LESSON I THE DRESS FORM
In taking up this lesson the student must remember that a good form is the foundation for all succeeding lessons. No matter how pretty a dress or design is, if it is placed on a " dumpy " figure, it will have no style whatever.
In this lesson we first learn how to draw a layout for the form, which consists of two ovals, Fig. A, then how to place the form on this layout. In the next lesson we dress the same form in a very simple dress.
A form must have good proportion and style. A form leaning forward, or making a bow, as one might express it, is not stylish, neither is one with too large a bust and a tiny waist; nor one with high, square shoulders.
In this lesson we learn how to draw a form for a long dress, and as the styles change, the length of the skirt may be shortened. The waist goes into the skirt two and one-half times, the shoulders are thrown back, the sleeve is thrown out, and the skirt hangs straight down from the waist, flaring at the bottom. For a scant skirt do not flare as much as for a full one.
When the dress is on the human figure, action comes in play and a complete understanding of these lessons will enable the student to draw the human figure in a variety of positions, and also to dress the figure in a variety of costumes. The best way to begin the study of this and all succeeding lessons, is to read all points relating to a certain figure (of course beginning with Fig. A), without looking at the lesson plate; then take a hard pencil, or a dull point of some kind, re-read the instructions, going over the lines of the figure with the point, according to the directions. Make careful note of the direction of the lines, and form a mental image of the figure by imagining that you are drawing it.
Next select a sheet of drawing paper, and with a soft pencil (medium), draw Fig. A as directed below. Follow the way explained; the student will find progress much easier and quicker by proceeding as directed than by trying some other way.
to draw thf form
Make the drawing somewhat larger than the copy, placing the figure in the center of the paper. This may be done by getting the proportions and measuring to see just where to begin the drawing. Leave a little more margin at the bottom, than at the top.
Draw line 1, which is a very slight horizontal curve up, then lines 2, 3,4, 5, 6 and 7 as marked on the lesson plate. Line 2 is thrown out for the bust, and line 3 is thrown in at the waist, which throws the shoulders back. Lines 4 and 5 cross lines 2 and 3 at the waist, at first curving out for the hips, then curving in to the bottom
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
of 'tbe.skiVt ovai; Line € (center line of waist) follows line 2, not literally, but taking the general direction, getting straighter as it reaches the waist line. Line 7 (center line of skirt) runs straight down from line 6.
Make the drawing a three-quarter view, which shows the front, side, and one sleeve of the dress. In this position one may show a design on the outside of a sleeve or on the side of a dress.
Practice this figure, doing it many times. When you feel confident that you understand all that has preceded and can draw Fig. A with snap, take up Fig. B which is the dress form placed on Fife. A.
Proceed with Fig. B ir the same way, going over the lines and studying out the principles described below. The light lines are the lines of Fig. A and must be kept until the form is completed. Always keep the center line until the dress is finished.
As already pointed out, the waist goes into the skirt two and one-half (2 J) times. Put on the collar above hne 1, not too high and not too low, but iust high enough to get good curves on the shoulders. Allow this distance at the bottom of the skirt oval. Be sure to make the collar three-quarter view, as is the waist and skirt. The center line of the collar is vertical, like the sides of the collar.
The collar goes into the shoulders three (3) times and is about the same height. The lines of the collar curve down, as does the waist line, but the bottom of the sleeve curves up. In the back view this order is reversed, as is explained in Lesson II. The collar and waist lines curve up, and the bottom of the sleeve curves down.
Note how line 2 is cut into for the chest (line 8), which comes out to the bust. This piece, cut off of Kne 2, may be used for a far sleeve, if a sleeve is to be drawn. For a sketch of a dress one sleeve is sufficient, a sketch being used to show how the dress is made. When drawing for reproduction, it is well to have two sleeves on a dress.
Get good curves on the shoulders, connecting the collar with the ends of line 1, and do not show too much of the inside of the collar and the bottom of the sleeves. Make the ellipses graceful, not pointed at the ends, and show the thickness of the goods by not connecting the lines.
There are three planes at the waist: the front, and two sides. You observe but little of the far side in a three-quarter view. This is true of the collar also. These three planes on the waist run into each other, forming a graceful curve. The planes on the collar do the same.
Put the skirt on with a flare, coming out at the hips (not in), and be sure to make a graceful curve on the bottom of the form. Remember that the waist, skirt, and collar are all three-quarter view.
Throw the sleeve out (curving very slightly in, to take away the stiffness). The upper half of the sleeve is somew hat larger than the lower half, the bend coming opposite the waist 1: le. This makes the length of the upper part of the sleeve equal to that of the lower part.
Thp armhole has a slight plane on the shoulder and from there it curves slightly towards the front, but do not hollow the armhole too much. Be sure to throw the sleeve out. The armhole is not as large as one would suppose by the drawing, as the sleeve touches the waist after it leaves the armhole. Note the cross line where the armhole goes under the arm.
To test the accuracy of your form, drop the dotted lines from the center of the n^ar shoulder to the end of the waist line. This line must be vertical or parallel with the edges of your paper. Prop the dotted line from the end of the far shoulder to the other end of the waist lire. This line also must be vertical.
If you have followed all directions carefully, you will have a good form on which any costume may be placcd.
Study Fig. C by guing over it with a point, as directed in Lesson I, until it Is thoroughly understood. Then draw the lorm as directed in Lesson I. When you leel confident that your form is good in all respects, with light lines, place the dress on the form as directed below.
Decide how iar down the V in the neck opens, and mark off on the center line, curving the far side of the V around the neck to the center line. The near side takes a slight reverse curve around the neck to the center line.
Remember, in dressing up a form that it ■is. oval, and the lines must follow the form, ond not be drawn straight. Draw just as few lines as possible, in the right direction.
Women's clothing opens from right to left. As this dress opens past the center line, continue the far side of the V past the center line to the oppning of the waist, which follows the center line of the waist.
The skirt opens directly under the waist opening, and follows the center line of the skirt, which hangs straight down.
Place the belt one-half above and one-half below the waist line, curving the lines to follow the w airft line. The sides of the belt are vertical. This belt is flat and does not show the opening.
The waist blouses over the belt in front, and extends past the belt at the sides. Note the slight change of direction where the w aist opens and goes under the blouse. If. the waist were not bloused, the lines would follow the form and go into the belt, showing its full width.
Place all buttons on the center line, having the buttons the same size and evenly spaced. After a while the student's eye will be able to judge distances; until then it might be well to measure from the center of one button to the center of the next button, marking each center with a dot. Around these dots draw the buttons.
Note the large buttons at the bottom of the page. Draw the top of the button and then the bottom; in this way the student can obtain better curves.
A flat round button has a small shadow underneath, darkest at the bottom. A high, round button casts a shadow like a sphere. To obtain this draw the round of the button, th';n draw another round the same size through the center of the first one, blackening the part underneath the button. The buttonholes may be drawn with one or two liues, but must be opposite the center of the buttons, and run straight out to the left of the drawing (as you face the figure).
The turnover collar is sewed on at the top of the high collar and flares at the bottom. Make the collar open in the center and curve it around the neck. The chemisette opens past the center line. Note all guide lines drawn through the turnover collar, cuffs, and center of pocket, also at the ends of the buttonholes and between the pockets.
The cuff, which follows the bottom line of the sleeve, curves up. It is sewed on at the bottom and flares slightly at the top. Do not flare too much.
Put the pockets on at the right height for the hands and keep them the same size and about an even distance from the center iine. As the iar side is lost somewhat, show a little less of it than the near side,
TO PUT THE DRESS ON THE FORM
Note how the flaps of the pockets extend past the pockets, and how both pocket and flap extend past the skirt on the far side. Be sure to make the pockets the right size for the dress.
Next comes the fullness of the skirt. A skirt cut with no fullness at the top and much fullness at the bottom—like the lesson plate—must be a flare skirt. However, this is not the point to be illustrated. The idea to be grasped by the student is how to draw fullness which goes in and out of the bottom of the skirt. In Lesson III we shall learn how gathers at the top of a skirt are drawn.
XX is the edge of the fold and hangs straight down to the bottom of the dress form. X is where the fold touches this line. 0 is on a Tine with X, but the skirt being full, 0 appears farther back. D^aw so, gradually bringing the bottom liue of the dress out to the next X, etc. The hem follows the bottom line of the dress, not of the form. The opening of the skirt runs down to X, the nearest puint. 0 is back.
All stitching must be evenly spaced, an even distance from the seam, and not too near it. On the left of the skirt the stitching is drawn on the hem, on the right side the way to draw is explained. Until the student can iudge distances, measure from X up to the top of the hem, which is the same width as from 0 to the top of the hem. Mark with dots at these points and between them, and draw fight lines through these points. When you are convinced that the hem follows the bottom line of the dress, draw the stitching.
If the skirt is not as full in places, X and
0 will run together, as illustrated on the right side of the skirt. To do this unce in a while will make a more graceful drawing.
Note where the three principal wrinkles come on the sleeve.
As an application of this lesson, cut out
(about six inches in height) oi a simple dress illustrating what you have learned in this lesson; a dress with collar, cuffs, belt, pockets, stitching, buttons, and fullness at the bottom. Cut off the head, feet and hands, as the dress is all you need. Draw a three-quarter view form facing the same way as the clipping, and dress it in this dress, using the principles learned, not merely copying the lines. Do not bend the arms. Draw like Fig. B.
Learn how to draw the form facing the other way and dress it in a simple dress. If you find this difficult, take a sheet of tracing paper, trace off Figs. A and B of Lesson I, turn this tracing wrong side up and you will have the form facing in the opposite direction.
the bace: form
It is not necessary to repeat in every lesson details as to how to study, as the student is expected to remember and apply all previous lessons on each new lesson. Take each lesson slowly, learning it completely, then proceed to the next one.
The back form is drawn sometimes full and sometimes three-quarter view. In this lesson we take up the full back in detail, but a small three-quarter back view is illustrated in the upper right-hand corner of the lesson plate. The center line in this view is vertical and at one side of the middle of the drawing. The near armhole is hollowed in and the fai armhole is lost. Study the full back (Fig. E) at first and later draw the three-quarter view.
Draw layout D for full back, drawing the lines in order, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The student can see for himself just what these lines do. Do not make the waist too small. Remember that the waist goes into the skirt two and one-half times and that the center line is in the middle of the drawing, and runs straight down.
On layout D draw Fig. E, placing the
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON II
collar above line 1, a little higher than in the front view, and connect the ends of the collar with the shoulders. The collar and waist lines curve up, but the bottom of the sleeve curves down. The top of the cuff follows the bottom line of the sleeve, exposing the inside of the cuff.
The armholes must be the same size and opposite each other. Do not hollow the armholes too much. Throw the sleeve out (curving very slightly out, to take away the stiffness). This is the reverse of the front view, which curves slightly in.
The waist is full in the front as shown by the blouse at the sides, but the back is perfectly plain and tight.
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