In Lesson IV only the bottom of the tucked skirt (Fig. K) is illustrated, but for practice—and much practice is required on each lesson—draw a complete skirt form with a graceful ellipse at the top, not showing too much of the back of the ellipse, then place as many XX's as you think will look well. In the figure we have two on the near side and one on the far side (the skirt being a three-quarter view). After getting a good bottom line, place the tucks on the skirt according to directions.
We learned in Lesson II that the hem followed the bottom line of the dress, not of the form; therefore tucks, bands, braiding, or any trimming which goes around the bottom of a skirt, must also follow this line.
Place all the X's and O's carefully before attempting to put the tucks on; because when the bottom line is poor, and if the tucks follow this poor line, the whole skirt will have a peculiar appearance.
Begin at the front, and after deciding how high the first tuck is to be, draw it around as you would a hem, being sure to follow the bottom line. If you do this carefully with the first tuck, there will be no difficulty in drawing the remaining ones.
A tuck must be the same width in all places and appear to go in and out of the fullness and go around the edges of the skirt at the same height, not down or up in the back.
If all the tucks are of equal width, like the ones on the lesson plate, draw so, but if different widths are required, gauge accordingly. The tucks are sewed at the top and ex tend a little past the side of the skirt at the bottom. Occasionally this will happen at XX, but not often. Note the X's and O's on the first tuck.
The top of each tuck may be indicated by a broken line for stitching, it being well to draw the continuous line at first.
Bias bands are stitched on both edges. They cling to the dress.
the circular over-skirt
A circular over-skirt is plain at the top and ripples at the bottom.
Fig. L represents two over-skirts, the top one being even all around, the under one being pointed on the front, the point being on the center line. Observe X and 0 on this skirt. As the skirt is shorter on the sides than in front, 0 is very much higher than X. Note the guide lines for the bottom of the over-skirt and of the under-skirt, where it runs up to the waist.
the rfffled skirt
Ruffles are hard for a beginner to draw, there being no special rule to go by. They must be graceful, and full or scant as required.
A ruffle which is very full will stick out at the bottom and expose the under part. (See the ruffle at the top of the Lesson Flate.)
On a very full ruffle you will occasionally observe a set form, but if repeated too often the effect will be a row of autumn leaves or sea shells.
Note the set form marked by the arrow. On each side of this form two XX lines
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON IV
curve out, the goods being gathered in at the top. The form is narrower where sewed on than at the bottom. Notice the under part of this set form, the lines being somewhat the same as the lines of an over-skirt.
In between these set forms the line of the bottom of the ruffle waves in and out, the set form being nearer to you than the wavy part.
All lines for the fullness must look as if they were pulled together at the top of the ruffle. The lines XX at the right side curvc out to the right, and on the left side they curve out to the left.
A scant ruffle will have somewhat the appearance of the bottom of a full skirt, but the XX lines are more curved than the skirt lines. Materials like taffeta, calico, etc., which are stiff and heavy, will have rounding lines like the ruffle at the top of the lesson plate. Tulle, which is stiff but thin, will have lines which are straighter and sharper. (See Example.)
Draw the ruffle at the top of the page, and when you are convinced that you can do this satisfactorily, draw Fig. M.
After placing X's and O's for the bottom l;ne, draw guide lines the width ol the raffle on which place the ruffle.
This skirt (Fig. M) is gathered at the top. The bnes of the fullness from the waist fall down between the lines of the fullness which run up from the bottom.
Study the lines of fullness on other drawings and notice that some lines are short, some long, and some meet in a V near the waist line. It the material is heavy, all 1'nes of fullness will go under the band, but if thin material is used some lines will fall short of the band and be hooked at the top.
All lines for fullness must be sharp and snappy. Practice such lines with bold strokes, on a separate piece of paper.
A ruching has the appearance of two ruffles, one turned up ami the other down, the lines being the same. It is darkest where gathered, which is in the middle. (See example.)
Apply this lesson as you did the previous ones.
Lessons V and VI being devoted to waists, the student is expected to pay strict attention to all points relating to each drawing, as the waist is a very important feature.
If you succeeded with Lessons I and II, you will have no difficulty with this lesson, as the form is the same, but instead of very simple waists being placed upon it, something new is to be learned on each new-figure.
the plaited waist
After drawing the form for Fig. N, place the waist on the form, following all previous rules.
It will not be necessary to repeat all instructions as the student is supposed to have learned them by this time. All new information will be given for each figure, and when combined with previous lessons, there should be no difficulty in rendering Lessons Y and VI satisfactorily.
Fig. N shows a tight waist with deep plaits running over the shoulders. They follow the center line. It also has a vest, the V of which is on the center line and the opening under the first plait.
Follow Lesson II carefully in all details when putting on the waists, and note all guide lines on the new lesson plates.
The belt is flat and the buckle is placed on the center line, the buckle being merely suggested here. The buckle in detail is given below. Study it carefully. It is oblong in shape and fits over the belt, that is, the belt must run through. the buckle. See how the buckle curves to fit the waist. Make all widths even and place the hole and fastening over the center line.
The sleeve of Fig. N is tight on the inside and bloused on the outside. Note the guide lines of the sleeve form seen through the sleeve; the normal sleeve form being first drawn and the sleeve placed upon it afterwards.
Flare the gauntlet at the bottom, and place all buttons at even distances at the back of the sleeve.
The fullness at the top of the sleeve follows its form and at the bottom is only at the back.
thf ruffled waist
In Fig. P we have a waist with fullness but not bloused as in Lesson II. The fullness, being gathered at the belt, flares in a ruffle effect below it.
The right side of the belt laps over the left, past the center line. Make it definite which side of the belt is on top.
The ruffle is placed around the neck and falls in a jabot down the front of the waist, the lines being the same as the lines of the over-skirt. (Lesson III, Fig. G.) Here, as in the over-skirt, you observe the wrong side of the material.
In placing the ruffle and jabot, draw the small V for the neck, then the large V for the width of the jabot. Note how the lines of the large V curve around the form.
After ascertaining the width of the ruffle and jabot, draw them within these guide lines, applying the principles of Lesson III, Fig. G.
Like the panier (Lesson III, Fig. H) you see but little of the under surface of the goods on the far side.
The band on the sleeve fits tightly around the arm and is a continuation of the
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON V
cuide lines of the sleeve form, the sleeve flaring above and below it.
the bent sleeve
The bending of a sleeve causes it to wrinkle. Study the bent sleeve and note the w rinkles w hich lie mainly on the inside. At the elbow the w rinkles curve around the form toward the outside.
Collar 1 is a stiff collar turning over and standing away from the neck. Be sure to fit it around the neck, but do not draw the lines too near it.
Collar 2 is of fine plaiting, standing up and down around the neck, bi ing held close to the neck by a tight band.
Draw guide lines for the width of each part, and all lines from the band out to these lines, connecting them at the bottom and top as described ji Lesson III, Fig. F (plaited skirt); but if connected sometimes sharp aud sometimes wavy, it will take away the stiff appearance of the set plaits and make the goods look soft and thin.
Collar 3 is made of fluting, being placed around a low neck, the lines being very regular. Note the XX l?nes, and where the fluting turns up. You would readily see the underside of the fluting, but these lines may be omitted as too many lines cause confusion.
Apply this lesson and Lesson VI as you did the previous ones. You will find many kinds of waists to draw, but the main principles are given in these lessons, and by applying them careiully, you will have no difficulty in drawing any design.
Always draw understandingly. Do not merely copy the lines of a picturc.
LESSON V 1(J
fitting waists, collars and the buckle on the waist form
THF TUCKED WAIST
In Fig. Q is shown not only a waist but a sash as well. First draw the waist, then the sash.
The yoke curves slightly to follow the form, the lines lor the yoke being directly opposite each other. Be careful to make the yoke fit into the top of the sleeve and not hang over like a collar. This may seem unnecessary advice, but students have made this mistake. The fullness falls from the yoke, the main lines follow ing the form, although a few of the smaller ones may take the opposite direction.
The tucks follow the waist line and wave slightly (the waist being a full one). They extend past the form at the sides. The vest lines follow the center line. Be particular to draw the tucks directly opposite each other on both sides of the vest.
Plane the full sleeve on the form, there being no fullness at the top, while the bottom hangs well over the deep gauntlet.
The cuff, being pointed at the back, causes a slight reverse curve at the top. The inside of the cuff follows the bottom line of the sleeve, gradually changing until it takes the opposite direction for the point, which is at the back. The cuff being open, you observe a little of the wrong side of the opposite point.
The sash is all important. It fits around the waist, being crossed in the back, and from there it fits around the hips and is tied at the side of the front.
In placing this full girdle, draw as if. it were a flat belt, then place the fulness, which extends just a little past the normal waist line, as does also the part that fits the hips, which extends just a little past the normal hip line.
After ascertaining the width, realizing that it is narrower where tied than at the other parts, draw the lines for the fullness, all lines fitting between other lines.
The left-hand side of the sash, after going under the right side, hangs over it and both ends hang straight down. Note XX on the ends. The ends being cut diagonally, the lines are like the lines of the over-skirt. (Lesson III, Fig. G.)
the tight jackft
In Fig. R is shown a tight jacket effect over a kimona sleeve, the jacket having a large armhole and extending past the under-waist on the shoulder and under the arm.
As learned in Lesson II, the near side of the V neck takes a slight reverse curve, therefore in Fig. R, continue this reverse curve to the point. This makes the w aist fit well over the bust.
The V at the bottom must also be on the center line. Draw the guide line to the other point, which is a continuation of the far side of the V neck. This guide line continued still farther will give the V opening at the bottom of the jacket.
The collar turns over, therefore the lines for the plaiting will take sharp turns in another direction.
In drawing a kimona sleeve place the normal am hole, t hen make t he armhole much looser. This causes a deep wrinkle when the arm is down.
In Collar 4 is shown a deep collar' with a point hanging over the sleeve. Note the
change of direction where the collar hangs over the sleeve.
Collar 7 happens to be more of a cape effect than a collar. It hangs well down over the shoulders, rippling slightly at the bottom. Note the XX lines, the under surface of the goods, and where the cape fits around the sleeve.
Note all the guide lines around the neck, as the collar must have the appearance of going around the neck at the same height.
the pointed girdle
In the deep pointed girdle, the lines are drawn as explained in Fig. Q. The bottom line follows the waist line, and the top, on the near side, curves down, while the far side takes the opposite curve around the form.
See application of Lesson V.
Collar 5 has a ruffle placed evenly around the top, extending well past the sides. If the student understands the linos of the ruffle (Lesson IV), he can easily place the same on this collar.
Collar 6 is the front of a sailor collar. Make the points directly opposite each other. In this collar the student will observe how the collar is sewed on the edge of the neck, extending past it.
STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING
A form in a large eoat has the appearance of being somewhat stouter than a form in just a dress, but in reality it is the coat that gives this effect.
Draw the form the same size as for a dress. Place the coat upon it according to previous instructions, but let the coat touch the form on the shoulders, chest, and bust only. Elsewhere it hangs well away from the form, as designated by the guide lines seen through the coat.
As the collar is high, standing well up at the back of the neck, the near side view of the V is a straighter line than the reverse curve in Lesson II, Fig. C. The large collar breaks on the shoulder, but do not bring the break below the shoulder line.
The belt being very w>de and standing well away from the form, the curve is somewhat less than a belt which fits the form tightly.
When drawing the near side of the collar to the open ng> do not touch the line of the opening, thus giving the collar the appearance of being turned over.
For a double-breasted coat, all buttons must be an even distance from the center line and evenly spaced, as shown by the guide lines.
As the coat sets away from the form, the fullness above and below the belt does not cling to it and does not follow the form as in Lesson V, Fig. P, but hangs straight up and down, the fullness above and below the belt being on a line.
The bottom of a coat should be drawn the same as the bottom of a dress. Be careful to make the opening at X prominent.
Study the separate belt at the bottom of the lesson plate. Place the point directly ■ii the middle, having the diagonal lines even. Note the vertical guide line where the point ends. Make one side of the belt lap well over the other.
The turn-over point of the belt must have the appearance of going over the top of the belt, so do not draw this piece even with the top of the belt. The button is in the middle of the point and the diagonal sides are even.
Study the back collar. It curves up at the top, but being very deep it takes a downward curve at the bottom. Note the breaks which show that the collar is going around the neck toward the front.
In drawing the collar with the reveres make the points of the collar opposite each other, also the reveres, and the places where the collar and reveres are joined. Refer to Lessons V and VI for collars.
In drawing the shawl collar, show the thickness of the goods by not connecting the front lines with the back of the collar.
Fig. T is a very simple coat illustrating the principles of how a large coat should fit. The student is expected, however, to draw all kinds of coats, and if he keeps this lesson and all previous ones in mind, there should be no difficulty in rendering all coats satisfactorily.
fitting the large coat on the form
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