The Mouth analysis and structure

Female Face Sketch

The mouth is made up of two moving parts, the smaller and broader upper lip and the larger and fleshier lower lip. Where the lips join corresponds to a point one-third across each eye (AA' BB').

The trapezoidal sulcus is found between the nose and the mouth, its central axis dividing the mouth exactly into two equal parts.

Sketches of mouths from different perspectives.

Seen in profile the upper lip is more exposed than the lower.

All of the visualizations are drawn with the help of lines of construction.

Mouths Lip The Side Drawing


!ide view

Frontal view quarters view analysis of mouths in three consecutive phases

Mouth Drawing Front

From life

Sketch with lines of construction


Shading Drawing Leonardo Vinci

Sequence of drawings

1 Outline sketch

2 Structural analysis with lines of construction

3 Drawing with the mouth executed using chiaroscuro

4 Visual relationships between spaces and anatomical features underlined as in previous drawings by lines of construction

Drawing Noses From Different Perspective

t different perspectives and light chiaroscuro

Drawing From Different PerspectivesFashion Figure

THE HEAD analysis and structure

For a student who is training for the profession of fashion design, the representation of the head is probably the most complex artistic subject-matter. The body has no other anatomical part as diversified in its form, size, proportions and expression. Therefore an in-depth analytical study is necessary, accompanied by systematic exercises to acquire the necessary ability to reproduce the head by rote. The overall structure of the head is similar to an egg, whose upper part consists of the cranium and whose lower part consists of the face and the jaws. The drawings below show three highly simplified representations of the head and each has been divided into four sections by drawing in the horizontal axis AB and the vertical axis CD.

The horizontal axis AB divides the upper part, which we shall call the cranial area (CA), from the lower part, which we shall call the facial area (FA).

Woman Morphologic Face Structure

rule of proportion

Precisely because of its complex and variable morphology, the head has been an element of study from antiquity and there are many artists who with their observations and reflections have contributed to stabilizing the rules of proportion.

The rule used is one of three divisions from the hairline to the tip of the chin, because it has been shown to be the simplest from the point of view of drawing it. It was Leonardo da Vinci who established that the perfect oval must be divisible into three equal sections measured from the hairline to the upper eyelid, from there to the bottom of the nose, and finally from the bottom of the nose to the tip of the chin.

The student should use this rule to draw a female face correctly.



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Figure Drawing Rules

Analysis of the Rules of Proportion

Structure Martel
Fig. 4

1) Draw the vertical line AR and the hairline C.

2) Divide the perpendicular line into three equal parts between the hairline C and the bottom of the diagram B, locating points D-E

3) Plot a circle with the radius DA, allowing for the fact that its lowest point corresponds to the top of the upper lip and that the segment E-B divided in half forms the bottom of the lower lip. The horizontal diameter F-G determines the location of the eyebrows.

4) Construct an oval that has as its principal axis AB, making sure that it is confined to a rectangle which is subdivided into two equal parts by the line H-I. In this way we will establish the cranial area CA and the facial area TA.

5) Divide the straight line II-I which corresponds to the distance between the temples into five equal sections, thus establishing the spaces which lie between the temples and the extremities of the eyes (1-5), the position and the width of the eyes (2-4) and the distance between them (3). The highlighted part of the central section of the straight line L-M describes the width of the base of the nose. Let us now proceed to sketch the almond-shaped eyes and the trapezoidal shape of the nose (Fig. 2).

Remember that in drawing the eyelids, the upper one is larger and broader than the lower one. Then let us retouch the oval, adding to the face more feminine features

Then let us project a distance of one-third of the eyes as far as the line of the mouth, thus finding the extremities of the lips. Let us finish these sketches of the face by drawing the ears, whose height is equal to the line which links the upper eyelid to the base of the nose.

Finally let us draw the eyebrows in a curved fashion touching at their highest point the bottom of section I.

Let us finish the sketches of the face with more realistic features (Fig- 3).

To find where the neck joins the head, let us extend the horizontal line that extends from the base of the lower lip until it touches the oval at the points N-0 From the base of the chin E let us draw a straight line BP, the height of one section of the rectangle, establishing the hollow, the height and the width of the neck

As a last exercise trace the resulting outline giving clarity to the features of the face, the neck and the hair (Fig, 4).

Figure Drawing Profile Head

In order to construct a head in profile, sketch a circle the same size as the one used for the cranial area, extend the diameter by one-third beyond the circle, construct another circle of the same size bisecting the first (Fig. 5),

Draw a square whose upper side touches the circles and whose width encloses both of them and divide it into four equal sections A-B-C-D. Draw all the horizontal axes as they are portrayed at the number 3, establishing all of the points of correspondence and proportion (Fig. 5)

The female head is smaller than the male one, and because of this to sketch the lace in profile it is necessary to start again in the first section establishing the forehead, the nose, the mouth and the chin (Fig. 6).

In profile, the bridge of the nose is aligned with the indentation below the mouth (Figs, 7-8). The ear inserted into section B is to be located behind the jaw in a slanting position. Repeat the resulting outline giving clarity to the features of the face, of the neck and of the hair {Fig. 7).

rotation and drawing in sections

Figure Drawing FaceMale Human Noses DrawnAnalyze MouthsHead Profile Life Drawing

These drawings show the head in sections, as if it were a mask. Many students when they reproduce the human figure or a part of it have difficulty in envisaging size from the point of view of perspective and therefore inserting what they want to draw into space. This very often results in drawings which are flat and shapeless. Getting used to taking into consideration the concave part of the head as well helps in overcoming these errors of vision. Lines of construction and gentle shading determine more clearly the size of the head.


Foreshortening HeadForeshortened Figure Drawing

Foreshortening is a way of representing a figure or part of it in perspective.

Eveiy movement of the head results in a new redefinition of the figure and its visual aspects. In these pages we see visualized some faces portrayed from a variety of angles. The structure of the oval is emphasized by a neutral background the better to emphasize in each rotation the resulting proportions

Mouth Figure Sketch

essential features

Figure Drawing EssentialOutline Drawings Faces

It is possible to group faces into different fundamental outlines, highlighted by symbolic geometrical forms.

These drawings show the most common facial characteristics among women

Drawing Female Head Structure

essential features and contrasting shadows

Figure Drawing ForeshorteningStructure Drawing Hand

THE HAND analysis and structure

Along with the head, the hand constitutes one of the most important and difficult parts of the human body when it comes to drawing.

Its variety of movements and joints obliges the student to undertake an infinite series of studies whether from life or from memory, with the aim of reproducing it accurately in harmonious proportions and from various angles. A well-drawn hand confers more grace and femininity on the fashion plate, a badly designed hand compromises its overall harmony.

Analysis of Structure

Proportionately speaking, the hand is as long as the face. The principal parts of the hand are: back, palm and fingers.

The latter consist of the thumb, thicker and shorter than the other fingers and made up of two phalanxes, the index finger, the middle finger, the longest, the ring finger and the little finger which is almost as short as the thumb. The last four fingers are made up of three phalanxes known as follows: the proximal phalanx, which joins the hand, the middle phalanx, which forms the middle of the finger and the distal phalanx, which is at the extremity of the limb.

Every finger is of a different length, the various points of articulation and movement allow a hand to be the prehensile instrument of the body and in its particular morphology and expressivity the hand sometimes reveals the character and the degree of sensibility of the person.

Face Structure Realistic Drawing
hands from various perspectives with guidelines
Drawing Female Hands

from various perspectives with light chiaroscuro

Hand Chiaroscuro DrawingRotation Distalphalanx

THE ARM analysis and structure

Figure Analysis Upper Torso Drawing

The arm is the upper limb of the body and is made up of four moving parts: shoulder, upper arm, forearm and hand.

Each part has a corresponding joint, which allows extreme flexibility, mobility and rotation.

The broad outline of the limb can be represented by two cylinders which narrow at the base, the upper part of the forearm is similar to a truncated cone and the hand with fingers extended but not separated is similar to an elon gated rhombus.

Three spheres of different sizes indicate the respective joints of the shoulder, the elbow and the wrist. The arm extends from the shoulder to the waist, the forearm from the waist to the groin, whilst the hand extends approximately halfway down the thigh. For a better understanding of the proportions and the joints of the arm, as for the rest of the body, we recommend studying from life or using manikins.

Body Sketch Outline

outline drawing of intersecting figures

Figure Drawing Structure

GeL used to making your designs pleasing and methodical, refining the images with appropriate page layouts, also making use of neutral and geometrical backgrounds with the aim of making your drawing clearer and more professional.

Professional Figure Drawing
in accentuated outline with light shading.

drawings in relief using light shading

Female Figure Drawings

drawings in relief using light shading

THE FOOT analysis and structure

The Foot Analysis And Structure

The length of the foot corresponds to one-eighth of the height of the body, therefore to the height of the head. Unlike the hand, the foot is more closed and compact and its wedge-like shape and broad sole ensure that the foot functions as a support for the body.

Structurally it consists of five main parts: the heel, the two malleoli, the bridge of the foot and the five toes. The hallux, or big toe, is the largest. Finally, the sole of the foot has the function of supporting the body.

Right Foot Sole Anatomical Parts

malleoli bridge toes

malleoli bridge toes

Fashion Sketch Body OutlineWedge Function Bridge Structure

Top: Sketches of feel drawn from a number of pcrspcctivcs with visible lines of construction and m outline.

Right; Representation of the foot in outline seen from different perspectives.

Basic Foot Structure Drawing

THE LEG analysis and structure

Figure Leg Structure Drawings


The leg is the lower limb of the body. Proportionately the leg, including the foot, has a height of approximately four units of measure of the overall figure. Structurally the limb is made up of three moving parts: the thigh, the leg and the foot, which are connected by the joints of the hip, the knee and the ankle. The various anatomical parts of the entire leg bend and rotate by means of a moving and rounded bony structure, which allows extreme mobility, exactly as we have seen with the arm.

The broad outline of the lower limb can be represented as with the upper limb by two cylinders, which narrow at the bottom, by a truncated cone, which holds the calf geometrically and by a wedge-shaped form already mentioned in the previous chapter for the foot. Three spheres of various sizes indicate the location of the joints.

Figure Drawing Foot

The Length of the thigh is equal to that of the shin. The first difference that we notice in these three drawings is the variation in rhythmic structures. In the first and third drawings, the rhythmic structure assumes a curved aspect which starts from the hip joint going as far as the centrc of the knee, whereafter it descends vertically to the inside of the foot.

In the leg shown in profile the rhythmic structure assumes the form of an elongated letter S by contrast.

In profile the lower half of the leg underlines the difference in height which exists in the bending of the knee, namely lower at the front and higher at the back. The frontal view of all three legs demonstrates the points of con tact with the body's musculature, on the inside upper part of the thighs, the knee, the calf and the ankles. By contrast we note those areas where there is no contact with the musculature on the inside of the thighs, between them and the pubic region, between the knee and the calf, on the leg below the knee and between the ankles and the foot

Right: Legs portrayed from a variety of perspectives, drawn with rhythmic structure, points of articulation and bending. Sizes and proportions change according to the type of perspective,

Female Proportion DrawingHow Draw Legs And Shoes

le examples of legs drawn in line with light chiaroscuro and ficial guidelines, es of various styles are depict-the better to show the ele-cc which a leg assumes when a model wears high-heeled shoes. In order belter to understand the size and proportions involved, practise using an artistic manikin, following the methodology suggested in the preceding chapters

Sketch ManikinDraw Female Torso

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