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Until the 1990s, the study of dress and fashion in Australia was marked by limited scholarship, one reason being the cultural disparagement of a practice traditionally associated with women's interests. Harsh environmental conditions in rural areas, especially dominated by men, meant fashionable dress was often given a low priority. Australian men have historically prided themselves on a lack of attention to the finer details of appearance, regarding this as incompatible with masculinity. While this conservatism shifted markedly with the expansion of urban living, and an increasingly materialistic social outlook after the 1980s, disparagement of clothing seems to have flowed on to a general unease about the subject of fashion itself. With some notable exceptions, such as the Powerhouse Museum in Sydney, museums and art galleries have shown little sustained interested in collecting Australian dress, especially everyday clothing. The collecting of penal clothing is one exception. All of...
Cashin worked until 1985, when she decided to focus on painting and philanthropy. Among several scholarships and educational programs, she established the James Michelin Lecture Series at the California Institute of Technology. Cashin died in New York on 3 February 2000 from complications during heart surgery. In 2003 the Bonnie Cashin Collection, consisting of her entire design archive and endowments for design-related lecture series and symposia, was donated to the Department of Special Collections within the Charles E. Young Research Library at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Raymond Clark, known professionally as Ossie, studied at Manchester School of Art from 1957 to 1961. He went to the Royal College of Art on a scholarship and graduated in 1964. His design career began with Alice Pollock's Quorum in the 1960s heyday of London fashion . . . His clothes had everything for those heady days when the jeunesse de vie of the Royal College seemed able to break all the rules and canons of taste, secure in the knowledge that they would receive ever-increasing praise from the press. McDowell, C. (1984), McDowell's Directory of Twentieth Century Fashion, London Muller p. 108. 12. Gibb, Bill. 'Educated at the Fraserborough Academy, Gibb enrolled at St. Martins' School of Art in 1962 and then went on a scholarship to the Royal College of Art in 1996. He soon became the golden boy, Fashion's Hockney, adored by all for his talent and charm.' McDowell, C., (1984), McDowell's Directory of Twentieth Century Design, London Muller p. 147. During...
'troubling' economic consequences, and notes, as others have done, that in seeking to realize its profit-seeking aims, 'fashion is preservative of the status quo while appearing to make the claims of being the opposite'.23 There does not appear to be a single aspect of the subject which pleases or excites Finkelstein. When first acquainted with her work, I could not quite believe the forcefulness of its antipathy towards the subject. I was not much reassured to read Palmer's review of Finkelstein's 'After a Fashion' in Fashion Theory. Having established that the book appears to have been written as an introductory text to fashion theory aimed primarily at undergraduate students, the reviewer notes that it 'seems as though Finkelstein is trying to convince herself as to the importance of studying fashion and leaves the reader with a sense that despite all her scholarship and wide reading she is still ambivalent on the subject'.24
Proficiency in skiing started Pucci's fashion career. He had been a member of the Italian Olympic skiing team in 1934 and had gone to Reed College on a skiing scholarship in 1937. In 1947 the photographer Toni Frissell took photographs of Pucci and his female companions in Zermatt, Switzerland, wearing form-fitting, colorful, but practical ski clothes that Pucci had designed. These photographs were shown to the head buyer for Lord and Taylor, Marjorie Griswold, and the fashion editor of Harper's Bazaar, the legendary Diana Vreeland. The pictures were published in the December 1948 issue of Bazaar, while several Pucci models were ordered for Lord and Taylor's New York store. This order was Pucci's first retail success in the United States.
Levi Strauss and Company is privately held. Public shares were issued in 1971 to finance expansion, but in 1985 the shares were all repurchased by family members. LS & Co. is one of the largest manufacturers of men's, women's, and children's jeans and sportswear, employing nearly 30,000 people in three international divisions in the United States, Europe, and Asia. As a corporation, LS & Co. has contributed over 20 million internationally to educational scholarships, HIV AIDS programs, and community support programs, and has developed global sourcing and operating guidelines that established standards for fair labor practices and business operations for all companies conducting business with it.
Born into a working-class family, Clark took courses at a technical college and studied art at a local college. He ultimately attended London's Royal College of Art on a scholarship and graduated with honors. Clark's clothing designs quickly attracted the attention of some of the most memorable personalities of the moment. He is probably best known for designing the costumes of rocker Mick Jagger, lead singer for the Rolling Stones, and for Dave Gilmour of Pink Floyd. Clark's most notable creation was probably the iconoclastic snakeskin suit he designed for the companion of Stones guitarist Keith Richards, singer Marianne Faithfull every fan knew she and her girlfriend, Anita Pallenberg, took turns wearing the treasured garment.
Yamamoto, who grew up in post-World War II Japan, has said that having been raised by his mother, a widow who worked as a dressmaker, he learned to look at the world through the eyes of women. Apparently he did not like everything he saw. His mother's customers wanted him to duplicate the latest Paris fashions, but he concentrated on creating designs of his own, mostly in black, the color his mother always wore and the one he continues to use, almost exclusively, today. In 1969 he went to Paris, having won a scholarship to study there, then back to Tokyo in 1972 where he established his own ready-to-wear company. In 1976 he showed his first collection in Tokyo and made his Paris debut in 1981, where he both delighted and dismayed the fashion world.
Benetton is a unique design and retail group. They are the largest clothing manufacturer in Europe and the world's largest consumer of wool for apparel production. At its peak in the 1980s, the Benetton name appeared not only on casual wear for men, women, and children but also on sunglasses, watches, bags, shoes, gloves, hats, jewelry, and even car parts. By 1999 over 7,000 Benetton stores were operating in over 120 countries. In addition to its licensed retail operations, Benetton retails its apparel through Colors, a combination magazine and catalog that provides an outlet for Benetton to transmit its social beliefs. Despite the criticism surrounding Benetton's advertising campaigns, Benetton does invest in society they give scholarships to young dancers, operate an art school in Treviso, Italy, and support young entrepreneurs through Edizione's Twenty-one Investments. See also Esprit.
There are several ways you create buzz. You can create interesting viral videos to share online. Or you can really push your social networking activities. (See Social Networking, later in this chapter.) Another idea is to have giveaways and competitions. You can give door prizes at bridal shows or scholarships at local schools. Alternatively, you can create a luxury direct-mail piece. Or consider advertising on the radio or TV.
Kelly created a persona for himself, and many of the facts about his life are difficult to distinguish from the image he created. Many saw him as a fun, spirited character attired in oversize overalls and bright Paris caps, but his beginnings were a bit more ordinary. He attended Jackson State University on an art scholarship but dropped out. He owned a vintage clothing shop in Atlanta, and later moved to New York where he attended the Parsons School of Design.