Later and Non European Developments

Although the majority of the European countries gave up uniforms for most of their governmental officers at the

Deutsche Diplomatenuniform

Diplomats discuss the Treaty of Ghent, 1814. Early nineteenth-century, European diplomatic uniform boasted tailcoats with standing collar, breeches, and gold embroidery. A sword and two-cornered plumed hat, not pictured, completed the ensemble. The Granger Collection, New York. Reproduced by permission.

Diplomats discuss the Treaty of Ghent, 1814. Early nineteenth-century, European diplomatic uniform boasted tailcoats with standing collar, breeches, and gold embroidery. A sword and two-cornered plumed hat, not pictured, completed the ensemble. The Granger Collection, New York. Reproduced by permission.

end of World War I, several countries decided to keep diplomatic uniforms. Germany, for example, had already abandoned its richly embroidered diplomatic uniforms during the Weimar Republic, although the Nazis' fondness of impressive uniforms brought back the diplomatic uniform for a short while. The stage designer Benno von Arent recreated a new diplomatic uniform with the help of Mrs. von Ribbentrop, wife of the German foreign minister. Its full dress uniform consisted of a dark blue tailcoat with silver oak leaf embroidery covering the coat's modern lapels. A silver sash, silver aiguillette, and a small dagger completed the startling uniform. Even by the twenty-first century, some European ambassadors still appeared in full dress uniforms at special occasions. A photo taken of the New Year's reception at the Vatican in 2001 shows from left to right the ambassadors of Monaco, the Netherlands, Thailand, Great Britain, Spain, France, and Belgium, all clad in splendid diplomatic uniforms.

The embroidered full dress uniform of European diplomats impressed several non-European courts. Formal portrait photos taken during the nineteenth century depict Indonesian princes wearing jackets richly embroidered with gold thread in the style of Western diplomatic state uniforms together with multicolored native sarongs and pajamas. A most striking adaptation of Western state uniforms took place in Japan in 1872, when two centuries of isolation had come to an end and the Japanese emperor Meiji decided that all members of his military, court, and government (including the diplomatic corps), abandon traditional Japanese dress and adopt European uniforms.

Quite in contrast to monarchic countries, the republican United States renounced civil uniforms for its diplomats, and their use was even prohibited by Congress. Of Civil War veterans only those of the Northern states were allowed to wear their military uniforms. Consequently, during the nineteenth century, American diplomats frequently ran into trouble when trying to attend formal events at European courts, which would only admit men in uniform. Thus, Theodore Roosevelt attracted considerable attention when he attended the funeral of the English king Edward VII in 1910 and was the only foreign representative who did not appear in uniform.

See also Fashion and Identity; Uniforms, Military. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Delpierre, Madeleine. "Fonctions diplomatiques." Uniformes civils français cérémonial circonstances 1750-1980. Paris: Musée de la mode et du costume, 1982. pp. 31-32. Hackspiel-Mikosch, Elisabeth, ed. Nach Rang und Stand: Deutsche Ziviluniformen im 19. Jahrhundert. Deutsches Textilmuseum: Krefeld, 2002. Kramers, C. J. M. "Iets over de ambtscostuums van de Buiten-landse Dienst." BZ, Maanblaad vor de medewerkers van het Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken 50 no. 6 (1988): 23-27. Kugler, Georg J., and Monica Kurzel Runtscheiner Des Kaisers teure Kleider, Festroben und Ornate, Hofuniformen und Livreen vom frühen 18. Jahrhundert bis 1918. Vienna 2000: 135. Catalog nos. 67-72. Lüttenberg, Thomas. "Der gestickte Rock—Deutsche Diplomatenuniformen im 19. Jahrhundert." Nach Rang und Stand—Deutsche Ziviluniformen im 19. Jahrhundert. Edited by Elisabeth Hackspiel-Mikosch. Deutsches Textilmuseum Krefeld 2002. pp. 85-93. Schmidtl, Erwin A. "Tropen- und Sommeruniformen der k.u.k. Konsular und diplomatischen Beamten 1913-1918." Mitteilungen des Österreichischen Staatsarchivs 40 (1988): 302-319.

Trendell, Herbert A. P. Dress Worn at his Majesty's Court. Issued with the authority of the Lord Chamberlain. London, 1908. pp. 35-42.

Elisabeth Hackspiel-Mikosch

UNIFORMS, MILITARY Distinctive attire for pursuing the business of battle has been part of armed conflict everywhere in the world since humanity invented war. The very carrying of arms, both offensive and defensive (spears, clubs, shields, helmets, etc.), gives the warrior a different appearance from someone engaged in more pacific tasks. However, the idea of a military uniform, clothing all members of a unit in similar dress, is a relatively late development in the long history of human conflict.

In various parts of the world, minor or major potentates and warlords used part of their wealth to clothe a corps of guards in uniform dress in the same manner that other palace servants might wear some sort of personal livery. This sort of early uniform survives in the ceremonial dress of the contemporary Papal Guards in Rome (according to legend, designed by Michelangelo) and London's Yeomen of the Guard, whose uniform is similar to that worn in the courts of the Tudors. True military uniforms, however, only came into use with social and political developments in Europe that have come to be known as the "military revolution."

The military revolution came about in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, as musketry fire from mass formations became decisive on Europe's battlefields. While the individual musket was an ineffective weapon, when used by well-drilled and well-disciplined troops, the musket allowed infantry so armed to dominate any battle. This change in weaponry led to the crystallization of military organization into professional armies consisting of relatively highly trained rank and file soldiers arranged in permanent organizations. At first these units were raised by individuals who sold their services to the highest bidder. The unit commander then provided clothing for his troops; the interests of economy as well as building esprit de corps led to uniformity of clothing within these units.

An important aspect of combat is the ability to distinguish friend from foe. Prior to the domination of the battlefield by gunpowder this could be accomplished through the use of standards or flags (such as the eagle of the Roman Legion) or temporary identification devices (scarves or armbands) allowing one side to recognize its allies. However, the possibility for fatal errors in unit identification was great on seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century battlefields enshrouded in smoke from the volleys fired from black-powder weapons. Even flags were of little help as these were often emblazoned with the badge of the unit's commander rather than a national symbol.

This led to a spread of uniformity of dress beyond the battalion level to that of most of the military forces of a kingdom or state. As permanent military establishments were developed in Europe, the practicality of uniform regulation for all troops in the service of the state became recognized. By the mid-eighteenth century colors of clothing had become associated with national armies. Britain largely clothed its army in red, France in pale gray or white, Prussia in dark blue, Bavaria in sky blue, Austria in white, Russia in dark green, etc. There were exceptions; foreign regiments in the service of French monarchs, for example, often wore red or blue. Following the events of 1789 the new French republic changed the color of the uniform of the French infantry to blue.

Sometimes a uniform color had significance that crossed national boundaries. Both Britain and France dressed their artillery in blue. German and British rifle regiments were clothed in a very dark green. Naval uni

Indonesian Navy Aiguillettes

The Texas A&M Drill Team in full dress uniform. Though military uniforms in the twentieth century adopted styles more functional for combat, some ceremonial uniforms continued to display elements of military pagaentry. © Philip Gould/Corbis. Reproduced by permission.

The Texas A&M Drill Team in full dress uniform. Though military uniforms in the twentieth century adopted styles more functional for combat, some ceremonial uniforms continued to display elements of military pagaentry. © Philip Gould/Corbis. Reproduced by permission.

forms throughout the globe have been of navy blue (white in the summer) and more recently the world's air forces have worn a dress uniform of light blue.

100 Fashion Tips

100 Fashion Tips

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