The eyes represent the most emotive part of the face, because they assume an infinite variety of expressions which are capable of communicating the most varied feelings.
In a face the eyes are certainly the most truthful reflection of a state of mind. It is not by chance that the first contact with another person is indeed determined by the eyes. Among the various features of the face they are certainly the most important. It is inconceivable to draw fashion designs without portraying the eyes, as one would be depriving oneself of the soul.
Technically the effect of light is obtained by making small white circles inside the iris and the pupil, whilst giving greater prominence to the shadow which the upper eyelid projects upon the eye.
The third eye is more sLylized and has more clearly defined outlines.
From an anatomical point of view the eye is made up of the perfectly spherical eyeball inside of which we find the iris in various colours and the pupil. The eye is protected by the eyelids, the upper one being thicker and broader while the lower one is thinner.
Seen from the front, the eye has the shape of an almond, while in profile it assumes a triangular aspect. The distance between one eye and another corresponds to the width of one of them (AB = A'B').
Important embellishments to the eyes are the eyelashes and the eyebrows, which according to their shape and width lend a profundity to the eyes.
In order to draw the eyes accurately give greater emphasis to the lower edge of the upper eyelid and cast a light shadow across the iris.
eyeball eyelash pupil lower eyelid upper eyelid eyeball eyelash pupil lower eyelid form and structure
Middle: Structural analysis of the eye
Right. Stylized drawing of the eye. The half shadows have been removed, greater emphasis has been placed on the outline and on the inside of the upper eyelid.
This type of study allows the student to understand the exact position of the eyes, visualizing part of the face as if it were o mask The segments as they are sketched here emphasize a sense of proportion underlining the distances, the areas, the internal and external spaces between what is being represented, different
THE NOSE analysis and structure
As far as the head is concerned, the nose is the most prominent anatomical feature. Every face has a different nose which sometimes gives it a decisive appearance. For this proportional analysis we select a well-proportioned nose, even if it is generic in form. For an accurate frontal portrayal we enclose the nose in an elongated trapezium at the bottom of which we sketch three circles, the central one being larger and the two side ones being smaller.
The distance between the alae is the equivalent of the width of an eye (AB = A'B'), as the illustration on the page to the right shows.
The nose is divided into the septum, the alae and the nostrils.
It is attached to the mouth by the nasal sulcus, which when seen in profile corresponds to the groove beneath the mouth.
Always in profile, the hollow above the nose is on the same line as the groove below the mouth. The length of the nose starting from the groove at the top C, is equal to the distance between the point at the bottom of the nose and the chin (CD = DE) and to the height of the ears C'D'.
View from below
View from below
THE EAR analysis and structure anthelix
Externally the ear has the form of a shell or of a large letter C. Structurally it is made up of an external border called a helix, and an internal one called an anthelix, a softer lower feature at the bottom, the lobe, a protrusion which protects the inside of the ear, the tragus, the tubercle, a small swelling on the curve of the helix and finally the concha of the auricle. The height of the ear corresponds to that of the nose.
The upper line of comparison AB aligns the hollow at the top of the nose, the upper eyebrow and the tip of the ear, whilst the lower one CD aligns the bottom of the nose with the bottom of the ear.
Schematized form of the ear Overall sketch Rear view
Three-quarters perspective Left profile helix tubercle concha
Series of drawings from the sketch to the definitive representation.
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