To the Early 2000s

The shawl ceased to be a ubiquitous fashion item from the 1870s, owing to the introduction of the fitted bustle style. It regained popularity in the twentieth century as an element of formal evening dress; however, in general it has had a minimal presence within the fashionable female wardrobe. The mid to late-1990s witnessed a brief period of fashionability for the pashmina, a cashmere shawl usually made in attractive, plain colors.

See also Sari; Scarf. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alfrey, Penelope. "The Social Background to the Shawl." In The Norwich Shawl. Edited by Pamela Clabburn. London: HMSO, 1995.

Clabburn, Pamela, ed. The Norwich Shawl. London: HMSO, 1995.

Journal de la Mode et du Gout. No. 11 (5 June 1790): 1-3. Lochrie, Maureen. "The Paisley Shawl Industry." In Scottish Textile History. Edited by John Butt and Kenneth Ponting. Aberdeen, Scotland: Aberdeen University Press, 1987.

Mackrell, Alice. Shawls, Stoles and Scarves. London: B. T. Bats-

ford Ltd., 1986. Morgan, Kenneth O. The Oxford History of Britain. Oxford and

New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, 2001. Pauly, Sarah. The Kashmir Shawl. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Art Gallery, 1975. Perrot, Philippe. Fashioning the Bourgeoisie: A History of Clothing in the Nineteenth Century. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Fiona Anderson

SHIBORI. See Tie-Dyeing.

SHIRT A shirt is a garment worn on the upper part of the body, usually consisting of a buttoned front, a collar, and long or short sleeves. Possibly the most important item in the male wardrobe after the suit, the shirt has always been considered the symbol of a gentleman. The finest shirts are single-stitched, pleated at the cuff, and feature a split shoulder yoke to allow for different heights of each shoulder.

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