etween 3000 B.C.E. and 300 B.C.E. the civilizations thriv- ■

ing in Mesopotamia, a large region centered between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in modern-day Iraq, laid the foundation for customs that would dominate later European culture. Though many different societies emerged and organized cities, states, and empires in Mesopotamia, historians study these cultures together because they lived near each other and had many similarities. The main civilizations were the Sumerians (3000-2000 B.C.E.), the Akkadians (2350-2218 B.C.E.), the Babylonians (1894-1595 B.C.E.), the Assyrians (1380-612 B.C.E.), and the Persians (550-330 B.C.E.).

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