1920s Flapper Style Dress

1920s Flapper Dress Pattern

In 1924 a famous magazine at the time showed how you could make an amazing-quality dress in an hour or so. However, with improvements in modern clothing and technology you can learn how to make a dress in 34 minutes or less! That is all that it takes to make a 1920s-style flapper dress You will be the envy of everyone around you and have the best clothing of anyone that you know, because you were able to make it yourself, with all of the specifications that YOU want in your clothes. It really doesn't have to be hard to make clothes yourself All that it takes is a bit of extra effort! You will also get extra FREE ebooks that show you other articles about dressmaking the 1920s, the best fashion of the time, and the TWO hour dress of 1925. Learn how to make your own amazing clothing quickly, and have amazing quality! Continue reading...

1920s Flapper Dress Pattern Summary


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Josephine Baker A Black Pearl

In her 1920s' performances in barely there dresses, Josephine Baker shocked Parisian society with her display of naked skin. In the following decade, she became famous not only for her style of performing but also for her stage costumes her elaborate headdresses and banana costume received standing ovations at the Folies Berg re. Although her look was considered vulgar, her dresses served as a source of inspiration for fashion in the 1920s and 1930s. Josephine Baker gave shape to a new culture, which liberalized fashion and dance to a new era of evening dresses.

Flappers and Campus Culture

The 1920s and 1930s saw the youth market expand further. In Britain, despite a general economic downturn, young workers' disposable incomes gradually rose, and they were courted by a growing range of consumer industries. In the United States, the economic boom of the 1920s also ensured a budding youth market, while distinctive styles became increasingly associated with the young. The image of the young, female flapper was especially prominent. With her sleek fashions, short bobbed hair, and energetic leisure pursuits, the archetypal flapper featured in many advertising campaigns as the embodiment of chic modernity. Clothing styles geared to young men also became more distinctive. From the 1890s sportswear became popular for casual attire. Shirt styles previously worn for sports replaced more formal garb as a new, leisure-oriented aesthetic surfaced within young men's fashion. Indicative was the appearance of the Arrow Man, who became a fixture of advertisements for Arrow shirts from...

The 1920s

Coco Chanel Collection 1920s

From 1920 to 1923 Chanel conducted a liaison with the grand duke Dmitri Pavlovitch, grandson of Russia's Tsar Alexander II, and her collections during these years were imbued with Russian influences. Particularly noteworthy were loose shift dresses, waistcoats, blouses, and evening coats made in dark and neutral colors with exquisite, brightly colored, folkloric Russian embroideries stitched by exiled aristocrats. In 1922 Chanel showed long, lean, belted blouses based on Russian peasant wear. broideries red and beige were favorite colors that year displayed more restrained and modernistic designs. Chanel led the international trend toward shorter hemlines. Her premises on the rue Cambon, which had already expanded in 1919, grew to include numbers 27, 29, and 31 during the early 1920s. Jewelry. Chanel believed the role of jewelry was to decorate an ensemble rather than to flaunt wealth, and she challenged convention by wearing heaps of jewelry, often...

Contemporary Scarification

During World War I, she and her husband moved in artistic and cosmopolitan circles between Europe and the United States. When Schiaparelli separated from her husband in the early 1920s, she returned to Paris with her young daughter. There she came to know Paul Poiret, who often loaned the impoverished young woman dresses to wear.

Benjamin Benedict Green Field

Benjamin Green-Field was born in Chicago, Illinois. The death of GreenField's father, when Benjamin was three, necessitated his mother, Ida Helen Green-Field, to open a hat shop to support her four children. Green-Field dropped out of high school to apprentice in the millinery trade, and soon after he opened his own business, Bes-Ben, a partnership with his sister, Bessie Green-Field, in the late 1920s. Green-Field's early work was typical of late 1920s and early 1930s head-wear, and his shop on fashionable Michigan Avenue was relatively un

Speculative Production of ReadyToWear as a Mature Industry

Poor Women Suits 1940

By the 1920s mass production and mass merchandising were fully integrated into the ready-to-wear industry. The focus of advertising had shifted from declarations of quality to exhortations urging readers to keep up with fashion, and from an emphasis on men's wear to one on women's wear. This gave impetus to the modern industry's strategy of rapid fashion change. The women's ready-to-wear industry in the United States became concentrated in New York City between Sixth Avenue and Ninth Avenue from 35th Street to 41st Street, where 65 percent of the women's garment workers were employed by 1940. The proximity of manufacturers to labor and suppliers as well as associated businesses gave New York firms the flexibility to react quickly and efficiently to changing fashions. Employment in the domestic American apparel industry peaked in 1950 at 1.4 million.

The Golden Age of Hollywood

Prior to the Hays Code, many films featured a more obvious sexuality and laid considerable stress on experience. In the 1920s and early 1930s, stars like Greta Garbo and Marlene Dietrich played world-weary women who had seen everything and were shocked by nothing. Frequently, as in Garbo's Susan Lennox and Dietrich's Shanghai Express, they played women who had been abandoned by lovers and had turned to prostitution. As Lea Jacobs has shown, 'fallen women' movies exercised a great appeal during the Depression years because they legitimated the use of sexuality as a means by which women could escape poverty and hardship.17 These images also drew on the theatrical tradition of the femme fatale that had been established in the nineteenth century by writers like Th ophile Gautier and actresses such as Sarah Bernhardt. Garbo and Dietrich were both enigmatic, even exotic, European women whose allure was enhanced by costumiers like Adrian at MGM and Travis Banton at Paramount, as well as the...

Charles Frederick Worth

Charles Frederick Worth

The House of Worth declined in importance during the 1920s and 1930s, although his great grandsons, Roger and Maurice, tried to continue the tradition until 1952 when the house was sold to Paquin. Parfums Worth, originally established in 1900, endures to this day with Je Reviens is its best-known fragrance. See also Paquin Callot Soeurs.

The Garonne in the Tailored Suit

The sobriety of dress prescribed by the state of war became the rule in the 1920s. The modern democratic suit was worn night and day. The woolen suit, in masculine style, adopted the new straight and short line. The jersey outfit was extremely popular. Made of knitted wool, silk, or cotton, it was worn with a sweater taken from sporty and American fashions. The boldest of suits of the time was no doubt the pants suit. After a timid appearance around 1890 for riding bicycles, in the form of culottes or bloomers, in the 1920s it was worn as broad trousers with a navy blue jacket, exaggerating the masculine silhouette that was fashionable in the jazz age. Softer, made of silk or printed cotton, the beach pajama was an addition to the summer wardrobe. On the ski slopes, elegant women displayed, with a degree of insolence, outfits of jackets, tunics, and pants in mountain style, the most fashionable made by Herm s. The use of this androgynous outfit, however, remained confined to...

The Sunairevthe Speedaire

Marcel Vertes Restaurant

In a reworking of Greek mythology, Lowinsky's Clyte basks in a pool of artifical sunlight. Sun worship in the 1920s and 1930s was closely allied to the craze for exercise and diet regimes, callisthenics and the celebration of the naked form. A traditional men's outfitter, Austin Reed opened in the City of London in 1900. Its flagship store in Regent Street, the heart of the West End, was established in the 1920s and is still there today. Purvis's dramatically simplified style was well sated to the requirements of large-scale advertising posters.

Yves Saint Laurent Yves Mathieu SaintLaurent

Yves Saint Laurent Trouser Suit 1960

The trouser suit proved to be Saint Laurent's most influential and lasting statement of the 1960s. Although women had worn trousers since the 1920s, it was not until Saint Laurent introduced the trouser suit in 1966 that they became acceptable for women to wear on the street or in the office. During the mid-1960s feminism emanated from academic circles to emerge as a popular movement. Women were establishing careers, fighting for contraception, and seeking to improve their legal rights, and the trouser suit symbolized their goal of equality.

Formation of Valentina Gowns

In operation from 1928 to 1956, Valentina Gowns, Inc., was preceded by two early businesses, one the mid-1920s operating under the spelling Valentena, and another venture called Valentina & Sonia. Both of these concerns had folded by 1928 when Valentina Gowns was formed on more solid ground this time backed by the Wall Street lawyer and financier Eustace Seligman. With George Schlee as business manager and Schlee's extended family employed in the workrooms, what became the most exclusive and most expensive American house of couture actually began as a rather simple, family-run business under the shrewd and watchful eye of the firm's only designer, Valentina.

Westernized NEP Fashion

When the Bolsheviks finally won over their external and internal enemies in 1921, they had no resources left to implement their avant-garde social and cultural programs. In 1921, with the approval of Lenin, the New Economic Policy (the NEP) was established. By recognizing private ownership and entrepreneurship, the NEP signaled the return of capitalistic practices and a bourgeois way of life. In the NEP circles of newly-rich Russian capitalists, Western fashion experienced a true revival. The designer Alexandra Exter was instrumental in starting the Atelier of Fashion (Atel'e Mod) in Moscow, founded in 1923 by the Moskvochvey textile company. It was supposed to fulfill two tasks supplying prototypes for mass production and catering to individual customers. In reality, Exter and her colleagues dressed the new NEP bourgeoisie in highly decorated, luxurious clothes. The aesthetics of the Atelier of Fashion was laid out in a fashion magazine Atelier, of which only one issue was published,...

Modernity and The Spectacle of Women

My use of the term 'spectacle' derives from Guy Debord's The Society of the Spectacle, trans. Malcolm Imrie, London Verso, 1888 (first published 1967) in which Debord argues that everyday life is colonized by a new phase of commodity production. Debord, however, situates this phase in the 1920s, whereas others locate it as far back as the court of Louis XIV Williams, Rosalind H., Dream Worlds Mass Consumption in Late Nineteenth-Century France, Berkeley, Los Angeles & Oxford, England University of California Press, 1982 and Jay, Martin, Downcast Eyes The Denigration of Vision in Twentieth Century French Thought, Los Angeles & London, England University of California Press, Berkeley, 1993, p. 432. I have discussed modernity in the context of nineteenth-century Paris, following both Walter Benjamin and, more recently, Clark, T.J., The Painting of Modern Life Paris in the Art of Manet and his Followers, London Princeton UP, Princeton, & Thames & Hudson, 1984. Thomas Richards provides...

The Tailored Suit Advances

The use of sporty suits, notably those made of jersey in favor in the 1920s, was limited to leisure activities. Beginning in 1931, the woolen suit worn in town emphasized feminine curves it outlined the breast, emphasized the waist, and flared in widened basques on the hips. Skirts were longer and adopted a narrower line, created by pleats, darts, and complicated cuts. Suits often had a severe and feminine line, exaggerated by the adoption of shoulder pads. This almost martial style experienced its apogee in the success it achieved in the authoritarian and

The Buttondown Collar

Button Down Dress Shirt With Collar

I nitialh popularized by American sportsmen and Eastern university men during the 1920s and 1930s the oxford button-down is Americas sole contribution to the lexicon of permanent dress shirt fashion Since World War II. European enthusiasts have descended upon the doorstop of its shrine. 346 Madison Avenue, to load up on this unique American classic. Until recently, no elegant male could unfurl his stripes without at least one Brooks Brothers pink oxford gracing his closet.

Mainbocher Main Rousseau Bocher

Predating Christian Dior's New Look, Mainbocher introduced the boned, strapless bodice in 1934. A few years later, he featured garments with tiny, cinched waists, another characteristic of the New Look. These styles were a radical departure from the uncorseted, natural looks popular in the 1920s and 1930s. His use of the corset led to a collaboration with Warner to produce a wasp-waisted corset in 1940.

What Was The Impact Of Emergence Of Women Right Activists On Womensware During That Period

The entrants in this book were not selected on their artistic merit alone. Instead, they were chosen because their influence on fashion is reflective of societal, political, or economic change. For example, Coco Chanel's 1920s knits, Christian Dior's 1947 New Look, and Yves Saint Laurent's 1960s pantsuit reflect the ever-changing image of women and their role in society. Companies can be as influential as designers their marketing influences and reacts to fashion trends. For this reason, select companies have been included in this book under the same merits as designers. In a similar sense, movies reflect society, and costume designers have an impact on fashion trends therefore, they were included as well. Although this book contains entrants from around the world, it focuses primarily on America and its designers. The 1920s were known as the Roaring Twenties because the booming economy and the shortened workweek gave Americans more time to spend on leisure activities. Nearly every...

The Twentieth Century

Marilyn Monroe Glasses

By the mid-1920s, horn-rims began to decline in popularity, as women's bobbed hair and close-fitting hats made heavy frames uncomfortable and too conspicuous, and as Harold Lloyd's popularity made men see them as a symbol of comedy. Smaller rimless spectacles and frames of white gold became the style, and through the 1930s more attention was paid to making eyeglasses more becoming, largely by making them as inconspicuous as possible. Glasses were still considered a necessary evil, as famously summed up by Dorothy Parker in her 1927 poem News Item Men seldom make passes At girls who wear glasses. In an attempt to change this state of affairs, Altina Sanders designed the harlequin frame, with solid dark rims and upswept sides based on the shape of a carnival mask, which was introduced in New York in 1939. These were considered the first glasses designed solely with the idea of improving a woman's appearance, and eyeglasses began to be taken seriously as a fashion accessory.

Everyday and Subversive Dress

1880s Corset Macmillan

In Russia and East European communist countries, the official relationship with fashion was informed by ideological shifts inside the communist master narratives. It fluctuated between a total rejection of the phenomena of fashion in 1920s Russia and in the late 1940s in East European countries to a highly representational role of the official version of communist fashion from the 1950s onward. But the communist regimes failed to produce a genuine communist fashion. From the late 1950s, communist women's magazines started to promote classical, modest, and moderate styles, which suited the communist fear of change and its ideals of modesty. Throughout the communist times, design, production, and distribution of clothes and fashion accessories were centrally organized, which eventually led to serious shortages and a poor quality of goods. For communist officialdom, fashion could be art or science, but it was never recognized as a commodity. That is the reason why in the other two...

How To Decorate A Cloche

(loche hats were the most fashionable form of women's headgear during the 1920s. They were close-fitting, helmet-shaped hats that hugged the skull. They had deep rounded crowns with no brim or just a small curve at the edge. Cloche means bell in French, and these hats were so named because they resembled large bells. They often were made of woolen felt.

Fashion Eyewear 1960s to the Early 2000s

19th Century Designer Gowns

In the 1980s, many more designer frames were available, often with visible designer logos, in new eyewear boutiques carrying thousands of styles for men, women, and children. The same style trends continued, but there were also harder-edged styles, in brighter, solid colors, in response to the new boxy silhouette and large, bold costume jewelry. Some retro styles from the 1940s and 1950s were produced to complement the trendy preppy and nerd looks. Toward the end of decade, designers such as Ralph Lauren, Giorgio Armani, and Calvin Klein started a move toward smaller frames, with cleaner, refined styling. These were updated versions of the serious horn-rims of the 1910s and 1920s, and celebrities such as Richard Gere soon adopted the new look, inspiring

History Of Fashion Imagery By Jeanjacques Naudet

When the first illustrated fashion magazines emerged in the 1890s, the ideals of fashion rested squarely with an aristocracy of style. In a large sense, the beginning of fashion photography and its profound cultural impact can be traced back to the 1920s, when a pioneering

Bodybuilding And Sculpting

Female Multiple Nipple Piercing

That such radical procedures have nevertheless become commonplace is explained by a combination of the ever-increasing technical ability to perform them and the continually evolving notion of the ideal female body. Prior to the 1960s, changes in the ideal female form were more likely to have been achieved by clothing than by physical transformations of various sorts. The emergence of the New Woman in the late nineteenth century introduced an element of athleticism into the feminine ideal, even as corsets continued to be worn on the sports field. The ideal of the 1920s was youthful and trim, but women of the 1930s through the 1950s were shaped by elastic undergarments.

Ralph Lauren Lifschitz

From the beginning, he connected the company's image with wealth and leisure. He sold high-quality fashions with an Ivy League look. His timing was impeccable just as clothes were becoming more casual, he introduced clothes that were a formal type of casual which evoked images of relaxing gentlemen at a country estate. His designs epitomized classic nostalgia and featured elements of 1920s fashion. His interest in 1920s fashion peaked in 1974, when he designed the men's costumes for the film The Great Gatsby.

Fashioning the Feminine Fashion Gender and Representation

Wider access to fashion across social classes is, however, a characteristic of fashion in Britain in the twentieth century. As this study shows, the greater availability of fashion, and the knowledge required to dress fashionably, was enhanced by a number of factors. Firstly this resulted from new technologies in fabric production, garment construction and fashion promotion. These developed both in the home and at the factory, and were a consequence of the greater availability of the home sewing machine, but also they were due to the introduction of modern industrial methods. These included divisions of labour, which were organised to facilitate mass-production, the use of new machinery for sewing and cutting cloth, and latterly the increasingly sophisticated use of computer technology in the design, manufacturing and marketing of fashion. One direct outcome of this, affecting the fashion industry from the 1920s onwards, was the de-skilling of the tailoring trade, which had been...

Nonconformist Quaker Dress

Quaker dress maintained popularity within marginal groups until the 1920s. The Quaker adherence to plain dress styles was a nonverbal protest against the aesthetic focus of fashion. Plain clothing was adopted by other religious groups as well, such as some sects of German Pictists. Although the movement only achieved minority status, it nevertheless succeeded in challenging the ornamental nature of eighteenth-century dress.

Early Twentieth Century

Greenwich Village, New York, became the epicenter for avant-garde thinking and dressing during the 1910s and 1920s. Poets, writers, artists, socialists, feminists, and philosophers flocked to this shabby neighborhood to share their progressive ideas on life and art, that found expression in the clothes they wore. Greenwich Village became synonymous with bohemian and alternative fashion that included uncorseted, straight tunic dresses, loose jackets, and bobbed hair for women. Greenwich Village artists appear to be particularly associated with the revival of the batik technique that became a popular form of artistic dress decoration during the late 1910s and 1920s. This anti-fashion provides a link with the European artistic dress movements of the previous century and set the stage for avant garde experiments in dress later in the twentieth century.

Sunless Tanning Lotion

During the 1920s a tanned complexion became associated with youth and vigor as more and more people began pursuing active lifestyles. Tanned skin remained in style for several decades. In the 1960s several sunless tanning lotions, which imitate the tanning effect of the sun by darkening the skin with chemical reactions, were marketed for those too busy indoors to get a suntan and for those with fair complexions who did not tan easily. Within a few hours of applying sunless tanning lotion, the skin would change color. However, early products produced an unnatural orange color that was often streaky and uneven.

Customize me

His unenthusiastic comment about providing customers with multiple colour choices of the Ford Model T (all the cars were black) was made mainly from a technical and manufacturing viewpoint. This is because, at the time, production flexibility in terms of multiple colours, designs, styles and other forms of customization had very high time and monetary costs that would have increased the prices of the cars substantially. However, Ford's competitor, General Motors, came along and by the middle of the 1920s was able to offer customers multiple colours and annual model changes at no additional cost. Through this method of product variety, they encroached on the market share of Ford and soon surpassed Ford in popularity and sales.

The Swimwear Industry

Esther Williams Publicity Stills

In the years following World War I, American manufacturers of ready-made swimwear, most of them based on the West Coast, played a major role in setting fashion trends, and in creating a mass market for fashionable swimwear. The first Jantzen swimming suits, introduced in the late 1910s, were knit in a double-sided rib stitch, which added elasticity and made knitted suits much more practical. The company's innovative advertising campaigns in the 1920s, often featuring Olympic champion swimmers such as Johnny Weissmuller, helped to popularize swimming as well as Jantzen bathing suits, and by 1930 Jantzen was the largest swimwear manufacturer in the world. Catalina and Cole of California, which became major competitors to Jantzen in the late 1920s, emphasized appearance and styling in their suits and advertisements Catalina became associated with the Miss America pageant, and Cole with Hollywood glamour. Competition between these manufacturers, joined by B.V.D. in

New Look for Cocktails

Norell Norman Dress 1960

Parisian cocktail dresses were executed in black velvets and printed voiles alike, but they all retained the short-length of the original 1920s cocktail dress. American designers like Anne Fogarty and Ceil Chapman emulated the New Look line, but used less luxurious fabrics and trims. Dior, along with Jacques Fath and milliners Lilly Dache and John-Fredericks, quickly saw the advantages of promoting cocktail clothing in the American ready-to-wear market, designing specifically for their more inexpensive lines Dior New York, Jacques Fath for Joseph Halpert, Dachettes, and John Fredericks Charmers.

Body Decorations 193045

Dramatic Eyelashes With Decorations

The extravagant, frivolous fashions of the 1920s were replaced by more practical decorations and accessories during the 1930s. The Great Depression (1929-41) and World War II (1939-45) put pressure on both men and women to simplify their wardrobes. The fanciful purses of the 1920s were replaced by the plainer clutch purse style, for example. Rather than buying different jewelry to adorn each different outfit, women instead favored simple styles or wore meaningful pieces to which they could add decoration, such as charm bracelets. One trend for excess continued during these lean years, however. The fashion for wearing heavy makeup started during the 1920s lasted well into the next decades. Women blushed their cheeks with rouge, darkened their lips with a variety of lipsticks, and lengthened and thickened their eyelashes with mascara. According to Jane Mulvagh in Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion, in 1931 Vogue magazine reported that we are all painted ladies today, adding Now we...

Mca Model Shirt Images

Artist Steven Stipelman

With blue and white as the imperatives of nautical dress, navy blazers and w hite trousers made a dashing sports out it for the wealthy American man o the 1920s. Being class-conscious, he adopted it as another means ol distinguishing himself from the masses. Whether in a solid color and piped at the edges or in hold regatta stripes, the lightweight blazer became a summer sensation.

The dolce vita style blast

The fashion businesses of these talented Italian designers quickly gained world fame. Italian accessories, especially shoes, became popular and synonymous with style, class and high quality all over the world. Although Italian accessories flourished, fashion remained predominated by the dress and this was mostly made in France. As a result, Italian designers focused their attention on exports to America, rather than on developing a home fashion sector. As early as the 1920s, Americans were getting exposed to Italian fashion and its appealing associations to European aristocracy. Italy was also an attractive tourist destination for Americans with its beautiful landscape and seductive lifestyle. This combination served as an important formula for the success of Italian fashion abroad.

To View This Figure Please Refer To The Printed Edition

By the outbreak of the First World War, the dress reform movement was in abeyance, as changing lifestyles paved the way for more comfortable sportif styles in durable fabrics, such as knitted jersey as championed by Parisian couturiers Coco' Chanel and Jean Patou. Since the 1920s, fashion designers have presented a fast-moving series of fashionable silhouettes, some prioritizing function and comfort above others. By the twilight years of the twentieth century, fashion became pluralistic and women were granted more freedom in their choice of dress and adornment than ever before. Nonetheless, many could still identify with the objectives of dress reform. These women still cherish Shirin Guild's enduring designs derived from ethnographic styles, in preference to fashions that are skimpy, restricting and fleeting.

Embroidery and Couture

Ethnic embroidery inspirations have long infused couture, from Lanvin's designs of the 1920s to Yves Saint Laurent's peasant blouses and skirts. Other designers have mined long-established associations between embroidery and femininity the sensuous aesthetic of Nina Ricci and Chloe is often heightened by delicate embroidery.

Spectator Sports Style

World War England Fashions

Attending sporting events was a popular leisure time practice during the 1920s. Fashion-conscious spectators dressed in attire appropriate for a variety of sports events. Often fashion was dictated by the weather. For instance, male and female college students who attended autumn and early winter football games wore bulky raccoon fur coats or heavy tan-colored camel hair and woolen polo coats belted at the waist or with a partial belt at the back. Women's sportswear was becoming more masculine. By the late 1920s college-aged women wore tailored woolen tweed suits with knee-length skirts and loose-fitting slacks to collegiate sports events. Warm weather events such as horse races often were held in stylish surroundings such as resorts. Wealthy male spectators wore navy blue woolen blazers with gold buttons. In the late 1920s men and women began wearing black-and-white spectator sports style shoes. They were white wing-tipped leather shoes trimmed with black leather or patent leather...

Cunnington C Willett And Phillis

Willett (1878-1961) and Phillis (1887-1974) Cun-nington were medical doctors with a general practice in North London in the 1930s they were also major dress historians. C. W. Cunnington served in World War I as a captain in the Royal Army Medical Corps after graduating from Cambridge University. He married Phillis in 1918. The Cunningtons amassed a vast collection of English costume between the 1920s and the late 1940s, which they stored in a big shed in the garden of their house in North London. C. W. Cunnington's medical training influenced his primary interest, which was the psychological motives that he considered responsible for changes in women's dress styles in the late nineteenth century. Born in 1878, he would have been familiar with the bustles of the 1880s, the S-bend of the early 1900s, and the flat-chested boygirl fashions of the 1920s. His interest in the psychosex-ual functions of women's dress had been enhanced by the 1930 publication of the psychiatrist John Carl...

Characteristic Styles

The on-screen glamor of Diana Ross in the film Mahogany dazzled Steele as a boy as an African American, he proudly acknowledged her as his muse. His ideal female of the early 2000s had a long neck, even longer legs, and a slim, vibrant body. Marlene Dietrich, Marilyn Monroe, and Josephine Baker were the film sirens who appeared on his inspiration boards. Copies of line drawings by Madeleine Vionnet, Cristobal Balenciaga, Coco Chanel, and Charles James were tacked to the walls of his atelier above random stacks of international periodicals.

The Nineteenth Century

Made out of cotton, linen, cambric, and flannel for winter, several petticoats would be worn at once in the 1840s to provide a bell-shaped structure for the skirt and were stiffened with horsehair at the hem. With the invention of the cage crinoline, petticoats became less structural, and usually only one was worn under the crinoline cage for warmth and modesty as the cage had a habit of flying up when a wearer sat down too rapidly. Another petticoat was customarily worn over the crinoline to soften the steel rings of its outline and tended to have an ornately decorative hem, usually of broderie anglaise or crochet as it was likely to be exposed when the wearer was walking. The shape of the petticoat was very much determined by the fashionable shape of outerwear and thus changed over the century from the narrower shapes of the 1860s to the gored cuts of the 1870s and the overly frilled and flounced froufrou of the Edwardian Era. The slimmer cut of 1920s fashions and bias cut of the...

Recent Historical Origins

Many British schools have a long history of school uniforms that have influenced school dress codes elsewhere (although the styles generally regarded as British school uniforms made their appearance in the late nineteenth century). By the early nineteenth century in Britain, the ensemble of student uniforms had more or less stabilized. At schools such as Eton and Harrow, a student uniform would include a short round jacket with deep lapels made of checkered woolen or strong cotton materials. By the 1920s, a typical boys' uniform for middle and upper-class schools might consist of a gray flannel suit (or blazer) with breast pockets, Eton collar, school cap (or straw boater), and necktie with school colors. School badges or insignia would be affixed to the uniform. A typical girls' uniform might consist of a low-waisted dress in navy wool, pleated skirt, white collar with navy silk bow, navy blazer, black stockings and shoes, and a panama hat. Popular colors were navy blue, black,...

Hollywood Style and Glare Control

In the 1920s, sunglasses were occasionally worn for active outdoor sports such as golf and tennis, and for the newly fashionable activity of sunbathing. They did not truly enter the fashion sphere, however, until the early 1930s, when Hollywood stars such as Bette Davis and Marlene Dietrich were photographed wearing them between takes on the set, attending tennis matches and horse races, or trying to appear in public incognito. Sunglasses began to symbolize the glamour of life in Hollywood, but there was little variation in style at first most 1930s sunglasses, for both men and women, had round, flat glass lenses, with narrow celluloid frames. The only fashion decision lay in choosing the color of the frames these were usually translucent and in colors close to tortoiseshell, but opaque white frames were also considered chic.

The Early Twenties

Early Twentieth Century Women Fashion

Patou's early 1920s garments, like those of his archrival Chanel, were embellished with colorful folkloric Russian embroidery. His bell-skirted, high-waisted evening dresses, often made in georgette cr pe, were beaded he particularly liked diamant delicately embroidered, or embellished with fine lace, which he felt was more youthful than heavy lace. Beige was Patou's primary color for spring-summer 1922, and his collection was received with acclaim. A gown of beige kasha cloth featured a deep V-neckline that was emphasized by a lingerie-style collar, while beige chiffon was combined with kasha to form pleated side panels and full undersleeves that were finished with a tight cuff. Patou was an exceptional colorist, and this season he offered a high-collared evening cape in an unusual shade of beige verging on green its sole trimming was twisted silk openwork. A beige jersey costume was self-trimmed with bias-cut bands around the collar, cuffs, and hem of the hip-length coat. Patou and...

Pajamas as Sleepwear

The streamlined, often androgynous fashions during the 1920s helped to popularize the wearing of pajamas by women. While men's pajamas were invariably made of cotton, silk, or flannel, women's examples were often made of brightly printed silk or rayon and trimmed with ribbons and lace. Early examples featured a raised or natural waist with voluminous legs gathered at the ankle in a Turkish trouser style, while later examples featured straight legs and dropped waists, a reflection of the 1920s silhouette. Throughout the century, pajamas would continue to reflect the fashionable ideal. The 1934 film It Happened One Night, which featured a scene in which Claudette Colbert wears a pair of men's pajamas, helped to popularize the menswear-styled pajama for women. With the popularity of unisex styling during the 1970s, pajamas were often menswear inspired. Tailored satin pajamas had been popular since the 1920s but were rediscovered during this period by both men and women. In this decade,...

Recent History

Embroidery Patterns From England

Following Patou's death, Raymond Barbas became chairman of the House of Patou. Barbas had been particularly involved with the designer's perfumes since the mid-1920s, and the company went on to launch several new perfumes after 1936, including Colony (1938), L'Heure Attendue (1946), and C line (1964). Designers for the House of Pa-tou have included Marc Bohan and his assistant, G rard Pipart (1953-1957) Karl Lagerfeld (1958-1963), Michel Goma and his assistant, Jean-Paul Gaultier (1963-1974) Angelo Tarlazzi (1973-1976) Gonzal s (1977-1981) and Christian Lacroix (1981-1987). The last fashion collection to be offered under the Patou label was shown for fallwinter 1987.

Brooks Brothers

Brooks Brothers is synonymous with the Ivy League style, including khakis and a navy blazer. The look was completed with a repp tie, which was styled after British club ties. Brooks Brothers Americanized the tie by reversing the direction of the stripes. The Ivy League style, first popularized in the 1920s, continued to be worn for the remainder of the century. This style, along with other Brooks Brothers fashions, enjoyed renewed popularity during the preppy revival of the 1980s.

Callot Soeurs

The period gowns were contemporary versions of eighteenth-century gowns. The garments, which featured tightly corseted, pointed waists with wide hoop skirts, were usually created from pastel-colored tulle. These unusual dresses found devotees during the 1910s and 1920s. The most influential and popular of their designs were the robes pheniciennes, as their Asian-inspired styles were known. Sometimes Asian elements, such as dragons embroidered onto a 1920s beaded chemise, were part of the decoration. Other times, the Oriental influence was incorporated into the structure of the garment. Madame Gerber introduced the kimono sleeve into Western dress effecting one of the most significant sleeve innovations in twentieth-century fashion design.

Prince Of Wales

Prince Charles Military

The historv ol patterned lashions and their rise to sartorial sophistication has its ori gins in the early 1920s. when men began to experiment w ith a variety of less formal garments as a result of spending so much time in the function driven gear of World War I. Patterned attire also represented a departure from the stiff stolid Victorian dress of the prewar years. The new lounge coat s easy, flowing lines inspired men to loosen up and smell the roses.

Classic Suit Models

Anthony Eden Three Button

The Single-Breasted Peak Lapel Suit In the 1920s, the peaked lapel masterminded the metamorphosis of the male torso. Throughout the interwar period, whether for single- or double-breasted suit jackets, overcoats, or blazers, pointed revets or lapel peaks spearheaded the popularity of the V-shaped male chest. The acceptance of the single-breasted dinner jacket with peaked lapels in the late twenties ultimately spilled over into daywear.

The Spread Collar

High Spread Collar Dress Shirt

He spread collar has been the keystone ol the English bespoke look since the double collar came to town during the early 1920s. Its introduction is widely attributed to the famous Prince of Wales, probably due to his alleged creation of the Windsor knot that was supposed to escort it In fairness, it was really his younger brother, the Duke of Kent, who tirst popularized it Because ol the spread's inherently dressy and elegant bearing, it has become today s most important dress shirt collar. As spread collars vary greatly in height, point length, and openness, there are usually several models that will flatter any man's head shape or profile II only for variety, some ver sion ol the spread collar should be a permanent fixture in all men s wardrobes.

Cole of California

Cole of California was founded by Fred Cole, a former actor at Universal Studios. Cole's family wanted him to join their underwear manufacturing operation, West Coast Knitting Mills however, Cole found underwear design uninspiring and decided to produce swimwear instead. Cole's attitude toward swimwear design was not typical for the time. While most swim-wear designers of the 1920s and 1930s were concerned with designing functional swimwear, Cole was interested in designing fashionable swim-wear.

Travis Banton

Banton's attention to elegance and detail positioned him as an American couturier, of sorts, who by dressing actresses in sables, brocades, and velvets, as he did Dietrich in The Scarlett Empress (1934), encouraged women, fresh out of the Great Depression, to dream. Having sumptuously costumed such silent screen sirens as Pola Negri, Lillian Gish and Clara Bow throughout the 1920s, he became well known during the 1930s, for dressing actresses, especially Dietrich, in masculine clothing with broad shoulders, trousers, and ties. For Carole Lombard he created slinky, bias-cut gowns and for Claudette Colbert he devised a special collar that appeared to lengthen her neck.

Paul Poiret

Paul Poiret Hobble Skirt

His designs were out of touch with the new, active woman, and he was forced to close his couture business. He also divorced his wife, who had always been his inspiration. Poiret continued to live an elaborate lifestyle, but he no longer had the financial means to support himself. Attempting to resurrect his career in the 1930s, Poiret accepted a design position with the French department store Printemps, but he soon left. Poiret spent his remaining years in a charity hospital, in relative obscurity, painting until his death in 1943. In Poiret's brief, but spectacular, career he bridged the gap between nineteenth- and twentieth century fashions between women as objects and women as active members of society. His work paved the way for designers such as Chanel to create fashions for the new, modern woman in the 1920s. See also Charles Frederick Worth Paquin Gabrielle Bonheur Coco Chanel.

Origin of the Sarong

The scarf as a modern fashion accessory was defined in the early decades of the twentieth century. Flowing lengths of silk worn draped about the body had been made fashionable, in part, by dancers such as Isadora Duncan. That Duncan's death was caused by a long scarf wound around her neck becoming caught in the wheels of a Bugatti is one of the scarf's morbid associations. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, the scarf was incorporated into the sleek, elongated fashions of these decades. As seen in numerous fashion illustrations and photographs of this period, the scarf served as both a sensuous wrap and a geometric design element.

Little Black Dress

Bill Schoeffler

Introduced in the late 1920s and first popular in the 1930s, the little black dress a slim-fitting dress of varying length worn for dinners, cocktail parties, and evenings out was one of the most popular fashions of the twentieth century. Along with blue jeans and the T-shirt, it is one of the most influential and important garments of the twentieth century. In the United States, however, clothing manufacturers had become very skilled at making ready-to-wear clothes in the 1920s and 1930s. Feeding the large American market, they had learned how to make huge numbers of well-fitting clothes at competitive prices. When the United States entered the war in 1941 these manufacturers stepped in to make uniforms for American soldiers. The United States also sent teams of clothing experts to Britain to help their allies employ better manufacturing methods. American skill and productivity at making all manner of war supplies, including uniforms, surprised the world and was one of the keys to...

Raccoon Coat

Raccoon Coat

For a short time during the mid-1920s, wearing long, bulky coats of raccoon fur was a fad among young American men and some young women, especially those attending colleges and universities. Distinctive and flamboyant, the gray and black raccoon fur coat fit perfectly with the style of the Roaring Twenties (a period of time following World War I 1914 18 when people were experiencing newfound freedoms and a sense of rebellion), when people dressed in flashy and extravagant fashions. Animal fur, with its warm insulation, had long been a popular winter coat material, and raccoon was one of the least expensive types of fur. Raccoon coats became especially popular in the 1920s when driving became one of the most popular activities for those wealthy enough to own Henry Ford's Model T automobile. Full-length raccoon fur coats were perfect for winter driving because cars were mostly open in the 1920s and driving could be very cold in the winter. The privileged few who could afford a car also...

Oxford Bags

Oxford Bags 1925

Young people attempted to set themselves apart from their elders and establish their own fashion styles in the 1920s, a trend that continues into the twenty-first century. In 1924 at Oxford University in Great Britain, a small group of male students began wearing trousers that never would have been worn by their fathers. These pants were loosely fitted and featured extremely wide legs at their knees and cuffs they measured between twenty-two and forty inches wide. They came to be known as Oxford Bags, named for their excessively baggy appearance and the institution of higher learning from which they originated. Because of the excessive nature of Oxford Bags, they never became a mainstream fashion trend and lost their appeal by the end of the 1920s. Pants that were excessively baggy, however, have come back in style at various points in time and have been trendy among the young. The trouser part of the zoot suit, which was popular among young, sporty African American males during the...

Contemporary Dandies

The figure of the dandy provides an abundance of material for the subversive and frequently ironic interventions that have come to be associated with British cultural production. Throughout the twentieth century, periods of acute social upheaval have witnessed parallel and intense bursts of dandy behavior. Masculine consumption, and the relationship of material goods to class and status, have played an important role for social and cultural arrivistes from Noel Coward and Cecil Beaton in the 1920s and 1930s to the publisher Tyler Br l and the designer Ozwald Boateng in the 1990s. And, as writer George Walden suggests, English sensitivities are acutely alive to anything to do with social nuance, whether accent, posture, conduct or clothes (Walden, p. 29).

Madeleine Vionnet

Chilleurs Aux Bois Madeleine Vionnet

Another characteristic of Vionnet's designs was her use of geometry. Beginning after World War I, her designs used the rectangular silhouette, which was composed of a loose tube with a few darts for fitting. As her work evolved, she began to use geometric shapes for gussets and to create decorative seams. Much of this work was inspired by Cubism, an art movement popular during the 1910s and 1920s. All of Vionnet's designs were draped on a miniature model before a pattern would be made. This way she could ensure the proper drape for each of her complex designs. Vionnet selected pale colors for most of her garments, and she chose decoration very carefully. She used beading, especially during the 1920s, and employed Marie-Louise Favot to design and oversee all of the beading. Vionnet preferred nature themes in decoration. Her favorite motif was the rose. Fringe, fur trim, handkerchief hems, woven panels, and accordion pleating were other common elements in her designs. Her frequent use...

Miriam Haskell

Haskell began her career in the early 1920s as the manager of a stylish boutique in New York's McAlpin Hotel. Reportedly inspired by Chanel's innovative imitations, as well as her exposure to the chic items sold in the hotel shop, she founded her own company in the mid-1920s, creating original pieces that were an immediate success. She acquired a huge and fash

The Tab Collar

Tab Collar

He Prince of Wales is generally credited with introducing the tab collar to high society. 1 oming into its own during the late 1920s and early 1930s, it flirted briefly with fashion once main m the 1960s lthough it popularity has waned due to the inexorable casual i at ion of male fashion, the tab collar remains a favorite of those seeking that extra nuance ol nattiness.

Hot Pants

Short, sexy pants had been seen before, as far back as the 1920s and 1930s, especially in Europe, but they had mainly been worn by prostitutes and nightclub performers. In the 1930 German film The Blue Angel, Marlene Dietrich (c. 1901-1992) played Lola Lola, a seductive nightclub singer who shows off her legs in a pair of extremely short shorts that are an obvious ancestor of hot pants. Comic book heroine Wonder Woman was also costumed in short shorts

Impact of Unisex

The concept of unisex has far-reaching implications because it disturbs society on such a basic level. Fashion becomes a powerful tool in subverting sexual identity through connotations of dress. Throughout history and with varying degrees of success, designers have challenged conventional dress codes. In the 1920s, Chanel envisioned a new femininity in fashion that incorporated trousers the symbol of masculine power. However, it was not until the Women's Liberation movement of the 1970s that pants were universally accepted as female attire. From this point forward, the impact of unisex expands more broadly to encompass various themes in fashion including androgyny, mass-market retail, and conceptual clothing. Conceptual mode. The avant-garde in fashion has historically generated design based on a framework of conceptual ideas, converting theories into architecture for the body independent of gender. Ernesto Thayaht worked with fashion under the Futurist conviction that society could...

Futurist Influences

Such effects were only enhanced as the wearer moved, and Vionnet's interest in contemporary art, and in particular futurism, served to develop this exploration of movement as a further expression of modernism. The illustrations that artist Thayaht produced for the Gazette du bon ton in the 1920s expound futurism's view that art should represent the dynamics of the body in movement. His drawings show women in Vionnet outfits, with lines tracing the curves of the dress into the surrounding environment to suggest the flow of the body, and the fabric, as they walked. He wanted to express the sensation of the space between body and material, and between the material and the space the wearer inhabits, as alive with friction and loaded with the potential to blur air and matter.


As the company grew, it underwent several name changes. From Bentz Knitting Mills, the company became Pacific Knitting Mills in 1912 after that, they became Catalina Knitting Mills in 1928 and finally Catalina in 1955. Catalina launched its first wool knitted swimwear collection in 1912. The company employed Annette Kellerman, an Australian swim star, as a spokesperson to launch their functional, comfortable one-piece suit. Throughout the 1920s, as swimming and sun tanning became popular pastimes and bathing-beauty contests began to be held on the boardwalk, Catalina expanded their swimwear production, always keeping in mind fashion plus function. In 1975 Catalina was purchased by Kayser-Roth which sold the company to Taren Holdings Incorporated in 1989. Taren Holdings declared bankruptcy in 1993 and sold Catalina to Authentic Fitness Corporation. Catalina now consists of six product lines children's swimwear, junior swimwear, misses swimwear, misses sportswear, men's swimwear,...

The Later 1930s

Lobster Dress Schiaparelli

One of the top designers of the 1920s through the 1940s, Elsa Schiaparelli is known for both her playful and elaborate fashions and her success in the marketplace. AP Wide World Photos. Reproduced by permission. Elsa Schiaparelli. One of the top designers of the 1920s through the 1940s, Elsa Schiaparelli is known for both her playful and elaborate fashions and her success in the marketplace. AP Wide World Photos. Reproduced by permission. While Schiaparelli was clearly established commercially as a fashion designer, she also retained many links, both personal and professional, with surrealist artists. In New York during World War I she knew Francis Picabia and his then wife Gabrielle, who introduced her to the artistic photographer Man Ray and the painter sculptor Marcel Duchamp. Schiaparelli was photographed by Man Ray in the early 1920s and then again in 1930. Man Ray regularly took photographs for fashion magazines, including Vogue and Harper's Bazaar some of...

Duke Windsor Tweed

Sport Jackets Men 1930

Along with tweeds, flannel became a leading bottoms fabric during the interwar period. It was first used in the nineteenth century strictly for underwear, bur by the 1880s. flannel was worn for goll, cycling, and tennis. In the twentieth century flannel was recognized as a stylish cloth, and in the late 1920s, the woolen mills in the west of Kngland created skillful mixtures of black, gray and white that added light and dark highlights ro the plain gray cloth, establishing the gray flannel trouser as a worldwide commodity. Among the young blue bloods from British society, gray flannel slacks came to be known as 'gravers.

Classic of Fashion

From 1955 to 1965, Parisian couturiers made the tailored suit their showpiece. They gave it a second wind by adapting it to the transformations of the consumer society. Ba-lenciaga was the first couturier to dare to break with Dior's New Look. His single-breasted, full, and flowing jackets once again underemphasized the breasts and the waist, recalling the style of the 1920s. Similarly, Chanel suits, in tweed and colored woolens, were a modern version of the first styles that had made the house's name. In the early 1960s, the tailored suit became an absolute must, immortalized by Jacqueline Kennedy. Despite the boldness of mini-suits by Courreges and the very colorful versions by Cardin, young women, in open rebellion, had little taste for the garment, preferring an explicitly rebellious wardrobe leather jacket, mess jacket, cardigan, and work jacket, which they mixed and matched, rejecting anything that could in any way evoke a bourgeois uniform. For young women, the tailored suit...

Edward H Molyneux

Molyneux's career took a brief detour beginning in 1914 when he served in World War I. He was wounded three times and earned the rank of captain, a title by which he would be known for the remainder of his life. After the war he renewed his career in fashion by moving to Paris and opening his own house in 1919. He achieved immediate success with simple, elegant styles which expressed the modern aesthetic of the 1920s. Earlier in the 1900s, lace, ruffles, and embellishment had been part of the fashionable look, but the war began to popularize a more utilitarian look which evolved into the more minimal, boyish look of the 1920s and the sleek, sweeping lines of the 1930s. Molyneux embraced this movement and became one of the leaders of fashion during this period. In addition to dresses, he designed furs, hats, lingerie, and perfume. He introduced his most famous scent, Numero Cinq, in 1926 and followed it with Vivre in 1930 and Rue Royale in 1943. The 1920s and 1930s were Molyneux's...

Painters Pants

Blue collar or utilitarian chic is the name given to the fashion trend of work clothes becoming high fashion. Like blue jeans, painter's pants were discovered as a fashion item by those who never wore them for work. Originally designed to be worn by working painters, painter's pants have been sold by makers of work clothes such as Dickies, since at least the 1920s. Made of white canvas with heavily stitched seams, painter's pants are distinguished by their many pockets, some roomy enough to hold brushes and rags, others small enough to keep a putty knife or screwdriver close at hand. Painter's pants also have a hammer loop, a fabric strap sized to hold the handle of a hammer, on the right-hand leg seam. Many young women, energized by the Women's and Gay Liberation movements of the early 1970s, wore painter's pants as a political statement, often with work boots, because they were the clothes of skilled tradespeople and had been formerly reserved for men.


Some clothing styles imitated the Far East. The most popular was the banyan, an informal robe, worn by men at home instead of a justaucorps, or a suit coat. Some styles of banyan looked very similar to the cheongsam worn in early Asian cultures. The robe had a stand-up collar, long sleeves, and its opening crossed over the chest to tie just under the right shoulder. Other banyan styles imitated Indian jackets that buttoned up the front and were called Indian gowns. Banyans were made out of expensive silk or printed cotton. They were so popular in the late eighteenth century that many wealthy men had themselves painted wearing a banyan and cap instead of more formal clothing, which had been the norm for centuries. Other oriental styles and patterns would become popular in future eras, including the 1920s and the 1980s.


N ative American tribes of the Plains and elsewhere had long created garments with fringe, which served as a type of gutter that repelled rainwater from the wearer. Fringe was a border or edge of hanging threads, cords, or strips, and was often found on garments made from suede, leather, and buckskin. Fringe first became a decorative fashion embellishment in the 1920s as part of the flapper look, a popular dress style for women. Skirts suddenly rose above the knee for the first time in Western history, and fringe was used to add a bit of length to the daring styles. But the use of Native American fringe was an outgrowth of the hippie movement of the late 1960s, a youth movement that stressed the rejection of mainstream values and a relaxation of standards of morality and personal conduct. The movement had a huge impact on mainstream society. Young Americans of the era were keenly interested in civil rights. The political gains made by African Americans earlier in the decade

United States Aprons

Looking back just one century, from 1900 through the 1920s, well-heeled women wore ornate, heavily embroidered aprons. In the 1930s and 1940s, women working outside the home wore whatever protective garments their jobs required, including coveralls, smocks, or aprons. At home, they worked in full-length aprons with hefty pockets.

Footwear 19802003

Cowboy Boots And Guys Business Suits

The past had a great influence on the footwear styles from the 1980s to 2003. Retro styles from the 1920s (T-strap sandals), 1960s (Birkenstocks), and 1970s (platform shoes) have all reemerged on the feet of fashion-conscious people. At the beginning of the twenty-first century fashion had become a globally influenced industry, and footwear styles of the West influenced those in the East and vice versa.


Shingle Bob Hairstyle

The shingle was the most popular hairstyle of the 1920s. The sides were cut at a slant, with the hair longest at the tip of the earlobe. he shingle was considered the most feminine women's short hairdo of the 1920s. The style featured short hair worn close to the head with the front and the sides cut to cover the ears and the back cut and shaped into layers of short fringe at the neckline to resemble shingles on a roof. The sides were cut at a slant, with the shortest hair at the nape of the neck and the longest hair falling at the bottom tip of the earlobe and forming a curl. The hairdo was parted at the center or on the side. The shingle hairdo sometimes was waved a bit, and it was less flat and heavy looking than the bluntly cut bob, an extremely short haircut. The shingle was the most popular hairstyle of the 1920s. The sides were cut at a slant, with the hair longest at the tip of the earlobe. Turudich, Daniela. Art Deco Hair Hairstyles of the 1920s and 1930s. Long Beach, CA...

Clothing 193045

Ancient American Costume Dolman

The 1930s began with a dramatic shift in the overall silhouette, or shape, of clothing for both men and women. Reacting against the trends of the 1920s, both men's and women's clothing became sleeker and more streamlined. Women's hemlines extended down the leg and both men's and women's clothing accented simple, flowing lines. Leading the way in these changes were designers from Paris, France, actors and actresses from Hollywood, California, and wealthy socialites from around the world. The leading designers of the day, all based in Paris, included Gabrielle Coco Chanel (1883-1971), Elsa Schiaparelli (1890-1973), and Madeleine Vionnet (1876-1975). Schiaparelli was especially famous for her adventurous experiments with new fabrics, patterns, and wild colors. Her introduction of a bold pink was so shocking that it helped coin the term shocking pink. Hollywood stars and starlets like Gary Cooper (1901-1961) and Marlene Dietrich (c. 1901-1992) made

Jean Patou

Prior to serving as a captain in World War I, Patou worked with his father in the family's fur tannery and, in 1914, he opened a small dressmaking facility in Paris. He returned home in 1919, reopened his salon, and soon began to create clothing for the ideal woman of the 1920s one who exhibited physical health, fitness, and atheletic prowess, all signs of her newly found independence. Wimbleton tennis star Suzanne Lenglen and aviator Ruth Elder were two women who epitomized this new image. Recognizing the value of public relations, Patou created clothing for both of them, as well for other celebrities who engaged in sports, or at least wanted to look as if they did. Inside his couture house, he created a boutique-like series of rooms called Le Coin des Sports, where he displayed outfits suitable for tennis, riding, boating, and piloting a plane, among others, all properly accessorized. Then, like Chanel, he opened shops in Deauville, Biarritz, and other centers for the vacationing...

Woven Neckwear

Thomas Dean Shirt And Tie

Here s a classic example of how England came to set the standard in international men s n le for the better part of the twentieth century The Macclesfield necktie, a silk group of patterns made from small weaves of diamonds, squares, and circles, became especially fashion able among well dressed British men in the early 1920s. These small geometries were first made in contrasting tones of gray, black, and w hite. gi inga marquetry effect across the surface of the tie They were the specialty of the textile weavers from Macclesfield, a small town in Lan cashire. northwest England. mental stripes have been continuously used in tie designs since the 1920s. Before the days o universal khaki, all British regiments had a color scheme ol their own. seen at its most ty pical in the mess jackets of the officers. lie f irst printed fabrics actual ) show ed up around man's throat in the form of formal silk multiers sometime in the late nineteenth century It wasn't until the early 1920s that the...

Short Hair for Women

Symbol For Liberation

N an April 1927 issue of Pictorial Review, a well-known opera singer of the 1920s named Mary Garden (1874-1967) wrote an article titled Why I Bobbed My Hair explaining to her fans why she cut off her long hair. She said, Bobbed hair is a state of mind and not merely a new manner of dressing my head. I consider getting rid of our long hair one of the many little shackles that women have cast aside in their passage to freedom. This statement expresses the underlying reason behind the 1920s fad of short hair for women. While until World War I (1914-18) long and carefully styled hair had been a symbol of elegant femininity, never cut except in times of serious illness, during the Roaring Twenties, a time of rebellion and newfound freedoms following the calamities of World War I, short hair on women became a symbol of liberation, fun, and daring. out, starting a fashion that swept much of the Western world. Though this story is probably fictional, it captures the spirit of the short-haired...

The Suit Jacket

Head Shoulder Proportion

The natural shoulder suit silhouette adopted by the Ivy l eaguers in the 1920s came to be identified with America's upper class and its principal purveyor. Brooks Brothers. Here is the late secretary ol state Dean Acheson in typical New England understatement, his Brooks Brothers natural shoulder and fully rolled button -dow 11 whispering their patrician provenance. Compare his jacket's rounder sleeveheads w ith those lightly puffed and contoured confections smarting up Gary Cooper's shoulders.


Public Domain Images Innovation

During the 1920s, trousers became a rapidly accepted form of women's ski clothing, an equality in clothing that was not reflected in attire outside of the sport. Public domain. Two women model ski clothing, 1929. During the 1920s, trousers became a rapidly accepted form of women's ski clothing, an equality in clothing that was not reflected in attire outside of the sport. Public domain. While expansive and expensive skirts of previous eras may have demonstrated women's abstinence from productive employment, the slimmer line of the early twentieth century was restrictive in other ways, culminating in the hobble skirt of about 1910. Mobility, however, triumphed in the 1920s as skirts shortened to reveal women's legs. A new statement in the continuous dialogue between modesty and sexual attractiveness, the shortened skirt was, Hollander believes, the most original modern contribution to feminine fashion accomplished without recourse to the standard...

Branding Removal

Caresse Crosby Bra Reproduction

BRASSIERE A brassiere is a garment worn next to the skin with two shaped cups or pockets to hold female breast tissue it is supported by a chest bandeau and generally two over-the-shoulder straps. It may have elastic, wire, padding, lace trim, and a variety of other parts. Strapless versions are also used on occasions where the shoulders are exposed. Specialized brassieres are made for holding breast prostheses of those with surgical removal of one or both breasts, in addition to the particular needs of maternity and nursing mothers. Brassiere styles are often dependent on the fashionable silhouette of the time breast-flattening bands of the early 1920s, softly curved bias-cut styles of the 1930s, structured and circular stitched torpedo shapes of the 1940s and 1950s, unstructured and naturally shaped bras of the 1960s and 1970s, until the introduction of the Lycra-based knitted fabric sports bras of the 1980s. Any of those could be found in lingerie wardrobes, along with the ultimate...

Postwar Poiret

Poiret was involved for the duration of the war as a military tailor, and although he occasionally made news with a design or article, when he was demobilized in 1919 he had to relaunch his fashion, decorating, and perfume businesses. His first collection after the war, shown in the summer of 1919, was enthusiastically received and fashion magazines like Harper's Bazaar continued to regularly feature his luxurious creations, typically made in vivid colors, lush-patterned fabrics, and trimmed lavishly with fur. Poiret's work perfectly suited the first part of the 1920s. The dominant silhouette was tubular, and fairly long, and most coats were cut on the full side with kimono or dolman sleeves. Such silhouettes were perfect for displaying the marvelous Poiret decorations, either Martine-inspired or borrowed from native clothing around the world. He continued to occasionally show such previous greatest hits as jupe-culottes and dresses with minaret tunics. In 1924 he left his grand...

Costume Jewelry

Vicki Miller Great Western Steel Chicago

Adornments for the body that are made of precious metals and stones are called jewelry, and jewelry is given the name costume jewelry when it is not made from precious materials. Costume jewelry provides an inexpensive way to add glamour and sparkle to fashion because it is usually made of cheap materials, such as glass or plastic rather than diamonds and emeralds, and plain steel, brass, or copper, rather than gold and silver. Though costume jewelry has been worn during many periods, it had a major rise in popularity during the 1920s and 1930s. During the early 1920s the creative French designer Gabrielle Coco Chanel (1883 1971) introduced many popular new styles. She moved away from the formal layers of clothing that had been popular during the 1800s, considering them old-fashioned and suffocating. Chanel's styles were simple, loose, and comfortable, and Probably the most important fashion designer of the twentieth century, Gabrielle Coco Chanel (1883-1971) created the basic look...

Fitting Everyone

Each company uses its own proportional system they are similar but not standardized. By the 1920s, sizes for misses generally dropped the age reference and kept the sizes. Data compiled from the Commercial Pattern Archive digital database (CoPA) illustrate the shifts in typical sizing for size 14 and 18 from the 1920s through 2000 (see Table 1).

The Waltz Century

19th Century Designer Gowns

Baker's revealing dance costumes caused much scandal and controversy, but her style also served as an inspiration for designers of mainstream fashion. Hulton Archive Getty Images. Reproduced by permission. Josephine Baker in banana costume. Baker's revealing dance costumes caused much scandal and controversy, but her style also served as an inspiration for designers of mainstream fashion. Hulton Archive Getty Images. Reproduced by permission.

Twentieth Century

Seventeenth Century Men Clothing

Sportswear, as opposed to active sportswear, fulfills an entirely different role. Though their roots are the same, sportwear concerns the fashionable aspect of clothing for sport rather than the athletic. Individual items such as jerseys, sweaters, and turtlenecks came directly out of active sports. Certain jackets also became linked with sports and therefore sportswear. The most notable of these, still a staple of modern dress, is the blazer. This standard straight-cut lounge jacket of the late nineteenth century was adapted both by colleges and early sports clubs, the new tennis, golf, or country clubs that emerged in the 1870s and 1880s, who used their own club colors for these jackets, often fashioning them in stripes called blazes. Hence, blazers. Striped blazers, popular through the 1920s, have had revivals since, most notably in the late 1950s and 1960s. Generally, however, they gave way to single-colored blazers in the 1930s. The best recognized of these is the bright green...


Ginger Rogers Breasts

Flatteners appeared on the fashion scene during the late 1910s and 1920s, around the same time as brassieres. However, while brassieres were designed to lift and support the breasts, flatteners had a different purpose to press the breasts tightly against the body Blackman, Cally. The 20s & 30s Flappers &Vamps. Milwaukee, WI Gareth Stevens Incorporated, 2000. Herald, Jacqueline. Fashions of a Decade The 1920s. New York Facts on File, 1991. A s the economies of Western countries began to recover after the end of World War I (1914-18), people began to be able to afford more luxurious clothes. The wealthiest women began to show off their riches through their clothes. Formal gowns, worn mostly for evening events, were their most elaborate outfits. Women's formal gowns during the first half of the 1920s were characterized by ornamentation. The most glamorous evening gowns were covered in jewels or intricate beadwork and swept the floor. Gowns featured the long straight silhouette of an...

S to Present

Public Domain Photos Oscar Wilde

With the introduction of the new bobbed hairstyle in the 1920s, wigs fell out of favor and were worn by older women who were not interested in the newly shorn look. Their use returned in the 1950s, but only as a way of having temporary fantasy hairstyles. The most renowned wigmakers and hairdressers in Europe were Maria and Rosy Carita. In black hairdressing, though, the wig was of supreme importance allowing for fashionable styles without undergoing the time-consuming, and in some instances painful, process of straightening. Black stars such as Diana Ross were known for their stylish wig collections in the mid-1960s. It was not really until the late 1960s that wigs underwent a massive renaissance in white hairdressing practices. Rapidly changing fashion, a space-age chic and the vogue for drip-dry clothes in new man-made fabrics led to a vogue for the artificial over the natural. By 1968 there was a wig boom and it is estimated that one-third of all European women wore what...


When her husband died shortly after World War I, Paquin relinquished the design role and gave it to Mademoiselle Madeleine. She designed the collections during the 1920s, and Madame del Pombo created the designs until the house closed in 1956, twenty years after Paquin's death.

The Modern Swimsuit

After World War I, several factors combined to produce a radical change in swimwear. Women had achieved new levels of independence during the war, and fashions began to allow them more freedom of movement. Interest in active sports of all kinds increased during the 1920s, and sportswear achieved new importance in fashion. Swimming also gained in popularity due to an increase in the number of municipal swimming pools, and the publicity given to such celebrities as Gertrude Ederle, who in 1926 became the first woman to swim the English Channel. Form-fitting knitted wool tank suits, almost identical to those worn by men, were promoted as active swimwear for the modern woman, and soon became the dominant style. At the same time, beach resorts on the Riviera or at Palm Beach became an important part of the fashionable calendar, and beach fashions assumed new significance in society wardrobes. Paris couturiers such as Jean Patou, Jeanne Lanvin, and Elsa Schiaparelli used crisply detailed...


People have worn some sort of stockings or socks for centuries, the style varying somewhat as fashions and technology changed and developed. In the 1800s women usually wore cotton stockings, which were covered by their long skirts, but by the 1920s hemlines had risen, and sheer silk stockings became popular. These were two individual tubes of silk, one for each leg. They were held up by garters, elastic circles that fitted tight around each leg, or garter belts, elastic bands that went around the waist with several fasteners that hung down to secure the stockings. Later, tight elastic pants called girdles would be outfitted with fasteners for stockings and

Tweed in Womens Wear

In the early twentieth century, British couturiers, such as Digby Morton, Hardy Amies, and Charles Creed, helped to stimulate international markets for superbly tailored tweed suits. The French couturier Coco Chanel was also inspired to include it in her collections after traveling to Scotland on a fishing trip with the Duke of Westminster in the 1920s. Her desire to include tweed in her exclusive designs was such that the Duke subsequently bought her a Scottish tweed mill. Linton Tweeds of Carlisle in Northern England has maintained an exclusive relationship with the House of Chanel since 1928. Tweed has since become an integral element of the signature suits that are endlessly reinvented by the House of Chanel.

Headwear 190018

Irene Castle With Messy Hair Dancing

uring the first years of the twentieth century, women continued to wear their hair and hats much as they did in the previous century, but after about 1908 styles began to change and the first of the styles that would become so popular during the 1920s and 1930s appeared. In terms of hair and hats, then, this period was an age of transition. One of the most famous and successful performers of her time, Irene Castle (1893-1969) was a creative ballroom dancer and a tremendous influence on American and European fashions of the 1910s. Along with her husband and dance partner, Vernon (1887-1918), the elegant Irene brought respectability and social acceptance to dozens of new modern dances. At the same time, the Castles' dancing enlivened respectable society with the exciting new rhythms of ragtime music and dance. The public also admired Irene Castle for her tall athletic figure and her modern sense of style. Women everywhere imitated her short hair and loose clothing, and many fashion...

Swimming Suits

Women who wished to swim, however, found it much more difficult to find a suitable costume. Beginning in the 1860s, women were encouraged to take up swimming for exercise, and by the 1870s many women were learning to swim at pools and bathhouses, which had separate times designated for male and female bathers. In these sex-segregated situations, and for swimming competitions and demonstrations, female swimmers adopted simple princess-style one-piece suits, knitted garments similar to men's suits, or suits with long tights similar to those worn by circus performers. However, these garments were still not acceptable in mixed company, or for public wear out of the water, until the early twentieth century. The Australian swimmer Annette Kellerman became famous early in the century for her long-distance swimming feats and exhibitions of fancy diving, for which she wore sleeveless, form-fitting one-piece suits of black wool knit, sometimes with full-length stockings attached. She was an...

Plus Fours

Body Decoration

First introduced during the 1920s, plus fours were a variation on the traditional knee pants called knickers, which had been worn by men, boys, and, occasionally, women, since the late 1800s. Plus fours received their name because they were made four inches longer than ordinary knickers. While they still fastened with a tight band at the knee, the extra fabric of the plus four bloused over the band, giving a relaxed, baggy look. Plus fours were an extravagant, careless style that fit right in with the looser fashions and lifestyles of the 1920s. They also offered more freedom of movement than previous knickers, which made them extremely popular with sportsmen, especially golfers. The sport of golf had been played for centuries, but the 1920s saw the creation of golf fashion. Golfers not only wished to play well but to appear dashing and stylish. They quickly adopted the new plus fours, which were not only in high style but also had extra length that gave athletes more room to move...

Headwear 193045

Style Women 1935

I he severe hairstyles of the 1920s were replaced with softer styles between 1930 and 1945. Men and women grew their hair out slightly from the short styles popular in the previous decade. Men abandoned their slick, flattened styles in favor of clean, loose hair. Women, for the most part, wore their hair cut neatly above their shoulders, but some experimented briefly with longer styles inspired by glamorous movie stars such as Veronica Lake (1919 1973). Both men and women wore hats during this period. Men continued to wear fedoras, a soft, crowned felt hat, but in many more colors than before. Felt hats came in a wide variety of colors brown, dark or light gray, grayish blue, green, and even lilac. The most unusual colors were popularized by the flashy outfits worn by gangsters, members of criminal gangs, who were prominent in the news of the time. Women's hats remained small but not as close-fitting as the cloche hat of the 1920s. Women wore small brimmed hats or flat berets perched...

Naughty Knickers

British player and former Wimbledon champion Fred Perry developed a leading line of men's sportswear from the 1950s, focusing on the traditional tailored shorts and short-sleeved shirts for men. New fabric technologies, in particular breathable fabrics, have slowly revolutionized sportswear in general. One of the oldest, Aertex, was developed in the late nineteenth century by two British doctors, mainly for underwear. From the 1920s, it was being used to make men's tennis shirts. By the 1960s, synthetic fibers such as quick-drying polyester were replacing cotton. In the 1970s, the fashion of long hair for men meant that many copied their idol Bjorn Borg's signature headband, reminiscent of Suzanne Lenglen's bandeau. The 1980s was a decade of traditional styling for both men and women, with close-fitting short shorts being worn by men and wraparound skirts popular for female players. An exception was U.S. player Anne White who, in 1985, caused a sensation at Wimbledon by wearing a...

West 50th Street

There is a connection between the show window and art (theatre, painting, performance art ), fashion, design (shop design, window dressing, graphics ), architecture, and marketing (consumer research, merchandising ).438 In literal terms, our chapter is set in New York, because we associate a lot of our reading material with this place. We will, however, not enter into an art historic or design theoretic discussion here. We have not undertaken any visual research in New York, but we will use a few selected historic examples in order to throw light from different directions onto our study of the seasonal sale window. The first relation we will be studying is that of art and show window design. In 1929, Frederic Kiesler published the book Contemporary Art Applied to the Store and its Display. He promoted the idea of using contemporary artistic techniques to improve the appearance and efficiency of the storefronts.439 But Kiesler was not solely preoccupied with the design of retail...

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