Modern Ceremonial Dress

Ceremony still plays a role in the relation of the military to the state, and dress appropriate for this ceremonial role is still significant in most military establishments. Although in a few cases, as with the British Brigade of Guards and the U.S. Marine Corps, uniforms virtually unchanged from the pre-1914 full dress are utilized, most of the world's military carries out ceremonial duties in much more drab clothing. Although economy is often cited as the reason for this abandonment of the full-dress uniforms, major portions of most armies utilize an order of dress for parade that could easily reflect earlier full-dress uniforms. It is modern fashion that dictates that the modern soldier parade in khaki or a similar shade. Yet in most military organizations there remains pressure to present a "smart" appearance on parade. In some cases, contemporary combat dress is utilized with the addition of ceremonial elements of uniform. The French Foreign Legion parades in camouflage combat attire with the addition of spotless (and plastic) white belts and the traditional green and red epaulets and the white kepi that date to the nineteenth century. There is still more than simple utility in the creation of the dress of the soldier.

See also Armor; Camouflage Cloth.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abler, Thomas S. Hinterland Warriors and Military Dress: European Empires and Exotic Uniforms. Oxford: Berg, 1999.

Carman, William Young. A Dictionary of Military Uniform. London: B.T. Batsford, Ltd., 1977.

Joseph, Nathan. Uniforms and Nonuniforms: Communication through Clothing. New York: Greenwood, 1986.

Knötel, Richard, Herbert Knötel, Jr., and Herbert Sieg. Uniforms of the World: A Compendium of Army, Navy, and Air Force Uniforms, 1700-1937. Translated by Ronald G. Ball. New York: Scribners, 1980. Originally published as Handbuch der Uniformkunde. Hamburg: H. G. Schulz, 1937.

Laver, James. "Fashion and Class Distinction." Pilot Papers 1 (1945): 63-74.

-. British Military Uniforms. London: Penguin, 1948.

Lawson, Cecil C. P. A History of the Uniforms of the British Army. 5 vols. London: Kaye and Ward, 1940-1967.

Mollo, John. Military Fashion: A Comparative History of the Uniforms of the Great Armies from the 17th Century to the First World War. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1972.

Parker, Geoffrey. The Military Revolution: Military Innovation and the Rise of the West, 1500-1800. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Windrow, Martin, and Gerry Embleton. Military Dress of North America, 1665-1970. London: Ian Allan, 1973.

Thomas S. Abler

UNIFORMS, OCCUPATIONAL Occupational uniforms are nonmilitary civilian uniforms worn by members of certain professional groups during work or at official occasions. Specified and usually handed out by the employer, the uniform is designed in certain colors and carries signs and badges which signal the employee's function and rank within a professional organization.

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