The Head And Hair

Lessons XIII and XIV should be studied together, as they bear upon the same subject, " heads." By studying and applying the principles of these lessons, the student will be able to use a picture as a model and from it construct an original head.

You will 6nd in fashion figures many types of faces, some pretty and some freaky; many business houses preferring the first type wl 'le others prefer the second.

Alter you have learned to draw a normal head with normal features, it is suggested that you try to create an original head, which might make a hit with the public; but in order to do this you must thoroughly understand the foundation pr nnples of drawing for all head«.

ovals for heads

Begin by dra\ -ng the ovals. Here we have three ovals, full, three-quarter, and the profile views, on which may be constructed the full, three-quarter and profile heads.

Oval No. 1 is sketched ia by beginning at the arrow and making a sweep around the oval, which is egg shape; that is, it is widest higher than the center or through the eyebrows. Continue this 'ine around the oval and down one side of the neck Do not make the space between the arrow and the neck l^.e too wide. It is well to redraw this oval carefully before placing the features.

From the top of the head draw the center line down through the chiD As this is the full front view, this line v ill be in the middle of the drawing.

Ova) No. 2 is draw n the same way, but as the head is turned partly away from you it gives the three-quarter view. This oval is not tipped as No. 1 is.

A head that is turned is moved from side to side in an upright position When a head is tipped, the top of it is bent to the right, left, back or front. Hence the chin takes the opposite direction.

The center line of oval No. 2 is in the middle of the face but not in the middle of the drawing. See how it curves around the oval.

Oval No. 3 is quite different, the outline of the fealures giving it its shape. From the nose the slant is back to the forehead and down to the chin, wl ch is also back. Do not slant too much. The oval is full at the back. Two Lnes are drawn for the neck, indicating that the head goes slightly forward from the shoulders. Note the cross line showing that the back of the neck begins on a line with the nose.

In young people the eyes are in the middle ol the head, so in fashions we want the faces to look fresh and new as well as the dresses. Place th£ eyes rn the m.ddle of the head anil have them an eye apart. The eyebrows in a woman are higher than in a man Place them high enough.

The nose is hallway between the eyebrows and the chin and the mouth is one-tbird of the way down from the nose to the ch'n. Indicate these proportions by short lines as in o\al No. 2.

On these three ovals may be placed the three heads below; but before doing so take up Lesson XIV and understand the construction of a head in its various positions.


If the student understands the construction of the features and the head as given in Lesson XIV, also the. few points regarding the hair, he will be able to render these three heads with ease. Remember the hair must fit the head and be soft and wavy, the lines following the direction of the head and hair where rolled.

the full iront h^ad

On the full front view of the head the hair is parted at the side, drops on the forehead, goes toward the back, fits around the head at the temples, and goes away from the face over the ears. The lines should be broken on the edges and fit between each other in a soft, curvy effect. Draw iust a few 1 nes at first, in the right direction

When dark hair is required, continue to till ;n between these lines or make the lines heavier in the hollows of the hair and underneath the puffed out places.

the tiirle-quarter head

In the three-quarter view, the hair is brushed directly back, fitting around the head toward the back at the temples and curling around the .cheek bone. Do not show too much of the hair on the lar side of the three-quarter face.

tfe profile head

In the profile view, the hair, being parted at the side, follows the head n all directions.

When the hair is bvilt up, that part w ill proiect past the normal head line, while the flat part will cling closely to it. Light hair has black lines indicating the direction. Black hair has white lines, taking the same direction.

In the lower profile the hair is arranged quite differently, consequently the lines will fall in a different direction; but observe that they fit. the head. See Lesson XIX on Pen and Ink Lines.

Get the direction of all lines, first with pencil, then with a pen, then ink in with a brush, leaving the direction white (or the surface of the paper). As the hair is soft at the edge, do not continue the solid ink to the extreme limit, but drawr fine lines which extend past the solid mass.

Study the curl. See how the lines fit around to form the curl.

On the dark side the lines are heavy and on the light side fine lines are draw n which fit between the dark ones. Note the hole formed at the bottom. Notice how the wrong side of the loose part is exposed to view and how the linos fit around this part more loosely. When drawing a black curl, obtain the general direction of the lines, then fill in until dark enough.

to place the hat on the

Never draw the hat and place the face under it. Always draw a full head and put the hat upon it.

The hat should be placed on the head to give stylish effect, lip it slightly to one side. If this is done, one of the eyebrows will be hidden. The crown must fit the head, and the far tide of the brim must be continuous.

After studying these two lessons, study pen-and-mk heads in the fashion papers. Be sure the heads are normal before attempting to draw them. Keep all rules in mind when copying them, and you wll find you can create a type of face which is strictly original.

After finishing a drawing of any kind, decide just what 3 ou have learned 011 that drawing. Be systematic in this and you will continue to improve.


thií construction of thf head the full front head

Head No. 1 is a view directly in front, in a perfectly straight position. The placing of the features was given in Lesson XIII. The ears are between the eyebrows and the nose.

After drawing the center lines and the cross guide lines at the correct distances, draw the features. Remember that there is the space of an eye between the eyes, and the space of half an eye between the eye and the edge of the face. Be careful to make the eyes mates and have them set the same under the lids.

In the three-quarter view, the far eye might be a trifle smaller, but never larger. Try to keep them the same size.

The clavicle (C), or collar bone, extends from the pit of the neck (PN), to where the arm ioins the body. It slants slightly backward, which shows that the chest is well forward from the shoulders. The lines of the neck extend irom . the ears to the middle of these bones.

The sterno mastoid muscle (M) runs from the ears to ^he -pit of the neijk. In

3f" cKf the front viewr of the ne<*k this muscte gives the neck a slight outward curve. In the front view the cheek bone is not as apparent as in the three-quarter vi^jr.

The 'me of the outline-of tne face, from the ear, descends, slanting in vard to the jaw bone, then in priminently to the chin, which runs "straight across. The head fits on the neck at the ears, but seen in this position it appears opposite the jaw bone.

The trapezius muscle (TZj is on the fhoulders, fatting on the clavicle in front and extending down the back in the shape of a V. The general direction from the ear to the shoulder curves in, but remember that TZ curves out, as do all the muscles of the body.

Head No. 2 is tipped backward, also sideways, consequently one sees under the chin and loses the top of the head. The further back the head is thrown, the more pronounced this is. See Head No. 3. A head in this position causes the construction lines to curve up. The more the head is thrown back, the more the lines curve and the closer together they appear. The neck appears longer as one views more of it.

All features must follow these guide lines.

In Head No. 3 one sees where the neck really joins the head.

Note the triangle formed on all faces. This triangle takes in the front of the face, While the remaining portion is on the side. When the head is tipped down, all construction lines curve dowk. The nose appears longer, the under pltfne and the chin are lost, and one cafi seé more of the top of the head. The more the head is tipped down the more pr «noiinced these effects are. The neck becmtfes short and the top of the head full (.Head No. 4). As one Ini?ks down on this head the upper lip appears thinner and the eyebrows nearer the eyes.

thf profile head

Draw the correct oval for the profile head on which place Head No. 5.

In Lesson XIII, you learned the outline of the features, also about the forehead bone, and the lines of the chin. The jaw bone runs up to the ear, which is as far from the eye as from the mouth. The trapezius muscle is at the back of the neck, and, while the general direction of the back of the neck slopes n, you must have the feeling of a slight outward effect for this muscle.

Note the diagonal lines from the front to the back of the neck, showing that the neck is higher in the back than 'n the front. Watch the front line of the neck where it joins the jaw, and the reverse curve which is more prominent in a man than a woman. A man's neck is shorter than a woman's, measuring from the nose to the chin the same as from chin to PN.

Do not draw a woman's neck too long.

the thfef,-quarter head

In Head No. 6, which is the three-quarter view, the cheek bone is very noticeable. Note the outline of the far side of the face. The forehead bone projects, the outune going in slightly above it. The hue from this bone descends, goes into the eye, out to the cheek bone, down to the jaw bone. Show definitely where the line leaves the cheek and runs into the chin, which is straight across, but not as wide as in the full fcorti view. The jaw runs up to the ear, which is at the back of the head.

Remember to place three-quarter features on a three-quarter face and have the center line in the middle of the face.

the seven-eighths head

In the seven-eighths view, Head No. 0, the far side of the face is lost still more as are also the features. This view comes between those shown by Heads No. 5 and No. 6, therefore the ear is nearer the back than in No. 5 and not as near a« in No. G. In this view the line of the chin from the mouth is quite noticeable.

Draw the fashion Head No. 7, and note the three planes of the cap as they fit around the head.

Head No. 8 is the profile view tipped away Irom you. Study and draw this, applying all points learned in this lesson

Always construct a head by drawing the oval and placing all guide lines before attempting to draw the features. Practice drawing heads from the fashion papers. Copy them understanding^, using the charts as guides.

Make a collection of heads in different positions.

The student is advised to use pen-and-ink drawings to draw from as the lines can be seen plainly, but all photographs and wash drawings should be saved.

Select large pictures of heads and draw the construction lines through the prope^ places.

Study the people on the ears, also the advertisements in the cars. Be on the lookout everywhere for some point of information.

See on how many pictures you can applv the knowledge gained from this lesson.

construction of the head in different positions

the arm amd hand

Arms and hands require a great deal of close study betöre they can be drawn satisfactorily In this lesson are given the proportions, and direction of the principal lines of an arm and hand, breaks being left where the lines change their direction.

Leave all breaks when drawing the figures from the chart.

Place your own arm in front of a mirror in the positions given, and see if you can follow the points illustrated. A woman's arm being more slender and delicate than a man's, the muscles are not so clearly defined. When drawing arms in fashions, bear this in mind, but use the chart as a guide.

No matter how slender or delicate an arm is, it must have the shape of an arm and not look like a post. Hands, in fashions, are not chubby, except on children, but are slender, the fingers being long and tapering.


Begin with Fig. 1. The upper part of the arm equals the lower, and the arm tapers irom the shoulder to the wrist, except below the elbow, which is the widest part of the whole arm, i this position.

Ascertain the direction of the upper part ol the arm, then of the lower, then of the hand. To have three directions lor the arm and hand, makes a more graceful drawing.

On the arm are many intricate muscles, a few only being mentioned here.

The dtltold (D) is at the top on the outside. The biceps (B) and triceps (T)

are on the shaft, the biceps being on the front part and the triceps on the back. The supinator lonyus (SL) is very prominent, especially so when the arm is bent. Figs. 3 and 6.

The lower projection of the deltoid is lower than where the inner part of the arm joins the body. Note the cross line on the lower part of the arm which indicates that the inside bulge is higher than the outside. This is the end of the humerus, or upper bone of the arm.

Fig, 1 is the view of the arm extended, with the thumb on the outside. This shows the inner view of the hand. It is not a position used in fashions, but a good one to study from.

The middle finger is the longest and the little one the shortest; the others being of nearly equal length. The middle and next finger are inclined to fall together, as in Fig. 2. In Fig. 2 the whole arm is turned over, the biceps being on the inside and the triceps on the outside. The back of the hand is seen, and the thumb, whi'ih is on the inside and turned under, is lost to view.

Place your own hand and arm in the position of Fig. 1, then turn it over to the position of Fig. 2. Place your hand in the position of Fig. 1, and turn the lower part only to the position of Fig. 5.

There is one bone, the humerus, in the upper part of the arm, and two bones, the radius and the ulna in the lower. The radius rotates over the ulna causing the thumb to lull on the inside. More generally the arm hangs down more in the position of iig. 2, with the biceps on the inside. In this position the lower part may be turned still more.

When the arm is bent as in Fig. 3, or raised as in Fig. 6, the line for the supinator longus, if continued, would run to the elbow. In Fig. 6 the humerus (H) and ulna (U) show at the elbow, the deltoid is raised and the trapezius shows back of the deltoid. Take up Fig. 7 which is the outside of the hand, learn its propor tions, then refer to the mside, Fig. 1. K is opposite the knuckles, and is half way between the wrist and the ends of the fingers.

In Fig. 1 the crease in the palm is under the knuckles and is in the middle of the hand.

Each finger has two joints where it bends, one "oint only being given except in Figs. 8 and 9, the hand in the latter being placed on the hip, a position much used in fashions. The fingers are shorter on the inside. They juin the hand on a curve, but not at the knuckles. Fig. 10 is the first finger, it differs from the others in that the first joint is forward of the crease below it. The thumb ioins the hand slightly back of the knuckles and reaches almost to the second joint. The bulging part of the palm shows between the thumb and the first finger.

Note the direction of the lines of the thumb, the inner part being a reverse curve, while the outer part curves in, then takes a square effect between the curve and the wrist. The fleshy part of the thumb forms part of the palm and is about half its w idth at the wrist. Double your hand and see for yourself what curve the thumb takes on the inside of the palm.

Note how" narrow the side view of the wrist is. Note the break where the hand ioins the wrist, which is more apparent when the hand is turned over. When the fingers are doubled or bent, watch the directions the lines take.

Fig. 11 is the gloved hand, here shown resting on the chest. Draw the hand and arm, then place the glove lines, which extend slightly past the arm line. The stitching on the back gives the appearance of a glove, the center line being between the middle and the next' finger. The double line at the side of the palm anil the one at the side of the finger give the effect of a heavy glove.

When drawing an arm under a sleeve, be sure to have the sleeve take the shape of the arm.

Make a collection of figures un underclothes and >n dresses) with the arms in different positions. Study these carefully.

Draw and re-draw the arms on the lesson plate until you become perfectly familiar with them.

Skirt Over Head

the leg


The profile view of the leg forms a reverse curve, the lower part being set well back of the upper. See Figs. 1 and 2. Fig. 1 is the main outline of the leg, being sketched pn with bruken lines, thus obtaining the general shape and proportion. Fig. 2 is the modeled leg placed on Fig. 1.

In Figs. 1 and 2 note the vertical line drawn from the upper part to the toes. I'hiis shows how far back to place the lower portion. The general direction of the front of the upper portion is out, while the lower part is in, but on this in, you will see a slight out, which does not affect the general direction of the inward curve. The back part of the upper portion is in, but on this also you will see a slight out, which does not change the general direction. The lower portion in the back is a decided out, the calf being a very prominent feature. The knee projects, yet the general direction of this projection slopes toward the back

Draw Fig. 1, then place Fig. 2 on it carefully. Remember that the muscles of the body form very pretty reverse curves; you must have this feeling in mind in order to obtain the effect. Practice reverse curves with your pencil, going back and forth over the lines. Much practice of this kind will give grace to your work.


The general direction of this view of the leg is in, and yet at the knee and below it, the leg takes the outward direction. The foot also points out. All parts of the mner side are nearly on a line.

nd shoe

The leg is composed of many intricate muscles, MKm them only being mentioned h

The vastus intervm (VI) is on the inside and is low, while the vastus externus (VE) is on the outside and is high. The knee fits between these muscles and the lower part of the leg.

Study the lower part of the leg, notice how much higher the outside is than the inside. At the ankle this is reversed, the inside ankle being higher than the outside.


In the back view of the leg the lower part is back of the upper; see the vertical line. The foot is partly hidden and is foreshortened. Get the direction of all lines of the foot as it is lost behind the leg.

Draw Figs. 1, 3, and 5, noting the cross lines.

Keep these drawings for reference. Make other drawings of these figures on which place Figs. 2, 4, and 6.


In the five different positions of the shoe which are given here, the direction of lines is the essential point, so the lines are broken.

When drawing from the chart leave all breaks, but when making a finished drawing connect the lines.


On the front view of the shoe note the direction of the leg, then of the foot as it

Cumes toward you, the heel in this view being lost. The outer curve of the shoe is longer and more prominent than the inner. There are three planes on the shoe which show most distinctly where the vamp and tip are sewed. The inside ankle is very prominent while the outside one is lost.


Note all breaks and curves on this shoe and make the heel fit well under the foot. The top line curves down and the heel is on a line with the sole.

When drawing a slipper, make it look dainty and like a slipper, not like a rubber


In the back view oi the shoe the top line curves up, not down. The foot being turned away from you, it is foreshortened and the vamp does not appear as long as in the other views. Note the line of direction as, the foot recedes. The leg breaks into the instep, showing that it is nearer to you than the instep.

Note the plane at the back of the shoe and the two planes on the heel. The heel does not appear as far under the foot as i* the side view.


In the three-quarter view of the shoe the heel is almost lost. Get the three planes on the vamp and tip, also the center line. This shoe is not resting evenly on the ground, the toe only touching it. When the shoe is pointing slightly toward you, the inside of the heel is seen.

When draw ing a black shoe, mark with pencil the place to be inked in, leaving high lights for the shape of the shoe, at the edge (except on the dark side) and on the sole.

Notk.—The next lesson advise" the student to study books on anatimy. Th^re are many books or. this subject and from each one the student will leara something. Do not confine yourself to one book.

Study from these books just how the bones of the leg fit under the .-¡urfuce. It will be excellent practice.

Different Postures Fashion Figures

construction of the leg and shoe in different positions


To draw a good fashion figure the body must first be placed under the clothes. The figure given in this lesson is not nude, but is ready for a corset, underclothes, bathing suit, dress, suit, or a coat (a coat, of course not clinging to the figure as closely as a dress). If the student will draw the complete figure carefully under every garment, he will have no trouble when drawing a bathing figure, or one in underclothes —although busy artists merely sketch in the figure without finishing parts that do not show in the finished draw ing. This is a saving of time for one who knows how.

Remember the lesson on the three-quarter form, Lesson I. See how the dress form conforms to the shape of the human figure.

Fashion figures vary as style changes, but the student will do well to make figures seven (7) to eight (8) heads high. The figure must be slim and graceful. The figure may measure the required number of heads, but is too stout it will not look right.

Fig. 1 is the way to commence to draw. It is a rough outline of the proportion, action, and the placing of the figure on the paper. Later, when you know how, you nay use curved lines if you prefer.

Study the proportions gu*en here and apply them to Fig. 1. After you have drawn Fig. 1, using broken lines, place Fig. 2 on it. Remember all instructions given on heads, arms and legs. If you are weak on these, review the previous lessons, as parts poorly drawn will make a poor whole.

proportions of the figure

The figure measures seven (7) to eight (8) heads high.


The neck is about one-third (|) the width of the shoulders.

The waist measures less than the shoulders.

The legs join the body at the center of the figure.

The knees are less than half (J) way between this point and the feet.

From the shoulder to under the arm is one-half (§) head or less.

The waist is about one and three-quarter (If) heads down from the chin.

The arms bend opposite the waist, reaching down to the center of the figure, while the hands extend below this point.

The standing line (or line of support) is an imaginary line from the pit of the neck to the standing foot. This line must be parallel with the edge of the paper.

The foot is about the length of the head.

The hand is as long as from the chin to above the eyebrows.

In this position the standing hip is high while the other one is low, both of the hips being above the middle of the figure.

The relaxed leg may be placed anywhere, but must extend from the hip and not from the knee, which would give it a knock-kneed appearance. See line of direction for the hips, also sketch of the nude hips.

It' the figure were balanced evenly (on both feet) the line of support would fall between the feet. See Lesson XVIII.

The legs must join the body at the center and on the center line of the figure.

In the three-quarter view one sees considerably more of one side than of the other.

In fashions there are very few strictly full front faces, but many are almost full, being turned slightly.

The head is often turned in the opposite direction to the body; this lends grace to the figure.

When drawing hands, keep them the same size, also be careful to have the feet mates.


Place the figure nicely on the paper; commence at the top, and swing in the correct oval. When this is done, measure down seven or eight heads to the standing foot, making a mark where the foot comes. Remember the standing line must pass through the ball of the foot. This takes but little time and can be easily erased if the figure does not fill Ihe given space nicely.

If incorrect, begin agtdn by redrawing the oval the proper size. Do not draw the features until thp whole figure is swung in correctly. t

Mark off the waist line one and three-quarter heads down, draw the shoulders, the bust, the standing hip. and one long line down to the standing foot, which is on the action side. Keep in mind all proportions and swing in the figure, using these spacings as guides.

Much study should be given to anatomy, so learn all you can of this nteresting subject.

Professionals begin to draw with heavy lines, but light lines are advised unlil the student is fairly sure of his proportions.


As children are "little people," no extra drawings are given, but the student must remember that their proportions are quite different from those of adults. So many scholars say, "Oh. I would iust love to draw children, they are such cute little things." That is so, but be sure that you make them cute, and not little old men and women. A boy has squarer features than a girl. Children's proportions vaiy according to their ages.

In fashions a tiny baby measures three (3) heads high; at four years, three and one-half (8§) heads; from s'x to eight years, from five (5) to five and one-half (5 to o}) heads; from twelve to fourteen years, six to six and one-half (6 to 6J) heads; at sixteen years from six and one-halt to seven C6§ to 7) heads. Their dresses, being short, help to denote their ages.

At fourteen the child becomes a young miss, and takes somewhat the build of a woman without any apparent bust projection. The dress is longer, and is still longer at sixteen years, but never as long as a woman's.

A child has a round head instead of an egg-shaped one, the eyes being in the middle of the head. A tiny baby's eyes may be placed a little below the middle.

Children have no busts, their eyes are large and wide-awake, with a peculiar turn to the upper lid. Their noses are short and small and their mouths small and chubby. The i cheeks stick out. Tlu>ir hands and arms are chubby as are al«o their legs and feet. They wear square, flat shoes.

"When draw ing children, give them plenty of action and make them interested in some toy, etc.

Children are used for so many purposes besides fashions, that the student would do well to devote much time to them. In advertisements, cards, book-covers, etc., children play a great part. Lesson XXX deals with this class of w ork.

By this time the student should know enough of the outline of the figure to be able to use books on anatomy to advantage. Inquire at the library for books on this subject. Make numerous drawings from these books, also make drawings of ladies and children in underclothes, from catalogues.

Skirt Over Head

to place a dress on the figure


If the student is able to dress up the dummy form and understands the figure in the last lessons, he will have no difficulty in understanding this lesson. This figure is slightly different from the last one as it is walking. As the weight is divided equally between the feet, the line of support falls between them. The figure may have the legs crossed in walking and the weight be solely on one foot. Be careful to poise the figure correctly.

When drawing a figure with the legs crossed, do not draw the far foot straight across the paper; bring it slightly forward. Try to draw possible positions.

No matter whether you are designing a costume or illustrating one, the knowledge required to place it on the figure is the same.

So far nothing has been said about original designing. Lessons XXIX and XXX are devoted to this subject.

An original draw ing is one that has been made by using a picture as a guide and changing it enough to make it your own. On this figure may be placed any costume.

An illustration, which is an original drawing, is placing a given costume, which has been designed by someone else, on a suitable figure which w ill show the costume to the best advantage.

A house may have one designer who decides how the gowns are to be made, and many illustrators who put these designs on figures ready for reproduction. When illustrating a costume, you will have either the gown itself, or a sketch of it, to work from. In either case pick out a suitable figure, one that will show the costume to the best advantage. In the beginning you will find it hard to render the costumes from the costumes themselves, but if you practice taking one figure and another dress from the fashion papers, putting them together understanding^, you will easily see how all principles apply. Pick out the dress first, then a proper figure on which to place it. If an evening-dress, find another evening dress figure in the same position (as nearly as possible).

For a suit, use a suit figure, etc. Use the lines of the suit on the figure, as they fit the figure, and place the given suit on these lines.

In the dress illustrated the right-hand should not rest on the hip, which would cover the design, nor should the left hand be placed on the chest.

If there is something particularly attractive under the arm, put the arm up, etc. When illustrating a costume be careful to show both sleeves.

Many figures are drawn in a normal standing position, such as some of the pattern houses use, w hile some houses require the "swingy" kind, like the illustrations in the newspapers or the catchy advertisements. Learn to draw the up and down figure, then try the swingy kind.

The figure in the illustration is swung slightly.

When the skirt is swung out as U the wind were blowing it, the center line and lines of fullness will also swing.

See how much easier the lines of this dress are than the ones in Lesson II; still we have the XX lines, also the X's and the O's. When a leg is extended, there are two XX lines near it, but do not draw them continuous with the leg. Note how the XX lines iall both ways and how sometimes X and 0 run together. Now that you understand what the lines mean, you must study carefully the illustrations in the fashion papers and copy the lines of artists.

See Lesson XIX for pen lines and Lesson XXVI tor textures.

If the student practices this lesson faithfully, applying it on ongmal work, he will be ready to draw figures on bristol board, ready for pen and ink. Copy the lines used by other artists, studying them carefully.

If the student finds his work is untidy, he may transfer the drawing to a clean sheet of paper. This may be accomplished by making an accurate tracing on transparent paper, with a hard pencil. Place this tracing over the clean sheet in the same position, fastening it on the board at the top, only. Take a smooth piece of paper about five inches by seven inches, and after rubbing it solidly with a soft pencil, place it face downward between the tracing and the fresh paper. Mark over the lines carefully with a hard pencil. The tracing paper may be lifted to examine the work without disturbing its position. Redraw carefully.

Study illustrations of costumes and see how others treat their work Considerable dark in a picture looks attractive; bear this in mind when making a drawing, but when representing a costume, be accurate. If the costume is all light, place the dark somewhere else; on the hat, shoes, parasol, background, etc. When these darks are attractively distributed over a drawing, it is called " good spotting." In a layout good spotting holds the drawing together.

Place all darks so that the eye will be attracted equally to both sides of the picture. Keep the sizes and shapes consistent with each other. A large dark will balance several small ones.

When illustrating a costume, pick out a figure which will show it to advantage; one that will tend to induce the customer to buy the costume. Three things must always be kept in mind: good style, good drawing, and good technique.

Good style is important because if a costume appears expensive, other poor points may be forgiven. If you can make a twenty-dollar suit a fifty-dollar one, your services will be in demand. You will find this easier to accomplish if you select a stylish figure for your model.

Good drawing is necessary, for one can not draw a stylish figure if one does not know how to render the figure and the costume correctly.

Good technique in expressing the materials of the costume is necessary. If the costume is made of thin material the fact must be clearly brought out, and similarly if the material is heavy.

Many costumes, whether light or dark, are illustrated in outline only. If it is desired to use shading or textures, much thought should be given. Obtain a good outline, use the proper lines to denote the material, then fill in gradually with lines for shading which accord with the outline. Fill in gradually, keep the whole drawing going and do not concentrate on the shaded places.

The lines for shading should follow the form and help to mold the figure which is underneath. Lines placed close together form a shade. Keep places which come toward you light; for example, the bust, 'ine of the leg, top of the arm, etc. There is usually a dark and a light side to every drawing, but do not make the figure so dark in one place that the general build of the whole will be lost.

Make your people " put on airs."

When illustrating a hat, decide on its most attractive side. Make the hat expensive looking, even if it is a very cheap one. Do not stint on ribbons and bows; make them full and attractive. Hats should be shaded to bring out the charm— there must be a light and a dark side. Represent the material the hat is made of —whether straw, silk or velvet. Keep the technique of these, placing lines closer on the dark side but do not be mechanical. A " sketchy effect " for a hat is attractive.

Shaded back-grounds, circles and other shapes, behind hats lend enchantment.

Illustration work cannot be mastered until the student is further advanced. This lesson may be referred to from time time as the student progresses. It is well in studying to adopt the practice of first building the outlines, then inking them in and erasing the pencil lines. The shading lines may then be placed in pencil and inked in.

Illustrations are often done in a sketchy manner, many lines being used. Well connected lines are advised until the student understands the meaning of all lines.

Some houses like sketchy work, while others do not.

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