As both China and Japan modernized in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, most people adopted Western cus-
toms in headwear and hairstyles. Following the rise of communism in China after 1949, however, hairstyles became much simpler. (Communism is a system of government in which the state controls the economy and all property and wealth are shared equally by the people.) The Communists wanted to strip away the differences between people, and they discouraged women from wearing expensive decorative items in their hair. Women's hairstyles became much simpler and less adorned.
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