Bibliography

Clark, Ossie. Recording of Ossie Clark at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, 16 October 1974, possession of this writer and with thanks to Ted Polhemus, host of the event.

-. Recording of Ossie Clark lecture at the Royal College of Art, 1996, courtesy of Dr. Susannah Handley and the RCA.

Green, Jonathon. All Dressed Up: The Sixties and the Counterculture. London: Jonathan Cape, 1998. Vogue (British) August 1965.

Watson, Linda. Ossie Clark. Warrington, U.K.: Warrington

Museum and Art Gallery, 2000. Watt, Judith. Ossie Clark 1965-1974. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 2003.

Judith Watt

CLASS. See Social Class and Clothing. CLEAN-ROOM SUITS. See Microfibers.

CLOSURES, HOOK-AND-LOOP The hook-and-loop closure has been voted one of the best inventions of the twenty-first century by scientists. "Hooked" to numerous articles of our day-to-day life, hook-and-loop fasteners are used to secure footwear and clothing as well as to anchor equipment on NASA's space shuttles and simplify storage and fastening solutions.

The hook-and-loop closure was conceived in 1948 by the Swiss mountaineer George de Mestral who loved two things—inventing and the great outdoors; he went on to become an engineer. Confident that Mother Nature was the best engineer of all, George de Mestral was both intrigued and annoyed by the burrs that stuck to his wool hunting pants and his dog's fur. Determined to rid himself of the annoying and tedious task of their removal from clothing and fur, George de Mestral examined the burrs under a microscope. He discovered that each burr consisted of hundreds of tiny hooks that grabbed into the threads of fabric and animal fur. Convinced that nature had created something that could simplify fastening solutions, he discussed his idea of a hook-and-loop fastener that could compete with the zipper with textile experts in Lyon, France.

The first hook-and-loop closure was initially produced on a small handloom. The potential for mass production was not realized until de Mestral accidentally discovered that by sewing nylon under an infrared light, loops which were virtually indestructible could be formed in the same interlocking fashion as his cotton system.

In 1951 George de Mestral applied for a patent for this hook-and-loop invention in Switzerland and received additional patents in Germany, Great Britain, Sweden, Italy, Holland, Belgium, France, Canada, and the United States. Thus, de Mestral's company, Velcro S.A., was born.

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