During the nineteenth century, officers who could afford to had their uniforms made-to-order by tailors who followed the uniforms regulations published by the government. Some prominent uniform suppliers published their own summaries of the regulations and added illustrations and pattern drawings. The widespread need for uniforms during the nineteenth century led to the development of factories that produced ready-to-wear as well as made-to-measure uniforms. Eventually, large department stores offered a whole range of civil uniforms, including very richly embroidered ones.

By the end of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first century, an increasing section of the fashion industry was specializing in the production of corporate wear. According to Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), the National Association of Uniform Manufacturers and Distributors estimates that the American "career apparel" industry is worth at least $6 billion. International companies as large as McDonald's potentially spend as much as $60 million a year on their uniform programs (Fast Food Fashion).

Today the industry offers a wide variety of clothes ranging from simple standard items, such as T-shirts and sweaters individualized by embroideries and corporate colors, to complete corporate fashion lines. When a large organization decides to introduce new uniforms it usually follows a long procedure. Well-known designers are hired to work very closely with the executive management in order to develop a unique design that communicates the company's corporate image. Before ordering new uniforms, prudent companies find out their employees' wishes and expectations and have them test sample garments to determine whether the uniforms can fulfill the requirements of practical function, quality, and comfort.

In times of economic instability the importance of corporate fashion grows as the image of a company can determine its failure or success in an increasingly competitive market. As a result, the British marketing company Up &

Down Marketing and Management Consultancy forecasts considerable growth for the corporate wear market, climbing from 168.6 million garments in 2000 to nearly 200 million garments in 2010 in Europe. At the same time, corporate fashion is spreading to more types of companies. Besides airlines, railways, and postal services, which continue a long tradition, a wide variety of service industries make increasing use of corporate wear, such as grocery stores, shopping malls, department stores, entertainment parks, restaurants, hotels, hospitals, and cleaning companies.

The definition of the occupational uniform should not be confused with certain traditional professional garments. The white coats of doctors, and the caps or berets and long gowns of professors, judges, or priests are typical for their profession in some countries. Although these items of clothing communicate symbolic messages and emphasize the special social status and profession of the person, they do not function as uniforms because their shape usually is not precisely prescribed by the employer, nor do the garments necessarily carry badges indicating function or hierarchical status within a larger organization.

See also Uniforms, Diplomatic; Uniforms, Military. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Antonoff, Roman. "Berufsbekleidung im Firmenstil." In Kleidung im Beruf. 2nd ed. Informationskreis "Kleidung im Beruf." Königswinter, 1996. Chowdhary, Usha. Clothing for Special Needs: An Annotated Bibliography. 3rd ed. Mount Pleasant, Mich.: U. Chowdhary, 2002.

De Marly, Diana. Working Dress: A History of Occupational Clothing. London: B.T. Batsford, Ltd., 1986. Delpierre, Madeleine. Uniformes civils français cérémonial circonstances 1750-1980. Musée de la mode et du costume. Paris, 1983.

"Des Kranichs neue Kleider: Neue Uniformen für 25.000 Lufthanseaten. Die Dienstkleidung, geht auf Strecke.'' In Lufthansa Nachricht. Deutsche Lufthansa AG Konzernkommunikation, Frankfurt, 17 January 2002. Expedition der Europäischen Modenzeitung ed. Lexikon des Kleidermachers. vol. 1: forestry; no. 1 vol 2: liveries; vol 3: uniforms of the German Imperial and Prussian Royal state-and court officers around 1900; vol. 3: uniforms of the German Imperial postal services and railway, Royal Prussian Police etc. Dresden, 1895-1898, (reprint Osnabrück 1993). Fasti della burocrazia: uniformi civili e di corte dei secoli XVIII-

XIX. Genua 1984. Fussell, Paul. Uniforms: Why We Are What We Wear. Boston:

Houghton Mifflin, 2002. Hackspiel-Mikosch, Elisabeth, ed. Nach Rang und Stand: Deutsche Ziviluniformen in 19. Jahrhundert. Krefeld: German Textile Museum, 2002. Exhibition catalog. Kliegel, Marieluise. Des Dieners alte Kleider. Livreen und Livreeknöpfe - Ausgewählte Beispiele deutscher Adelshöfe des 19. Jahrhunderts. Münster, 1999.

Lister, Margiot. Costume of Everday Life. An Illustrated History of Working Clothes from 900 to 1910. London: Barrie and Jenkins, 1977.

McVeigh, Brian. Wearing Ideology: State, Schooling and Self-Presentation in Japan. Oxford and New York: Berg, 2000.

Mikosch, Elisabeth. "Court livery and other professional uniforms made for the wedding celebrations of 1719." In "Court Dress and Ceremony in the Age of the Baroque. The Royal/Imperial Wedding of 1719 in Dresden: A Case Study." Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1999.

Shepelev, L. E. Chinovnyi mir Rossii: XVIII - nachalo XXv. (The Civil Service in Russia, 18th to the beginning of the 20th century) St. Petersberg 1999 (in Russian).

Sluzbeno odelo u 19. i. 20. veku. (Official dress in Serbia in the 19th and 20th century). ed. By Cedomir Vasic, Belgrade 2001. (Serbo-croatian language with English summary, numerous color illustrations)

Solomon, Michael. "Standard Issue: Many Organizations Believe Employees in Uniform Are More Obedient, Responsive and Reassuring Than Those in Mufti." Psychology Today Dec. 1987 vol. 21, no. 12, p. 30.

Turnau, Irena. European Occupational Dress from the Fourteenth to the Eighteenth Century. Institute of the Archaeology and Ethnology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Warsaw, 1994.

Williams-Mitchell, Christobal. Dressed for the Job: The Story of Occupational Costume. Poole and New York: Distributed by Sterling Pub., Co., 1982.

Internet Resources

"European Corporate Wear in the 21st Century" Up & Down Marketing and Management Consultancy, London 2003. Available from < .cfm?articleID=72, 8 August 2003>.

"Fast Food Fashion." PBS: Newshour, 2004. Available from < uniforms.html>.

Elisabeth Hackspiel-Mikosch

UNIFORMS, SCHOOL School uniforms have their historical antecedents in very old traditions. If understood broadly, "students" have donned special garments to set themselves apart for religious (monastic and priestly training) and economic purposes (apprentices wearing guild attire) for centuries. However, school uniforms as understood in their modern sense are a particular manifestation of a more general uniformization of populations apparent from about the early nineteenth century. This regulation of appearance is more specifically understood as "standardizing" and "disciplining" workers and citizens to meet the requirements of industrialization, capitalism, and national loyalty. Though historically some schools mandated uniforms for religious reasons or to maintain their "tradition," by and large school uniforms have been ideologically inspired by a notion that bodily control and regulated appearance beget social order, within the school and in society at large.

Practical Considerations and Functional Criteria for School Uniforms

Though the debate about the actual merits of student uniforms continues in the United States, advocates of school uniforms believe there are key elements to the successful uniformizing of a student body. These include: determining the style of uniforms should involve teachers, school administrators, parents, and students; uniforms should be affordable and available in all sizes; seasonal options should be available; the wearing of uniforms should be mandatory while allowing for special exemptions; recycling programs are suggested, as are the selling or trading of used uniforms; and uniforms should be introduced in the early grades first so students become accustomed to them as they progress through the higher grades.

School authorities might consider mandating age or grade-specific uniforms. Additionally, school authorities and educational administrators ideally should offer a variety of uniforms that are appropriate to gender and local weather conditions.

As for the materials used, important considerations include: durability (how many years it can be worn); dirt-resistant colors; colors that suit most complexions (for example, many suggest that bright red is discouraged since it does not flatter many people's natural coloring); fits all shapes and figure types; washa-bility (preferably, materials should require little—or even no—ironing or dry cleaning); small two-way patterns for economical use of fabric.

Special climatic conditions should be assessed. For example, in Australia and New Zealand, there are criteria for "sun-safe" school uniforms. Or in other places, winter uniforms must be loose-fitting enough for individuals to layer clothes underneath the uniform.

Other practical considerations include degree of adjustability; comfort (enough so that students are not inhibited from engaging in typical school activities); how available mandated uniforms are at local outlets; if uniforms are within the price range of all students; and choosing an appropriate seller and supplier of uniforms.

Obviously, with so many students, selling school uniforms can be extremely profitable, and any in-depth analysis must explore the agenda of apparel manufacturers in advocating the use of school uniforms. Besides clothes manufacturers, giant retail chains such as JCPenney, Sears, Macy's, Target, Wal-Mart, and Kids "R" Us sell school uniforms.

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