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Baron, Stanley, with Jacques Damase. Sonia Delaunay: The Life of an Artist. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1995. A comprehensive biography of the artist's personal and professional endeavors.

Cohen, Arthur A. Sonia Delaunay. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1975. Provides biographical and visual insight into the artist's overall career.

Damase, Jacques. Sonia Delaunay, Fashion and Fabrics. Translated by Shaun Whiteside and Stanley Baron. London and New York: Thames and Hudson, 1991. An extensive collection of the artist's fashion illustrations and textile designs of the 1920s. Delaunay, Sonia. Nous irons jusqu 'au soleil. Paris: Editions Robert Laffont, 1978. An autobiography based on journal entries starting from the early 1930s.

Morano, Elizabeth. Sonia Delaunay: Art into Fashion. New York: George Braziller, 1986. Explains the artist's impact on the development of modern fashion through a broad collection of fashion plates and textile designs.

Angel Chang

DEMEULEMEESTER, ANN Ann Demeulemeester (1959- ) was born in Courtrai, Belgium. When she presented her first winter collection in Paris in 1987, six years after graduating in fashion design from the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Antwerp, the press release described her work as "a collection for the conscious woman." The text went on to say, "[her] inspiration sources are neither directly definite nor visual; the clothes are brought about by personal impressions. A logical evolution, that is a result of a purification of ideas, which forms a specific style with its own atmosphere." These words seemed appropriate in the early twenty-first century, as Demeulemeester's work could be read as an interpretation of a very personal universe—one that was not immediately traceable, but could be felt in every article of apparel she designed. At their core lay the study of form and the development of a personal signature, rather than introductions of new trends or fashions or working around seasonal themes. For De-meulemeester, designing was a form of problem-solving. In a rational, almost scientific manner, she sought a solution for each "problem," often over several successive seasons. Cut and pattern were explored until the solution presented itself and perfection was achieved.

The experimental subject in this design laboratory was the designer's own body. Demeulemeester consistently tried out new creations on herself or on a select number of friends. The semiscientific aspect of Demeulemeester's creative process was in stark contrast with her ultimate silhouettes, which bore witness to intense emotion and extensive experience of life. However exhaustively thought out the cut may have been, the result was never sterile. The nonchalance that characterized her style was natural yet profoundly investigated; it was never just a matter of course. This dichotomy in Demeulemeester's creative process distinguished her entire oeuvre. Ann Demeule-meester sought out paradox; she seemed to go along with a certain duality or opposition in order to ultimately undermine it. Her investigation was in fact a study in search of balance, with the underlying thought that perfect balance is unattainable, just as the symmetrical body is in fact nonexistent—and for the designer, perhaps of no interest anyway. The shortcomings, the incompleteness, and the voids are what generate artistic creation. It was this continual search that lay at the root of Ann Demeulemeester's drive and passion—or as the text on a T-shirt and invitation suggested: Aimer, c'est agir ("to Love is to act").

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