U

Association), 5 983 The Unbelievables, 3 571, 583 Underwear. See also Bloomers Brassiere Calvin Klein, 5 977 for men, 4 690-91 subligaculum, 1 177 undershirts, 4 785 Underwear for men, 4 690-91 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 5 842, 843, 889, 969, 971 Union suits, 4 690 Unitas, Johnny, 5 871 (ill.) United Cerebral Palsy Association (UCPA), 5 983 United States. See specific time periods also Oxfords Urban Cowboy, 5 1017 Usuta, 2 406 Utility clothing, British, 4 799, 800

V

Vallee, Rudy, 4 740 Van Der Zee, James, 4 740 Vandals, 2 275 Vanderbilt, Gloria, 5 986 Vanity Rules, 5 881 Vedder, Eddie, 5 989 Veils, 1 61-62 driving and, 4 675 fifteenth century, 3 457 Mesopotamian, 1 61-62 Muslim, 1 62, 84, 85, 86 Velour, 5 932 Velvet, 4 730 Versace, Gianni, 5 906 Vests, 4 684 5 906-8, 907 (ill.) Victoria (Queen of England), 3 601, 608-9 4 826 Viet Nam Generation, 5 942 Vietnam War, 4 829, 836 5 890, 935 Vikings, 2 278, 282 (ill.), 289 (ill.) Vionnet, Madeleine, 4 726, 787...

W

Walking sticks, 3 593-94, 593 (ill.) War of the Spanish Succession, 3 553 Warner Brothers Corset Company, 4 671 Watches, 3 585-86, 583 (ill.), 648 4 709-11, 710 (ill.) Wealth, 1 161-63 3 469-71 Weatherproof clothing driving clothes and, 4 674-75 trench coats, 4 688-90 Weaving, 2 337 Weejuns, 4 839 Weismuller, Johnny, 4 806 Welch, Raquel, 5 855 Western dress. See also specific Western countries Africa, 2 411, 411 (ill.), 443 Native Americans, 2 358 Western Europe, 2 277 (ill.). See also Europe,...

G

Gabardine, 4 728 Gable, Clark, 4 785 Gainsborough chapeau, 3 636-37, 636 (ill.) 4 703 Gainsborough, Thomas, 3 636 Gallicae, 1 198, 202-3 Ganache and gardcorps, 2 303 Gandhi, Mahatma, 1 72, 82, 108 Gandouras, 2 416 Gap, 5 970, 979, 982 GapKids, 5 970 GapShoes, 5 970 Garbo, Greta, 4 785 Garcia, Jerry, 5 906 Gardcorps, Ganache and, 2 303 Garden, Mary, 4 761 Garland, Judy, 4 784 Garters, 4 676-77 Gaucho pants, 5 909-12 Gauls, 2 276 braccae, 2 281 clothing, 2 282 footwear, 2 289 headwear, 2 285...

C

Cameo and Intaglio 1 146 536 Caps 3 578 Casula 1 169 904 78 Chanel No. 5 4 764 Chappals 1 108 Charm Bracelet (1930-45) 4 826 Charm Bracelet (l946-6o) 5 879 216 558 Chlaina and Diplax 1 122 123 79 Chopines 3 502 Clean-Shaven Men 4 753 Cloaks (Native American Cultures) 2 364 Cloaks (Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas) 2 395 Cloche Hat 4 755 Clutch Purse 4 827 616 Coats and Capes 3 559 Codpiece 3 474 314 673 Collars and Pectorals 1 38 Converse All-Stars 4 714 Copotain 3 489 Cordoba Leather Gloves 3 496 905...

Contributors

Freelance Writer, Crosse Pointe, MI. ROB EDELMAN. Instructor, State University of New York at Albany. Author, Baseball on the Web (1997) and The Great Baseball Films (1994). Co-author, Matthau A Life (2002) Meet the Mertzes (1999) and Angela Lansbury A Life on Stage and Screen (1996). Contributing editor, Leonard Maltin's Move & Video Guide, Leonard Maltin's Movie Encyclopedia, and Leonard Maltin's Family Viewing Guide. Contributing writer, International Dictionary of Films...

F

519-20, 520 (ill.) Fanny Farmer candy stores, 4 723 Fans, 2 240-41, 241 (ill.) 3 497, 539, 539 (ill.), 645 Farrah Fawcett look, 5 935, 939-40, 939 (ill.) Farthingales, 3 476-77 Fashion The Mirror of History, 1 22-23, 39, 180 2 293 3 471 5 852 563 (ill.) Fashion industry, 4 663-64. See also specific styles and designers Fashion magazines, 3 512 4 784 Fashions in Hair, 2 285 3 490, 533 4 695, 751, 818, 820 Fasteners. See Zippers Fawcett, Farrah, 5 935, 939-40, 939 (ill.) Fearn, John, 2 334...

E

Earhart, Amelia, 4 718 Earrings, 1 104, 149, 149 (ill.). See also Jewelry Earstrings, 3 538-39 Earth shoes, 5 962-63 East India Company, 1 71 Eastern Orthodox Church, 2 257, 262, 319 Easy Rider, 5 909 cole Martine, 4 667 Economics 1980-2003, 5 969 new economy, 5 969, 972 seventeenth century, 3 508 United States, 5 971-72 Edelman, Amy Holman, 4 793 Education, 4 722-23 Edward III (King of England), 2 327 Wales), 3 619, 620 Edward VII (King of England), 4 678 Edward VIII (England), 3 758 Edward...

B

Backpack Purses 5 1006 515 752 459 Barbershops 4 698 Bases 3 473 Bathing Costumes 3 608 Beaded Handbags 4 707 435 Beards 1 185 Beehives and Bouffants 5 869 902 Berber Dress 2 421 Beret 2 312 853 Birkenstocks 5 958 361 300 Bloomers (Nineteenth Century) 3 611 Bloomers (1900-18) 4 668 Body Painting (Oceania) 2 344 Body Painting (African Cultures) 2 436 Bold Look 5 855 473 Boots (Ancient Greece) 1 156 Boots (Seventeenth Century) 3 546 Boots (Nineteenth Century) 3 654 Boubou 2 422 Bowl Haircut 2 313...

Timeline

THE BEGINNING OF HUMAN LIFE Early humans wrap themselves in animal hides for warmth. c. 10,000 b.c.e. Tattooing is practiced on the Japanese islands, in the Jomon period (c. 10,000-300 B.C.E.). Similarly scarification, the art of carving designs into the skin, has been practiced since ancient times in Oceania and Africa to make a person's body more beautiful or signify a person's rank in society. c. 3100 b.c.e. Egyptians weave a plant called flax into a light cloth called linen and made dresses...

Info

The bowl haircut, especially popular among European men from the twelfth through the fifteenth centuries, is one of the simplest of styles to create. It is a plain short haircut, with straight bangs on the forehead, and the rest of the hair left the same length all the way around. The cut got its name because it was originally done by actually placing a bowl on the head as a cutting guide. Most medieval men who wore the bowl haircut style also shaved the backs of their heads and shaved their...

Revised

C. 476 Upper-class men, and sometimes women, in the Byzantine Empire (476-1453 C.E.) wear a long, flowing robe-like overgarment called a dalmatica developed from the tunic. c. 900 Young Chinese girls tightly bind their feet to keep them small, a sign of beauty for a time in Chinese culture. The practice was outlawed in 1911. c. 1100-1500 The cote, a long robe worn by both men and women, and its descendant, the cotehardie, are among the most common garments of the late Middle Ages. 1392 Kimonos...

Lip Plugs

Dresses Worn The Middle Ages

Lip plugs, also known as labrets, have been worn for thousands of years by the women of several different African social groups. Lip plugs are considered essential to the beauty of some African women and are viewed as having protective value to others. To prepare for marriage, young women in Ethiopia insert a flat, circular plug or disk into a slit in their lower lip. The women make their lip plugs out of clay and color it with charcoal or red ocher, a reddish type of clay. Clay lip plugs are...

A

A & P grocery stores, 4 723 A la Belle Poule, 3 576-78 Abaya. See Burka Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem, 5 938 Accessories. See also Gloves Jewelry 1900-1918, 4 705 1946-1960, 5 867 eighteenth century, 3 583 nineteenth century, 3 645 seventeenth century, 3 535 sixteenth century, 3 493-94 Adidas, 4 716 5 918 Adrian, Gilbert, 4 784 Advertising, 3 602 5 978 Africa, 2 407-43 body decorations, 2 433-42, 434 (ill.), 435 (ill.), 439 (ill.), 441 (ill.) clothing, 2 329-30, 332, 413-27, 414 (ill.), 417 (ill.),...

Head Flattening

Head flattening is the practice of permanently elongating the skull by wrapping young children's heads while their skulls are BODY DECORATIONS OF AFRICAN CULTURES 437 still forming. African cultures reshaped the skulls of their members to increase an individual's beauty and to improve social status. Among the people who practiced head flattening, an elongated head indicated a person's intelligence and spirituality. The Mangbetu people of the present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo wrapped...

Footwear of Native American Cultures

The North American continent has been occupied since 10,000 B.C.E. and active civilizations have been recorded across the continent as far back as 3,000 B.C.E. The continent's wide variety of climates required the people living in different regions to wear different footwear. For the most part, the inhabitants of the southern regions and the temperate regions of the north preferred to go barefoot, even in the snow. Footwear was used, however, especially for traveling. Crude sandals made from...

R

Ready-to-wear Clothing manufactured in standard sizes and sold to customers without custom alterations. Silhouette The general shape or outline of the human body. Single-breasted A jacket fastened down the front with a single row of buttons. See also Double-breasted. Sole The bottom of a shoe, covering the bottom of the foot. Straights The forms, or lasts, used to make the soles of shoes without differentiating between the left and right feet. Suede Skin from a young goat, called kidskin or...

Cloaks

Cloaks are among the most common garment in human clothing history cultures across time and the globe have used cloaks to keep warm. Blanket-like cloaks were worn by both men and women of the Mayan, Aztec, and Inca empires. Each empire used a different name for their cloaks, and often cloaks worn by men had different names than those worn by women. Mayan men wore cloaks called pati, which were cloths tied around the shoulders. The pati of poor Mayans were plain cotton cloaks, but the...

General hair care

Hairdressing was very important among most Native American tribes since the beginning of their civilization. Men and women washed their hair with plants such as soapwort or yucca. Hair was shined with animal grease, or fat, and was sometimes colored or decorated with colored clay. Brushes were carved out of wood or made of bundled grasses, stiff horsehair, or porcupine hair. Men often plucked their facial hair, although the men of the Aleuts in the Arctic and the tribes of the Northwest, as...

Kosode

The kosode (KOH-so-da) is a basic item of Japanese dress for both men and women. It was once worn as an undergarment, and is what most people imagine when using the much broader term kimono. The literal meaning of the term kosode is small sleeve, which refers to the sleeve opening. Kosode are T-shaped and roomy in cut and more than full-length. They evolved from the original Japanese robe, called the hirosode, which flowed with many colored fabrics layered one on top of another. When Japan...

Tattooing

Images Middle Aged People With Tatoos

Tattoos in Oceania, etched forever in the skin, signified a person's position in society, helped ward off evil spirits, and were a way to beautify and decorate the body. Reproduced by permission of Anders Ryman CORBIS. Tattoos in Oceania, etched forever in the skin, signified a person's position in society, helped ward off evil spirits, and were a way to beautify and decorate the body. Reproduced by permission of Anders Ryman CORBIS. The inhabitants of the Marquesas Islands appeared to be...

Tunic

Tunics were sometimes worn by the men of Mayan, Aztec, and Inca cultures. Made of a woven rectangle of cotton, wool, or plant fiber fabric with a hole in the center for the head, tunics resembled loose, sleeveless pullover shirts that hung from the shoulders to within a few inches above or below the knee. Tunics were either left open at the sides or sewn leaving holes near the top fold for the arms to slip through. Tunics could hang freely or be wrapped at the waist with a sash. Most often worn...

Body Painting

The peoples of Oceania used paint to adorn their bodies for ceremonies and festive occasions. Body paint was more than a way to beautify the body the designs and colors signified a person's sex, age, social status, and wealth, among other things. Designs had religious, social, and diplomatic meanings. Special designs were worn for festivals honoring the dead, initiation ceremonies for young people to become full members of a group, and peace-making meetings with other groups after battles....

Footwear of Oceania

escriptions from early explorers and early photographs show that most of the peoples of Oceania went barefoot. No information about the development of traditional footwear in Oceania is known. Although many people in the island countries now wear Western-style sandals and shoes, especially in the urban areas, those living in the most remote areas continue to go barefoot. Lal, Brij V., and Kate Fortune, eds. The Pacific Islands An Encyclopedia. Honolulu, HI University of Hawaii Press, 2000.

Spiritual decoration

When making jewelry, Native Americans selected materials for their spiritual or magical qualities. Animal claws, crystals, shells, sticks, cornhusks, beads made of grass seed, dried rose hips, silver-berries from silverberry shrubs, and later metal and glass beads, among other things, were used to create necklaces, bracelets, armlets, and earrings, as well as many other unique adornments worn by both men and women. Hunters of northeastern and other tribes would adorn themselves with animal...

Zori

Byzantine Fashion Early Middle Ages

ori are sandals similar to what are known as flip-flops in the West. They are the most ancient form of footwear in Japan. Flat straw sandals with a thong held between the toes were already being worn in the Heian period (794-1185). Today zori are often made of lacquered lightweight wood, plastic, or rubber, and the thongs are made of cotton or velvet. Zori are worn over tabis, which are cotton socks designed to accommodate the thong by having the big toe in a separate compartment. The zori can...

Tabis

Pics Shoes Middle Ages

Tabis are Japanese socks, usually white, specifically designed to fit traditional Japanese shoes like the zori, or flip-flop like sandal shown here. Reproduced by permission of Ric Ergenbright The Japanese footwear known as tabis (TAH-bees), literally translated as footbag, are commonly worn on the feet inside the traditional Japanese house. Yet it is more than just a pair of socks. Generally made of either white cotton or silk, they fasten at the ankle by means of a flat hook. They have...

Covering the head

For the most part, Native Americans went bareheaded. Most often their elaborate hairstyles were decorated with simple headbands or ornaments. However, headgear was important for ceremonies and cold or rainy weather. Both men and women in the Northwest wore large woven hats to protect them from the rain. These hats were often painted with designs or woven in shapes to identify the social status of the wearer. Men of the Haida tribe, for example, would wear tall, wide-brimmed hats woven of spruce...

Kente Cloth

Richly woven Kente cloth is among the most famous woven cloths of Africa. Made originally for Ashanti tribal royalty in the seventeenth century, the cloth is derived from an ancient type of weaving practiced since the eleventh century. In the past, Kente cloth was woven by hand on looms, or weaving devices, in a tightly formed basket weave. The dense fabric was very difficult to weave, and weavers who devised new patterns were revered. Traditionally, each new pattern is named to commemorate an...

Permanent decorations

Some body decorations were permanent. The Mayans squeezed the skulls of the most privileged infants between two boards to elongate and flatten their heads and tried to promote crossed eyes by hanging a ball from children's bangs in the center of their forehead. Mayan kings and noblemen, or aristocrats, bored holes in their front teeth and inserted decorative pieces of stone, especially green jade and glossy black obsidian, which comes from hardened molten lava. All Mayans filed points on their...

Footwear of the Middle Ages

The footwear worn in the Middle Ages (c. 500-c. 1500) follows the trend of fashion in general over this period, moving from very crude in the early years to highly refined and even frivolous by the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. In fact, the evolution of footwear tracks very nicely the larger social changes that marked this fascinating period in European history. Following the collapse of the Roman Empire in 476 C.E., Europe was without any form of unifying order. Isolated communities of...

Asian Cultures

W W hile both Chinese and Japanese cultures have some interesting and even spectacular traditions of body decoration, what is perhaps most striking is how little these early Asian cultures depended upon ornament. Both cultures valued simplicity. They did not wear large amounts of jewelry, nor did they have complicated ways of painting their faces with makeup. They did, however, have particular items of their overall costume that allowed for more display. Most of their body decoration customs...

Dragon Robes

The dragon is one of the most ancient and powerful symbols in Chinese culture. A composite of many animals, including a snake, an eagle, a tiger, and a devil, the dragon symbolized the natural world and transformation. It was associated with Chinese emperors from at least the first century B.C.E. Beginning late in the Song dynasty (960-1279 C.E.), emperors began to wear luxurious robes decorated with figures of dragons. By the time of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911), the dragon robe, in its many...

Clothing of Native American Cultures

The clothing of Native Americans was closely related to the environment in which they lived and their religious beliefs. Ranging from tropical and desert regions, to woodlands and mountains, to Arctic tundra, Native Americans developed diverse styles of clothing. In the warmest regions, little clothing was worn. Among the peoples of California, for example, men were normally naked, but women wore simple knee-length skirts. In the cooler regions, more clothing styles developed. Among the tribes...

Grouping native peoples by region

More than three hundred different tribes lived across North America. Each tribe had distinct cultures, clothing styles, social organization, and language dialects. Because similarities did exist between tribes living in similar regions, anthropologists, those who study cultures, often group tribes into regional categories. The regions most concentrated on are the Southeast, the Northeast, the Plains, the Southwest, the Great Basin, the Plateau, California, the Northwest, the Subarctic, and the...

Woven cloth

Although many tribes used handmade methods of weaving, natives of the American Southwest were the first group to develop a loom, or weaving device, for weaving cloth. In 1200 C.E., well before the arrival of the first Europeans, Indians in the Southwest grew cotton and wove it into cloth. They also wove yucca, wool, feathers, and even human hair into cloth. Their breechclouts, leggings, and skirts were often made of woven fibers. As Native Americans had continued contact with Europeans and...

Haori

The outer garment worn over the kosode (a sort of robe) by both men and women, the haori is cut like a kimono but is shorter, varying in length from mid thigh to mid calf. The haori has one layer of silk, like a kimono, and is lined with another layer of silk or cotton. It is loose-fitting and T-shaped. Unlike the kimono, the haori front does not overlap and is not secured by an obi, a type of sash. It is fastened at the center front by means of braided silk cords. Geisha, professional...

Middle Ages

The Middle Ages (c. 500 c. 1500) were a time when people in Europe did less to adorn themselves than at any period in history. The civilizations that developed in Europe following the collapse of the Roman Empire in 476 C.E. inherited their decorative traditions not from the Romans, who had loved jewelry and decoration, but from the crude barbarian groups, or tribes, that had helped bring about the downfall of Rome. The Catholic religion that developed in Europe also frowned on excessive...

Fez

Religion Symbols Tanzania

The fez cap is popular among northern Africans, especially men, of various nationalities, religions, and tribal affiliations. The cap is a small, brimless, flat-topped cap that fits above the ears on the top of the head. The cap was named for the city of Fez, Morocco, and a red fez, or tarbouch, has become a national symbol of that country. By the early nineteenth century, A soldier in the Ghanaian presidential guard wearing a red fez cap. Reproduced by permission the fez cap was also an...

Headwear of Nomads and Barbarians

O ne of the things that most shocked the Romans about the barbarian tribes who attacked the outposts of the Roman Empire in the fourth century C.E. was the wildness of the barbarians' hair. Since we have no written records, paintings, or sculptures of these early peoples, we must rely on the accounts of outside observers, who were often the victims of attacks. Nearly every account emphasizes that barbarians wore their hair long. Women wore their hair very long and often braided it and let it...

Kinu

The word kinu (KEE-nu) literally means silk in Japanese but was the term for a short coat worn in ancient Japan. It is one of the earliest clothing forms identified as Japanese, and it can be seen on haniwa figurines, sculptured pottery placed in burial mounds, from the Nara period (710-794 C.E.). Its round neckline and tubular sleeves were derived from ancient Chinese dress forms. The early form of the kinu was more complicated to construct and wear than the kosode, which later became the...

Bear Grease

Indians across North America smeared bear grease, or bear fat, and other oils on their hair to make it shine. Similar substances for smoothing and shining the hair were raccoon fat and deer marrow, a material found inside bones. Both men and women of the Delaware, Huron, and Sauk tribes of the Northeast smoothed bear grease onto their hair daily. The Plains Indians also shined their hair with bear grease and used other oils soaked with herbs to perfume the hair. The Crow Indians of the Plains...

Body Decorations of African Cultures

Middle Ages Jewelery

A fricans have ancient traditions for decorating and accessorizing the body in rich and varied ways. Traditionally, many African peoples wore little to cover their bodies, leaving their skin exposed and available for decoration. Africans adorned themselves in four general ways scarification, body painting, beadwork, and jewelry. Scarification involves deliberately cutting the skin in decorative patterns that leave permanent scars. Scarification can be in the form of grooves cut down in the skin...

Fans

Clothing Styles From The Middle Ages

The fan, a simple device by which a person can wave air at his or her body in order to cool it, has been one of the most basic fashion accessories for thousands of years. There is evidence that some type of flat paddle used to move air had been used in ancient Mesopotamia (the region centered in present-day Iraq), Egypt, Greece, and Rome, but the Chinese are widely believed to have been the first to use the fan as a decorative item. Credit for the invention of the fan is disputed, but it is...

Clothing of Oceania

Noble Women Dress The Middle Ages

The sunny climate of Oceania did not require people to wear bulky clothing for warmth. The inhabitants of the more than thirty thousand islands exposed most, or all, of their bodies. Men and boys went about naked, and women often wore only a skirt made of plant fibers or grasses around their waists. Instead of clothes, the peoples of Oceania developed intricate and meaningful body decoration traditions. Weaving developed in the Philippines and other parts of Oceania in 2000 B.C.E. Although...

Middle Ages Body Paint

A cross the continent of Africa, the skin was, and still is, regarded as a blank canvas to be decorated in a variety of different ways. Body painting was traditionally used in many societies to signify a person's social status and religious beliefs. A temporary decoration, body paint lasted only a few days. In some cultures both men and women painted their bodies only for important social occasions, while in other cultures people wore body paint every day as a uniform to show their social...

Solid Angel Neck Tattoos

Tattooing was practiced among members of Native American tribes for thousands of years. Native Americans tattooed themselves by cutting their skin with sharp objects and rubbing dye into the cuts. Cactus needles, fish bones, pine needles, bird bones, sharp stones, or other sharp objects pricked the skin and pigments such as charcoal, cedar-leaf ashes, or other materials were used to make red, blue, or green tattoos on the skin. People, especially men, would often tattoo themselves, though some,...

Early Asian Cultures

Asian Dynasties Fations

He Asian societies that began in modern-day China are among the oldest known human societies on earth. Though they were at least as developed and sophisticated as early civilizations in Mesopotamia (centered in present-day Iraq) and Egypt, these Asian societies have received far less study and attention in the West. In the last century, however, with the modernization of the ancient nations of China and Japan, people in the West have come to know a great deal about early Asian cultures. Many...

The Costume of the Discovered Peoples

Tahiti Native Costumes

Here is a great deal of information known about the costume traditions of many of the ancient cultures. The clothing, hairstyles, and decorative customs of ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, India, China, Japan, and other societies, for example, have all been written about in many books. And from about midway through the Middle Ages (c. 500-c. 1500 C.E.) onward there are vast sources of information about the costume worn in Europe. Artwork, monuments and buildings, and written documents are all...

Animal skins

Before the European colonization of the Americas that began in the seventeenth century C.E., most Native American people lived close to nature, making their living from the resources that were plentiful in the world around them. They largely survived by fishing, hunting, and gathering edible plants, though some tribes, such as the Navajo in the southwestern United States and the Oneida of northern New York, tended flocks of sheep or grew crops to add to what they found in nature. Almost all of...

Clothing of African Cultures

Kente Cloth Wrapped Around Wedding Dress

The evolution of African clothing is difficult to trace because of the lack of historical evidence. Although artifacts from Egyptian culture date back to before 3000 B.C.E., no similar evidence is available for the majority of the African continent until the mid-twentieth century. Sources from Arab culture refer to the people of northern Africa by the eighth century C.E., but much of early African clothing history has been pieced together from art, oral histories, and traditions that are...

Braids

Mesopotamian Clothing And Jewelry

N ext to long, flowing hair, braids are perhaps the most common hairstyle of Native Americans throughout history. Braiding, also known as plaiting, is a hair weaving technique that involves crossing three or more bunches of hair over each other. Both men and women of every North American tribe wore braids, with the exception of some in the tribes of the American Southeast, California, and the peoples of the Subarctic and Arctic Regions. There were many styles of braiding, but two long braids...

Geta

Middle Ages Clothing

Geta GAY-tah are the traditional footwear of all kimono-wearers in modern and traditional Japan. They are raised clogs shoes with a heavy, often wooden sole and are closely related to the low, wedge-shaped sandals called zori. Geta are usually made of plain wood with a V-shaped padded fabric thong into which the wearer slips his or her foot, inserting the point of the V between the big toe and the next toe. They are raised off the ground by two wooden pieces under the sole, their height...

Blankets

For Native Americans, blankets have not only been garments worn for warmth, but also a source of artistic expression and a valuable trading commodity that provided economic self-sufficiency. Blankets were worn most commonly draped around the shoulders much like a cloak. Blanket making has been found in virtually all native North American tribes. Even before cotton production was developed in the thirteenth century C.E., Native Americans in the Southwest made blankets from the feathers of...

Foot Binding and Lotus Shoes

For over a thousand years, tiny feet were symbols of feminine beauty, elegance, and sexuality in China. In order to achieve the goal of tiny three-inch lotus feet the lotus was a kind of flower , most young Chinese girls had their feet bound tightly with strips of cloth to prevent growth. Once the process was completed, the deformed feet were placed into beautiful, embroidered lotus shoes, tiny pointed slippers that were made especially for bound feet. Though no one knows exactly when foot...

And Incas

Head Wear The Middle Ages

B arly Central and South Americans cared for their hair by washing, combing, and styling it. Atop their carefully styled hair, Mayan, Aztec, and Inca men and women wore hats and headdresses of many different styles. Elite Mayan men and women styled their hair to show off their pointed heads, crafted through the careful head flattening they experienced as children. Women gathered their long hair on top of their heads in flowing ponytails. For special occasions they braided their ponytails and...

Siyala

Middle Aged Evil Man

The scars indicated a person's rank and age in society and were essential for attracting those of the opposite sex. permission of Bojan The Berbers living in northern Africa used body decoration not only as a way to beautify themselves but also as potent protection against illness and evil spirits. One of their most unique forms of decoration was known as siyala. Siyala was a type of body decorating that could be applied as tattoos or as body paint, and it was made of...

Beadwork

Women Making Beads Africa

A Masai man wearing detailed beadwork. Both men and women wear beadwork, and it has become a sought-after item among tourists to Africa. Reproduced by permission of Richard T. Nowitz CORBIS. eadwork has been a common decorative tradition for many years in Africa. The earliest beads were made from grass seeds, shells, clay, stone, and wood. These were strung to create necklaces, headgear, bracelets, and anklets, or sewn to blankets or other cloth to make beaded garments. Beginning in the...

Footwear of the Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Footwear

W ainting, sculptures, jewelry, and ornaments from the Byzantine Empire, which stretched across much of present-day Greece and Turkey from 476 to 1453 C.E., leave us with a rich record of the clothing and decorative traditions of this powerful empire. Very little is known about Byzantine footwear since the long draped clothing of the Byzantines, which reached to the floor, tended to hide the feet. The sculptures and paintings that have survived offer us just fleeting glimpses of Byzantine...

Plant fibers

Middle Ages Clothing

Before the arrival of great numbers of Europeans in the seventeenth century, Native Americans also used the animals and plants they found around them to make food, shelter, and clothing. One of the most plentiful resources in many areas was the bark of trees, which was stripped, dried, and shredded to make fibers. These fibers were used to weave soft, comfortable clothing. Typical shredded bark A young girl dressed in a cedar bark costume. Native Americans often used bark to weave skirts,...

Clothing of Early Asian Cultures

Asian From The Middle Ages

UU p until very recently, people in the Western world had a very limited understanding of the kinds of clothing worn in Asia. Our pictures of Asian clothing relied on stereotypes of Japanese people wearing kimono, or long robes with wide sleeves, and Chinese people wearing Mao suits, the simply cut, dull-colored outfits favored by the Communist Party. In fact, the peoples of Asia have a clothing tradition every bit as rich and varied as that of the cultures of the West. Understanding of Asian...

Usuta Designers

Usuta, the unique footwear of the Incas, were a type of sandal worn by both men and women. The soles of usuta covered the bottom of the foot but ended at the balls of the foot. This left the toes exposed to help grip the ground of the mountainous terrain where the Incas lived. The soles of usuta were made from the un-tanned, or untreated, skin from the necks of sheep. Because the un-tanned usuta soles became soft in water, Incas removed their usuta in wet weather. Usuta were attached to the...

Native American Cultures

I ative American tribes of the North American continent and the peoples of the Subarctic and Arctic have a long and rich history. Archaeologists, scientists who study past civilizations, believe that people have lived in North America from about 13,000 B.C.E. Our knowledge of Native American cultures begins with the first European contact in the tenth century C.E. between the Vikings and the Arctic Inuit, or Eskimo peoples, but becomes much more detailed in the early 1500s and 1600s when first...

Kabuki Makeup

Peking Opera Face Painting

ICabuki is a style of traditional Japanese theater that includes music, dance, and drama. First performed by females, after 1629 BODY DECORATIONS OF EARLY ASIAN CULTURES 241 only male actors could take part in Kabuki, and they played both the male and female characters. Kabuki characters are often drawn from Japanese folklore, and a major part of the Kabuki performance is the dramatic makeup worn by the actors. This makeup is applied heavily to create a brightly painted mask that uses colors in...

Headwear of African Cultures

African Women And Wearing Beads

I he variety of hairstyles and head-wear in Africa matches the diversity of the people who live on the continent. Different cultures have used hairstyles and headwear to show tribal association, gender, religion, job, and social status. In addition, the various cultures have created wigs, hats, hair ornaments, razors, and combs to aid in adorning the head. The importance of head-wear to African culture is witnessed by the many statues and masks of ancient Africa that show detailed hair...

Oceania Island Culture

Middle Ages Clothing

Ceania encompasses more than thirty thousand islands in the Pacific Ocean, spanning from Hawaii in the north to New Zealand in the south. To most geographers the lands that make up Oceania include Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, New Zealand, and often Australia and the Malay Archipelago. These islands are home to a wide range of cultures, and today many of the island nations recognize more than one language. For example, in Papua New Guinea alone, a part of the island region known as...

The Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire Trade Routes

He people who we know today as the Byzantines called themselves Romans, spoke Greek, and lived in modern-day Turkey. The name Byzantine came from the founder of the empire's capital, a Greek man named Byzas, who may have existed only in legend. While the areas that were once ruled by the Roman Empire fell into disorder as conflicting tribes fought for control of their territory, the Byzantines maintained a legacy of learning and a civilization inherited from the Greeks and Romans for more than...

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Paget, Sidney, 3 635 Painter's pants, 5 925-26 Paintings, cave. See Cave paintings Pajamas, 4 726, 736-37, 736 ill. Pakistan, 1 72 Palisades, 3 491 Palla, 1 174-75, 174 1ll. Paltrow, Gwyneth, 5 988 Paludamentum, 2 261, 264-65, Panniers, 3 566 Pantofles, Pattens and, 3 504 Pants. See also Knickers Trousers gaucho, 5 909-12 harem, 4 667 hot, 5 915-16 painter's, 5 925-26 peg-top, 4 682 suit, 4 684 Pantsuit, 5 926-27, 927 ill. Pantyhose, 5 927-28. See also Hose 847-49....

Africa From the Birth of Civilization

Africa Middle Ages

He earliest stages of human evolution are believed to have begun in Africa about seven million years ago as a population of African apes evolved into three different species gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. Protohumans, as early humans are known, evolved about 2.5 million years ago and had larger brains and stood nearly upright. From prehistoric Africa, humans spread to populate much of the world by 10,000 B.C.E. Some of the world's first great empires originated in northern Africa around...

Kataginu

Naga Gamishimo

ICataginu are men's vests with broad, wing-like shoulders, worn with hakama, or trousers, to form a kamishimo, or complementary outfit. The hakama are worn in a contrasting color or fabric from the kataginu. Also worn are naga-bakama, trousers in the same fabric as the kataginu, giving the impression of an elegant coverall called naga-gamishimo. The costume is designed for maximum mobility in swordplay or the martial arts. It was historically worn for combat by samurai warriors. It combined...

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Medieval Armour 1350

Rom as early as 100 B.C.E., administrators of the Roman Empire 27 B.C.E.-476 C.E. had brought parts of Europe under the control and governance of Rome. By the second century C.E., Rome's influence spread throughout most of western Europe, from Spain north to Britain, and Germany south to Italy. When the Roman Empire collapsed in 476 C.E. after years of attacks by hordes of raiding barbarians from the north, including Goths, Huns, Franks, Angles, Saxons, and Vandals, much of the civilization...

American Cultures

Bear Claw Tattoo

I Native Americans across the North American continent adorned their bodies in a variety of different ways. From designs applied directly to the skin to elaborate ornaments crafted of symbolic materials, Native American body decoration was very important to the religious and social life of tribal members. In many tribes the skin was considered a canvas on which to paint or tattoo designs. Although warriors used paint to prepare for battle, body painting was not only used for war paint. Painted...

Footwear of Nomads and Barbarians

Barbarians Clothing The Middle Ages

s with their clothing, the footwear of nomads and barbarians was made out of the skins of the animals that they hunted and, in some cases, herded. Though we have very little physical evidence about the footwear worn by such peoples as the Gauls, Celts, Huns, and Goths, we do know that their animal hide footwear came in two basic styles. The first style, which was similar to primitive footwear worn by prehistoric humans, consisted of a single piece of animal hide wrapped up over the top of the...

Scarification

Carification, the art of carving decorative scars into the skin, is an ancient practice on the continent of Africa that is now fading from use. The first Europeans to encounter Africans commented upon the patterns of scars that decorated the bodies of many of the people. They learned that scarification was practiced according to strict social rules that dictated the time a scar could be made and the designs used. In African cultures that practiced scarification, scars indicated a person's rank...

Headwear of Oceania

Sinaunang Habi

ittle information about the traditional hairstyles of the peoples of Oceania exists. Descriptions from early explorers and early photographs show that most women of Oceania wore their hair long and that men were clean-shaven. No history of the specific styles worn by either men or women has been recorded. However, the decorations added to the hair were quite beautiful. Carved combs, feathers, and flowers were known to decorate the hair of some groups. In Polynesia feathered headdresses were a...

War Paint

Body Painting Tree Pictures

N ative American tribes have used body paint from their first appearance in North America in about 10,000 B.C.E., both to psychologically prepare for war as well as for visual purposes. Two major ingredients in body paint were charcoal and ocher, a reddish clay. Other natural ingredients, including bird excrement, plant leaves, and fruits, were mixed with animal fat and hot water to make paint. Tree branches and animal bones were used as paintbrushes. Indians painted in various shapes, often...

Footwear of African Cultures

The available evidence about ancient African cultures suggests that most Africans did not wear shoes for much of their early history. Although many northern tribes had contact with people who wore sandals and shoes, including the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, and later Arabs and Persians from present-day Iran , a complete record of when or how Africans adopted foot coverings does not exist. The most common depictions of Africans from statues, artwork, and examples of traditional dress still...

Leggings

In cool weather or rough terrain men and women of nearly every Native American tribe wore leggings to protect their legs. Leggings were snug or loose-fitting tubes of animal hide that covered each leg individually. Men's leggings covered the leg from waist or thigh to ankle. The top of the leggings was tied to a string, belt, or sash wrapped around the waist, and sometimes the leggings were gartered, or tied, at the knee. The leggings resembled crotchless pants and men wore them with...

Woman S Head Covering Middle Ages

Modest Women The Middle Ages

The wimple, also spelled whimple, was a very common head covering for women of the Middle Ages c. 500 c. 1500 . Popular from the twelfth through the fifteenth centuries, wimples were light veils, usually made of linen or silk, which were fastened all the way around the neck, up to the chin. Sometimes the bottom edge of the wimple was tucked into the collar of the dress. The wimple provided both protection from the weather and modesty. A wimple was often worn with a veil called a couvrechef,...

Native American diversity

Historical Native American Dress

All parts of Native American life were affected by the climate and geography in which the Native Americans lived. The weather, the fertility of the soil, access to water, and the height of mountains all contributed to how a particular Indian tribe organized its social and political systems. Each was unique. Tribes lived by farming, fishing, hunting, gathering, and later, trading, depending on their particular region and amount of contact with others. The Arapaho of the Plains, for example, were...

Clothing of Nomads and Barbarians

Clothing The Middle Ages

O ur first records of the groups we know as nomads and barbarians are provided by Romans from as early as about 100 B.C.E. The people who lived in Gaul, present-day France, and the Celts in Britain had a much less developed culture than the Romans, though they had been settled in Europe from as early as about 700 B.C.E. They tended to wear rough garments made of wool, which they gathered from native sheep. These garments included thick wool tunics, crudely sewn at the sides, and heavy wool...

Jewelry

Map Mesoamerica Mayans Aztecs Incas

The jewelry worn by the Mayan, Aztec, and Inca people was rich in variety and quite beautiful. Without metalworking skills, Mayans made jewelry from many other materials. Mayan men wore nose ornaments, earplugs, and lip plugs made of bone, wood, shells, and stones, including jade, topaz, and obsidian. Necklaces, bracelets, BODY DECORATIONS OF MAYANS, AZTECS, AND INCAS Map of the Americas showing the Mesoamerican civilizations of the Middle Ages Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas. Reproduced by...

India Middle Ages

Choli Dhoti and Lungi 80 Punjabi Modern Islamic Dress box 85 Turbans Foot Forehead Henna Jewelry Jutti Khapusa Life in Ancient Chlaina and Chlamys Doric Ionic Chiton 127 Loin Military Dress 131 Minoan Dress 132 Phrygian Pilos and Petasos 141 Sakkos and Sphendone 142 Cameo and Fibulae Jewelry Metal Boots Sandals Ancient Sumptuary Laws Regulate Luxury box 162 Dalmatica Etruscan Tunica Braids and Hair Coloring 187 Jewelry Signet Where to Learn More lxxv Volume 2 Early Cultures Across the Globe

Hakama

Hakama Wearing

The hakama is a pleated, two-part lower garment usually referred to as either full-cut trousers or a divided skirt. It began as a long trailing garment in ancient times and in more recent times has been worn as a standard part of male ceremonial attire and by martial artists. Originally, the hakama was worn as an outer garment to protect the samurai warriors' legs as they rode their horses, like a cowboy's leather leggings called chaps. As the samurai used horses less, they continued the...

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Tabis, 2 252-53, 252 ill. Taffeta, 4 730 Tahiti, 2 331 ill. Tailored suit for women, 4 747-49, 748 ill. 5 972 Tailor-mades, 4 685-86 Tailors, 2 298-300 4 794 Taj Mahal, 1 70 ill. Takada, Kenzo, 5 979 Tang dynasty, 2 231, 247 Tanning, 5 953-56, 954 ill. , 1011 Tapesties, 2 294 ill. Target, 5 979 Tattooing, 2 244-46, 343, 343 ill. , 346-47, 346 ill. , 377-78, 381-82 5 1012-13, 1012 ill. Asian, 2 244-46 henna, 1 99 Mayans, 2 401 Native American, 2 377-78, 381-82 Oceania,...

Body Decorations of Oceania

Oceania Tattoo

I n the warm climate of the thousands of islands that make up Oceania, people wear few clothes. Uncovered, their skin is considered a blank canvas for decoration. Among the many different cultures living on the islands, body decoration is very important to social and religious practices. Body painting is a temporary method of adorning the body. Much as westerners wear dress clothes to weddings, the peoples of Oceania paint their bodies for rituals and festive occasions. Other body markings are...

The Stola Was The Basic Garment Worn By Women During The Year Of The Byzantine Empire 476-1453 C. E.

The stola was the basic garment worn by women during the years of the Byzantine Empire 476-1453 C.E. . The stola was a long dress, sewn along both sides from the hem at the bottom all the way to the arms. The stola was usually worn with a belt placed just below the bustline. Typically made of linen or light wool, the stola also could be made of silk, the fabric preferred by the very wealthy. Like many Byzantine garments, the stola was based on the women's stola worn in the Roman Empire 27...

Moccasins

How Draw Nez Perce Clothing

Made out of animal skins, or sometimes plant fiber, moccasins protected men, women, and children's feet from rough terrain. Reproduced by permission of Christie's Images CORBIS. While many Native Americans went barefoot, even in the snow, most tribes developed a favorite style of shoe called a moccasin. Made out of tanned animal skins, or sometimes plant fiber, moccasins protected men, women, and children's feet from rough terrain. Many were plain leather, but others...

Kimono

Ancient Japanese Kimonos

The kimono is the most basic term for traditional Japanese dress. The term literally translates as thing to wear. The word kimono came into use in the late nineteenth century as a way to distinguish native clothing from Western clothing, and thereafter became more common in Japan. Kimono refers to the principal outer garment of Japanese dress, a long robe with wide sleeves, made of various materials and in many patterns. It is generally unlined in summer, lined in autumn and spring, and padded...

Boubou

Different Styles Weaving Cloth

A sleeveless robe is called a boubou in Nigeria and Senegal. A boubou is worn by men over the top of long sleeved gowns or alone with loose trousers. Generally, boubou are long rectangular cloths with holes in the center. The boubou is worn with the head through the hole and the fabric draped to about mid-thigh level. Boubou can be dyed bright colors and decorated with embroidery, appliqued patterns, or beadwork. Women wear a version of the boubou called a m'boubou. A m'boubou is a flowing...

And Barbarians

Barbarians Middle Ages

Ur lack of knowledge about the costume traditions of nomads and barbarians is especially severe in the area of body decoration and accessories. While even prehistoric humans left wall paintings and carvings and small statues that indicated that they wore tattoos and painted their bodies, we have no such records from the barbarian tribes that ransacked Europe in the last years of the Roman Empire 27 B.C.E.-476 C.E. . It is simply not known whether such groups as the Huns and the Goths had body...

Headwear of the Middle Ages

Medieval Bowl Haircut

I eople living in Europe during the long period of history known as the Middle Ages c. 500-c. 1500 wore a variety of different hairstyles and headwear. As with other elements of medieval costume, these styles were fairly simple up until about the twelfth century, when increasing wealth and changes in social life brought an upsurge in decoration, especially in headwear. Less is known about hairstyles in the Middle Ages than in many other eras, in part because of people's fondness for headwear....

Headdresses

Museum Headdress

Headdresses were usually made from the fur and feathers of sacred animals and were thought to give the power of the animals to the person wearing the headdress. Reproduced by permission of Bowers Museum of Cultural Art CORBIS. The tall, feathered headdress has come to be one of the most recognizable symbols of the Native American people of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Books and movies about Indians often picture them wearing the large feathered headdresses that...

Loincloths

Loincloth Middle Ages

Aztec emissaries delivering offerings to Spanish conquistador Hern n Cort s. The Aztecs are wearing traditional Indian cloaks and loincloths. Reproduced by permission of Bettmann M en in the Mayan, Aztec, and Inca empires all wore loincloths, the most basic form of male clothing in many ancient cultures. Loincloths were made out of strips of fabric wound around the waist and between the legs, leaving flaps hanging in the front and back. The climate of Central and South America was so warm that...

A symbol of wealth

Pictures What The Iroquois Wore

Although most jewelry had spiritual meaning, some indicated social status or was worn simply for decoration. For example, pearls could only be worn by the children of noblemen in the Natchez A Navajo woman displays her turquoise jewelry. Native Americans of the Southwest adorned themselves with turquoise earrings, necklaces, and other jewelry. Reproduced by permission of Nevada Wier CORBIS. tribe of the Southeast. While women of the Iroquois nation typically wore many beaded necklaces, for...

The Mayans

The Yucat n Peninsula in Mexico and Belize in Central America were home to the ancient Mayan civilization, which originated in about 2600 B.C.E., rose to prominence in about 300 C.E., and collapsed around 900 C.E. Although often studied as an empire, the Mayan civilization was not a unified society but rather a group of twenty culturally similar, independent states. Mayans created a highly developed culture with systems of writing, calendars, mathematics, astronomy, art, architecture, and...

Breechclout

Indian Breechclouts

A breechclout was a garment designed to cover the genitals. Although breechclouts were worn by some women in the Southeast and by young girls before puberty in many tribes, they were an important male garment that symbolized male sexuality and power in many tribes. Breechclouts were worn by men in every Native American tribe, with the exception of those living in climates warm enough to wear nothing at all. Breechclouts could be made out of bark fiber, grasses, feathers, tanned beaver, rabbit,...

Kuba Cloth

Ghana Mud Cloth Designs

I n the present-day nation of the Democratic Republic of the Congo the Kuba people weave a decorative cloth called Kuba cloth. Although this tradition is believed to be ancient, the oldest surviving examples of the cloth are dated back to the seventeenth century. Men weave the fabric out of raffia fibers, from a palm plant, and women apply colorful tufts in bold geometric designs. An entire social group is involved in the production of the cloth, from gathering the fibers, weaving the cloth,...

The Aztecs

Aztecs The Middle Ages

An aerial view of Machu Pichu, an Incan city built in the Andes Mountains in Peru. Incas developed trade, built roads, and created stone architecture. Reproduced by permission of Mr. John Barth. The Aztec empire reigned in present-day central Mexico for nearly one century until 1519 when disease and brutality brought by Spanish conqueror Hern n Cort s 1485 1547 destroyed it. Originating from a small group of poverty-stricken wanderers, the Aztec empire developed into one of the largest empires...

Body Decorations of the Byzantine Empire

Jeweled Crown From Byzantine

Byzantine emperor Justinian I, with crown, displays the intricately jeweled clasp that fastens his cloak. Reproduced by permission of the Granger Collection. Lt the beginning of the Byzantine Empire 4761453 C.E. , Byzantine customs surrounding body decoration and accessories closely resembled those of their fellow Roman countrymen. Byzantines in the capital city of Constantinople developed public baths similar to those found in Rome, and public bathing was a daily ritual for many. Byzantines...