher. want lo leave so Ihey will show. Burnish thor-

Zip-A-Tone and Ben Day oughiy.

Here is another way of producing a line drawing with the addition of gray lones. Make your black line drawing first with waterproo« ink. Then, using a lighT blue wosh, brush in the position of the gray tones you desire. The engraver will produce Ihese tones by applying a pattern ol Ben Day dots to the areas indicated by your blue wash. The Ben Day screen is a mechanical series of dolt, the density of which is determined by the number of dais per square inch. The most common Ben Day for newspaper use is a 55 screen, considered the leosl likely lo fill up when printed. The dots can only produce an even lone and any gradation effect must be produced by the artist with Ihc aid of lines. A Zip-A-Tone produces Ihe same effect as o Ben Day, but it 3s applied by Ihe artist himself. Instead of the engraver placing Ihe dots on Ihe drawing, Ihc artist does this by uting a Zip-A-Tone transparent sheet which contains a screen of dots. These screens ore numbered like Ben Day screens. A line plate it made for reproduction.

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