Lesson Xxi parasols

Parasol? are very interesting and they are not hard to draw if one understands their formation

Begin with Fig. 1. Place the stick through the ellipse at a right angle to it. The stick must be in the middle and be continuous where it goes through the silk.

If you show much of the outside, show but little of the inner part. The less you observe of the top of the parasol, the more you see of the inside, Fig. 4, and the less of the short end of the stick.

In Fig. 3 part of the ruffle on the far side is hidden.

In the Japanese parasol, you view the inside. The stick must go through the middle and the ribs must curve to form the hollow of the parasol. They extend past the edge. This parasol does not take a perfect round, it being viewed on a slant. The stick must rest on the shoulder and fit in the hand. The stick may be ruled to obtain a straight line.

Fig. 5 shows where the ribs join the center and the supports from the stick to the ribs.

Fig. 7 is the outside only. Note the center and how the ribs curve, vanishing on the far side, and extending past the edge on the near side. Study the parasol carefully, and notice how the curve of the far side is less than the curve of the near side.

Draw the closed parasol. Make it slim. See bow the openings fall.

Draw the layout, place the loops on it, then the ends of the ribs which form a circle around the stick.

The upper part of the stick is usually less than the silk part.

An open parasol resting on the ground is bound to showr the inside.

The average parasol has eight ribs.

Different Postures Fashion Figures
construction of the parasol in different positions

furs and fans

The student must learn to dress his figure warmly for winter and to convey the effect of coolness, for summer; so we have two extremes, furs and fans.

There are many kinds of furs; a catalogue on the subject will give the different kind of technique, or lines used to represent the texture of the article.

If the fur has long hairs, use long lines; if curly, use curly ones. The long or curly lines may be massed in places to f< >rm the shadows or indications of the fur. Fur should look full and the ):nes must follow the shape of the fur piece.

Follow the lines for the neck piece, Fig. 1.

The fines for the fur fall down towards the front, while on the shoulder they go toward the back.

Draw the main shape of Figs. 1 and 2, then the lines for the fur, which form the edge. Make the fur look full, especially so at the tails, Fig. 2.

Fur trimming which is joined in the middle causes the fur to fall both up and down. Note the different direction of lines where the fur is joined. Make the fur full at the edges and where it wraps around XX, Fig. 3.

Short fur is drawn with short lines, Fig. 4, the thickness of the fur extending past XX.

Draw the round muff. See how the lines follow around the muff and give it shape. There is a plane at the end (which is flat) with a round hole in the middle, but the end takes the shape of an ellipse, as it is viewed in perspective. See Lesson XXVII on perspective. The hole is nearer the far side.

Watch the lines carefully as they go around the muff and around the hole.

In the flat muff the lines follow the form As the muff is flat, the lines are straighter and the plane at the end is narrow. Note the lines as they go around the muff and around the hole.

For. all fur obtain a good outline first on which place the correct lines.


All. sticks for a fan must meet m one point, which is in the hand.

Draw the end sticks making them meet, the top of the fan, the middle stick, and the one half-way between it and the end sticks. These divisions may be divided and sub-divided. Sticks are often drawn with a double line.

A fan partly open will take the lines of the plaits on a skirt. In this position the middle sticks are hidden where they join the center.

On these foundations any kind of a fun may be created. If the shape at the top is different from this set curve, draw it so, but remember the principles stated.

Feather fans are very popular in fashions.

The student should make a large collection of pictures of furs durng the winter, as he may wish to use them in summer for the following season.

Try placing a tur texture all over a coat. For this a good copy is needed.

Remember black fur will have white lines. A white fur against a black background is very effective.

the generai jirection of lines for fcrs and f\ns!


If the student has been successful with the front figure and remembers its proportions and how to start the drawing, he will be somewhat at home when studying this lesson. As in Lesson XVII, the figure is not nude but ready for a garment, as are also the figures in Lesson XXIV and Lesson XXV.

Draw fig. 1 and place Fig. 2 on it. This is a three-quarter back view, the figure measuring seven and three-quarter heads high.

In the bark figure, the legs join the body below the middle and the waist-line curves up, not dow n. The head is a three-quarter batk view, although a profile or seven-eighths front head may be placed on this body. Do not turn the head too far around to the front. Try turning your own head toward your back, and do not make the mistake of putting an almost full face on a back figure.

Note the hair lines, which are brushed up to the top of the head. The ends of these lines in the back form a curved up line like the back collar lina.

In this view of the head, the ear is nearer the front, and the line for the neck breaks into the face, as it is on this side of it.

The trapezius muscle breaks into the neck, showing that the face and throat are forward, the throat ibeing lost somewhat.

The far ¬°shoulder is longer and is more sloping than the near one.

The. center line of the body takes two reverse curves; beginning at the neck it curves in, then out for the shoulders, in again for the waist, out again over the hips and buttock, in again to where the legs ioin the body.

Study the little sketch of the nude back and of the trapezius muscle as it fits on the back of the head.

Do not curve the center line too much for the fashion figure. See how the bust goes around to the front as also do the amis.

LTse previous instructions when drawing the legs and feet.

When placing a dress on this figure, have the lines of the dress conform to the action of the figure as in Lesson XVIII

When the arm is bent and extended forward. the break of the sleeve at the supinator longus takes the opposite direction from the front view, showing that the upper part of the arm is on this side of the lower. The lower portion of the arm is foreshortened.

When illustrating the back of a costume, use a back figure going the same way as the costume sketch to be illustrated. See Lesson II on the back form.

Draw back figures in corsets and in underclothes. These are harder to find than front figures. Keep everything that will help you, even upper and lower parts of figures.

Compare several back figures. See f you can combine them in one dra<v5ng. Always use figure¬ę facing the same way


The side figure is not as frequent in fashions as the front view, as it does not show a costume in all its parts. However, it is graceful and artistic, and the student should be as familiar with it as with the front view.

This figure measures seven and three-quarter heads high.

The side view is inclined to look somewhat taller than it is, the side of the body being narrower than the front.

If the student can draw a graceful figure in all positions, he can use the knowledge gained in decorative work, such as cards, book covers and advertisements. See Lesson XXX.

Keep in mind all points regarding the profile leg. As the inner view of the profile leg is slightly different from the outer, sketches are given here of the straight and bent knee.

As this figure is ready for a corset, note the long straight line in front, and the long curved line in the back, which does not show where the legs join the body. See the separate sketch of this.

Re sure to show the plane on the shoulder, which is distinct from the arm.

See the clavicle in the first drawing, which extends from the pit of the neck to where the arm begins.

When the arm is extended forward, note the square effect on the back, caused by the shoulder blades. This is also noticeable whfn the arm hangs straight down.

The body may bend at the waist forward and side-ways, but in fashions, we keep the figure erect, with the head on an upward turn, unless the figure is interested in some object and is inclined to bend the head downward. In this case the eyes must be lowered as well.

Refer to Lesson XVII for proportions of the figure.

If the features (if a figure are not clearly defined, use other features, but be sure they belong to a head in the same position.

It is better to find a satisfactory figure from which to draw, but the student may combine parts' of different figures if he understands their construction.


As the figure in this lesson is sitting, the horizontal part, which is resting on the bench, is lost in the height of the figure.

The legs ioin the body in the middle of the figure, but not in the middle of the drawing.

Let us divide the diawing into three equal parts. From the head to below the bust is one, to where the body bends is two, to the bottom of the foot is three.

Remember the figure bends where it . sits and again at the knees, the leg flattening out slightly where it rests on the bench.

Do not draw the near side of the bench close to the under side of the knees.

Try sitting on a chair, observing how your knees extend past the edge. It is possible to sit lar back, but one seldom does.

Study the sketch of the outside bent knee, the inside one being illustrated in the last lesson.

Draw the far leg through the near one as indicated by the dotted lines.

A figure may sit or recline quite differently from this, so draw sitting figures in all positions. A sitting figure may be bent more than a standing one.

Draw the sitting figure in underclothes and in dresses. Study the lines of the dress, how they fit around the figure, fall from the edge of the bench and from the knees. Study the lines of the main wrinkles. Study the wrinkles in the bent arm which are mostly on the inside. On the extended arm they pull as the arm is thrust out.

An arm will show the inside of the sleeve at the wrist, unless the arm is turned back, as the arm placed behind this figure. Bear this in mind when placing cuffs on sleeves.

The far armhole forms a reverse curve, the lines for the bust extending to the center of it.

As under the arm is on a itifferent plane from the front of the body t s often shaded.

It is suggested that when a wide line is placed around a careful drawing, all ol the heavy line be allowed to be on the outside of the pencil line. If brought within its border, the shape will be destroyed Note for example, a carefully diawn arm.

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