References

Grunge Is Out, Licensing Is In. Forbes 153 (May 23, 1994) 45-47. Infantino, Vivian. On the Marc. Footwear News 50 (November 28, 1994) S16-19. MacDonald, Laurie. Marc Jacobs to Start Own Firm. Footwear News 49 (February 22, 1993) 4-6. Poster, Caryl. Jacobs' Ladder Climbing to the Top. Footwear News 47 (June 3, 1991) S20-22. Socha, Miles. Jacobs's Ladder Marc's Ready to Climb. Women's Wear Daily (January 18, 2000) 24. Weil, Jenny. Marc Jacobs Finally Signs on LVMH's Dotted Line....

Appendix C Designers and Retailers by Specialty

Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Women's Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer Designer...

Appendix B Designers and Retailers by Country

Amies, Hardy Ashley, Laura Blahnik, Manolo Burberry, Thomas Clark, Ossie James, Charles Ozbek, Rifat Quant, Mary Rhodes, Zandra Smith, Paul Westwood, Vivienne Ala a, Azzedine Balenciaga, Cristobal Callot Soeurs Cardin, Pierre Cartier Castelbajac, Jean-Charles de Chanel, Gabrielle Coco Chloe Courr ges, Andre Delaunay, Sonia Dior, Christian Fath, Jacques Feraud, Louis Gaultier, Jean-Paul Givenchy, Hubert de Gr s, Madame Hermes Kelly, Patrick Lacoste, Rene Lacroix, Christian Lagerfeld, Karl...

Appendix D Colleges with Fashion Design Programs

American Intercontinental University 1651 Westwood Boulevard Los Angeles, CA 90024 800-333-2652 The Art Institute of San Francisco 1170 Market Street San Francisco, CA 94102 888-493-3261 The Art Institute of Fort Lauderdale 1799 S.E. 17th Street Fort Lauderdale, FL 33316 800-275-7603 Florida State University William Johnston Building Tallahassee, FL 32306 800-644-2525 International Academy of Design and Technology Tampa 5225 Memorial Highway Tampa, FL 33634 813-881-0007 American...

Appendix E Museums with Costume Collections

Michigan Avenue Chicago, IL 60603 312-443-3600 Bata Shoe Museum 327 Bloor Street West Toronto, ON M5S 1W7 Canada 416-979-7799 Chicago Historical Society 1601 N. Clark Street Chicago, IL 60614 Cincinnati Art Museum Eden Park Drive Cincinnati, OH 45202 513-721-5204 Cleveland Museum of Art 11150 East Boulevard Cleveland, OH 44106 216-421-7340 Colonial Williamsburg Foundation P.O. Box 1776 Williamsburg, VA 23187 757-220-7508 Detroit Historical Society Historic Fort...

Diane von Furstenberg

Awards Fragrance Foundation Award, 1977 City of Hope Spirit of Life Award, 1983 Savvy Magazine Award, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988 Mayor's Liberty Medal, 1986 Diane von Furstenberg's wrap dress, the most recognizable fashion phenomenon of the 1970s, if not the century, hangs today in the Smithsonian Institution. As a result of its astonishing success she sold five million dresses in five years the Jewish girl who married a German prince at age twenty-two became not only one of the most...

Louis Vuitton

Louis Vuitton became an apprentice layetier (luggage packer), when he arrived in Paris in 1837. He became so proficient in his work that he became layetier to Empress Eugenie of France. In 1854 he founded a company to sell his well-designed luggage. Rounded top trunks were the norm during this period, but Vuitton sold flat-top trunks, which were easier to stack. To make his trunks distinctive, he covered them in a canvas called Trianon Grey. Vuitton's high-quality trunks were immediately...

Cristobal Balenciaga

March 24, 1972 Birthplace Guetaria, San Sebastian, Spain Award Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur At the age of twelve, Cristobal Balenciaga began his self-education as a tailor. Thirty years later, this fisherman's son became the premier couturier of France, dressing the most elite women of the world. Balenciaga's first entree into the fashion arena came in 1915 through his tailoring business in San Sebastian, Spain. In 1922 he established the Eisa fashion house in...

Emilio Pucci

November 29, 1992 Awards Nieman-Marcus Award, 1954, 1967 Sports Illustrated Award, 1955, 1961 Burdine Fashion Award, 1955 Sunday Times Award, London, 1963 Association of Industrial Design Award, Milan, 1968 Drexel University Award, 1975 Italy-Austria Award, 1977 Knighthood, Rome, 1982 Medaille de la Ville de Paris, 1985 Council of Fashion Designers of America Award, 1990 Fashion Excellence Award, Dallas Fashion Awards, 2000 While many fashion designers draw inspiration...

Jil Sander

Pure is the word most often used by Jil Sander's many admirers, not poor, as those who do not appreciate her clothing aesthetic might view it. Pared down, minimal, simple, and androgynous are other words that describe her creations along with modern, elitist, luxe, and elegant. By 1999 Sander was head of a company generating more than 200 million a year, producing clothing, cosmetics, and perfume coveted by men and women who understand her no nonsense, unadorned vision of quiet beauty. Born...

John P John

June 25, 1993 Birthplace Munich, Germany Awards Coty American Fashion Critics Award, 1943 Neiman Marcus Award, 1950 Millinery Institute of America Award, 1956 John P. John, born John (Hans) Piocelle Harberger, immigrated to the United States and worked initially as a dressmaker for Mme. Laurel in 1926, before forming a partnership with Frederic Hirst in 1929 to establish the millinery label John-Frederics. The John and Hirst partnership continued until 1948 when John...

Contents

Appendix A Designers and Retailers by Decade 329 Appendix B Designers and Retailers by Country 339 Appendix C Designers and Retailers by Specialty 345 Appendix D Colleges with Fashion Design Programs 351 Appendix E Museums with Costume Collections 357 Appendix F Professional Organizations 361

Kenneth Jay Lane

Coty American Fashion Award, 1967 Harper's Bazaar International Award, 1967 Neiman Marcus Award, 1968 Swarovski Award, 1969 Brides Magazine Award, 1990 Even before 1963, when he began the company that bears his name, Kenneth Jay Lane recognized that every woman likes a little sparkle. Style, the king of costume jewelry has proclaimed, has little to do with money and expensive possessions. Attitude makes all the difference. Perhaps he developed this belief while working in the art department at...

Prada

In 1913 Mario Prada founded Fratelli Prada, a leather-goods company which produced what the Italians call oggetti di lusso, objects of luxury, becoming best known for a very expensive leather travel case fitted with crystal vessels. His granddaughter, Miuccia, inherited the company and reluctantly took it over in 1978, at first conflicted about becoming a designer, regarding it as women's work. She had planned to use her degree in political science and her interest in social issues to do...

Rene Lacoste

Global Recognition Trophy by the American Cotton Institute, 1995 Meryl Award in Sportswear, 1997 After seeing what tennis players wear today, it is hard to believe they once wore button-down shirts and white flannel pants. One tennis player with a knack for innovation transformed the clothing of the sport as well as men's sportswear. Rene Lacoste had a notable tennis career. As the number-one ranked player in the world in 1926 and 1927, he won three French Opens, two Wimbledons, and two U.S....

Comme des Garons

Awards Mainichi Newspaper Fashion Award, 1983, 1988 Fashion Group Night of the Stars, 1986 Centre Georges Pompidou Exhibition Mode et Photo, Comme des Gar-cons, 1986 Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, 1993 Her contemporaries are Issey Miyake and Yohji Yamamoto, and, like their designers, her designs emerge from the fabric the texture, the weave, and the natural imperfections. She considers it her job to question convention, and to take risks. Rei Kawakubo and her label, Comme des Gar...

Fashion Fair Cosmetics

Fashion Fair Cosmetics is one of the leading companies that focuses on cosmetics for women of color. Its products are sold in stores in the United States, the Carribean, Africa, and Europe. The company offers over 350 products specially formulated for black skin. Fashion Fair Cosmetics is a division of Johnson Publishing Company, the largest black-owned publishing company in the world. John H. Johnson started the publishing company in 1942 with a 500 loan against his mother's furniture. The...

Converse

The origin of Converse shoes dates back to 1908 when Marquis M. Converse established the Converse Rubber Company in Malden, Massachusetts. The small company began producing shoes in 1909. In the last ninety years, the company has grown to become the largest U.S. manufacturer of footwear. Converse made its mark on the footwear industry when it introduced the canvas All Star basketball shoe in 1917. Through the endorsement of Basketball Hall of Famer Charles Chuck H. Taylor, the shoe captured a...

David Yurman

Award Honoree, Lab School of Washington, D.C., 1998 In the late twentieth-century fine-jewelry arena, designer David Yurman reigned supreme. Early in his career, he recognized the potential of combining the craftsmanship and beauty of fine jewelry with current fashion aesthetics to create a distinctive look, coveted by a cultlike following of American women. Yurman is best known for his cable motif, a twisted, ropelike tube of silver and or gold, used in almost all of his pieces. His designs,...

Charles Revson

August 24, 1975 Birthplace Boston, Massachusetts Charles Revson sold dresses and sales-motivation materials before founding Revlon. In 1932 he and his brother, Joseph, teamed up with nail-polish supplier Charles Lachman to distribute nail polish. By combining an l for Lachman into Revson, they created the name Revlon. The company marketed a unique nail polish which used pigments instead of dyes to produce a variety of opaque, vivid colors. Department and drugstores...

Karl Kani

Awards Entrepreneur of the Year, Inc. Magazine, 1995 Company of the Year, Black Enterprise, 1996 When Carl Williams (Karl Kani) started selling his designs to his friends in Brooklyn he could not have imagined the cross-cultural impact he would have on fashion. Kani's street-inspired fashions transcend the African-American, urban, hip-hop niche. They have been widely adopted by white suburban teens who want to be part of big city culture. Suburban malls and national retailer's such as Merry Go...

Aaron Montgomery Ward

December 8, 1913 Birthplace Chatham, New Jersey Montgomery Ward created the first modern mail-order company in 1872 when he sent out a single-page price list to the members of the Patrons of Husbandry, an association of farmers commonly known as the Grange. Ward used his experience as a salesman in Chicago and Saint Louis during the 1860s to learn what consumers wanted quality goods at affordable prices. By marketing his goods through a catalog, Ward disseminated the...

Paco Rabanne Francisco Rabaneda Cuervo

Awards Beauty Products Industry Award, 1969 Fragrance Foundation Recognition Award, 1974 L'Aiguille d'Or Award, 1977 De d'Or Award (Golden Thimble), 1990 Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur, 1989 Officier del Ordre d'Isabelle la Catholique, 1989 Paco Rabanne's education in architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1952 to 1955 prepared him to become one of the most inventive designers of modern times. He combined space-age futurism with architectural fashion to create clothes that...

Gucci

Awards Future Best New Designer, Tom Ford, VH-1 Fashion Awards, 1995 CFDA International Designer of the Year Award, Tom Ford, 1996 International Designer of the Year, Tom Ford, Fashion Editors Club, Japan, 1996 Designer of the Year, Tom Ford, VH-1 Vogue Fashion Awards, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 European Company of the Year, European Business Press Federation, 1998 Style Icon Award, Tom Ford, ELLE, 1999 Commitment to Life Award, AIDS Project Los Angeles, 1999 The House of Gucci was for years a...

Appendix F Professional Organizations

American Marketing Association http www.ama.org Computer Integrated Textile Design Association http www.citda.org Costume Society of America http www.costumesocietyamerica.com Fashion Group International http www.fgi.org International Textile and Apparel Association http www.itaasite.org National Retail Federation http www.nrf.com

Levi Strauss and Company

September 28, 1902 Birthplace Buttenheim, Bavaria Awards Smithsonian Institution, Levi's preserved, 1966 German Apparel Supplier of the Year, 1990 National Business Hall of Fame inductee, 1994 National Business and Labor Award for Leadership on HIV AIDS, the United States Centers for Disease Control, 1997 Ron Brown Award for Corporate Leadership, 1998 There is no more distinctly American item of apparel than blue jeans. For close to 150 years, Levi's jeans have captured...

Patrick Kelly

January 1, 1990 Birthplace Vicksburg, Mississippi Whimsy and playfulness characterize Patrick Kelly's designs. He was known for his sexy spandex dresses with bold, theatrical embellishments. By decorating his designs with mismatched buttons, black baby dolls, rhinestones, and exaggerated frills, he created lighthearted designs that captured the spirit of the 1980s. Kelly created a persona for himself, and many of the facts about his life are difficult to distinguish from the image he...

Nike

As of 1999, Nike was the number-one shoe company in the world, and it accounted for 40 percent of the athletic shoe market in the United States. The company originated as Blue Ribbon Sports (BRS), a company formed by William J. Bowerman and Phil Knight in 1964 to distribute Japanese-made Tiger Shoes in the United States. Bowerman coached track and field at the University of Oregon from 1949 to 1972. He trained Steve Prefontaine, a 1970s record breaking track star, as well as NCAA, Olympic, and...

Bulgari

Born in Greece in 1857, Sotirio Bulgari, armed with his skills as a silversmith, came to Naples in 1881 and opened a small shop where he engraved precious objects. He moved to Rome four years later and opened a shop on the Via Sistina, eventually moving his business to the Via Condotti, the same street on which its modern headquarters is located today. Sons Giorgio and Costantino gradually took over the business in the 1920s, first continuing their artful engraving and then turning to the...

Manolo Blahnik

Awards CFDA Special Award, Accessory Design, 1987, 1989 Fashion Council of America Award, 1988, 1991 British Fashion Council Award, 1991 Balenciaga Award, 1991 American Leather Award, 1991 Antonio Lopez Award (Hispanic Institute), 1991 Some women admit to having more than 100 pairs of his provocative pumps. They are as good as sex, and they last longer, says fashion chameleon, Madonna, one of the most devoted (and famous) fans of his fabled footwear (O'Koeffe, p. 156). Manolo Blahnik is to the...

Judith Leiber

Awards Coty American Fashion Critics Award, 1973 Neiman Marcus Award, 1980 Handbag Designer of the Year Award, 1992 Council of Fashion Designers of America Award, 1993 Council of Fashion Designers of America Lifetime Achievement Award, 1994 Is it art or is it fashion Those who admire the jeweled minaudieres, or handbags, of designer Judith Leiber would definitely say it is both, and they would also point out that the technical excellence evident in each witty and wonderful piece, with shapes...

Marcel Rochas

In 1924 Marcel Rochas abandoned his career as a lawyer to open a couture house as a means to provide his attractive, new wife with appropriately exquisite clothes. Soon after opening the house, he became known for his innovative and unique designs. During the 1920s he introduced blouses that were designed to be worn with men's neckties and dramatic beach pajamas with pleats inset at the knees. The 1930s were the years of Rochas's greatest innovation He introduced a gray flannel trouser suit in...

Walter Plunkett

Awards Academy Award, Costume Design An American in Paris (1951) Academy Award Nominations, Costume Design The Magnificent Yankee (1950), Kind Lady (1951), The Actress (1953), Young Bess (1953), Raintree County (1957), Some Came Running (1958), Pocket Full of Miracles (1961), How the West Was Won (1963) Walter Plunkett gave up the study of law at University of California, Berkeley, to become an actor and became one of the greatest costume designers in movie history. He was known for the...

Anne Fogarty

Birthplace Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Awards Coty American Fashion Critics' Award, 1951 Bonwit Teller, 1951 Neiman Marcus Fashion Award, 1952 International Silk Association Award, 1955 Cotton Fashion Council Award, 1957 American Express Fashion Award, 1962 Fogarty attended Allegheny College and studied drama at the Carnegie Institute of Technology. She moved to New York in 1947 to pursue acting and became a fit model and fashion stylist. In 1948 she began designing for Youth Guild, a fashion...

Estee Lauder Josephine Esther Mentzer

Awards Neiman Marcus Award for Distinguished Service in the Field of Fashion, 1962, 1992 Outstanding Woman in Business, U.S. Business and Financial Editors, 1967 Spirit of Achievement Award, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1968 Cosmetic Executive Women's President's Award, 1989 Living Legend Award, American Society of Perfumers, 1994 Fifi Award for Perennial Success, Fragrance Foundation, 1994 Fifi Awards, Fragrance Star of the Year and Best Women's Fragrance Package, Fragrance Foundation,...

Barry Kieselstein Cord

Awards Hollywood Radio and Television Society Award, 1965 Art Directors Club of New York Award, 1967 Illustrators Society of New York Award, 1969 Coty American Fashion Critics Award, Jewelry Design, 1979 Council of Fashion Designers of America, Excellence in Design, 1981 Coty American Fashion Critics Award, Excellence in Women's Wear Design, New York, 1984 I am not influenced by fashion, preferring to be an influencer, stated Barry Kieselstein-Cord, son of an architect and an illustrator, who...

Max Factor

Max Factor's career began in Russia, where he owned a hair-goods shop, served as a cosmetician to the royal court in Saint Petersburg, and worked as chief makeup artist for the Moscow Theatre. He came to the United States in 1904 and operated a beauty products concession at the Saint Louis World's Fair. Intrigued by the emerging motion picture industry, he moved to Los Angeles in 1908 and opened a store that sold theater cosmetics to stage actors. At that same time he founded Max Factor and...

Nolan Miller

Nolan Miller first became interested in fashion while watching his idols act in Saturday matinees as a boy in Texas. Miller's fascination with fash ion led him to Los Angeles, California, to attend the Choinard Art Institute. While in school, Miller worked in a Beverly Hills flower shop waiting to be discovered. Fortunately for Miller, the flower shop he worked in was patronized by television producer Aaron Spelling. Miller is most noted for the fashions he created for Spelling's 1980s...

Calvin Klein

November 19, 1942 Birthplace Bronx, New York Awards Coty American Fashion Critics Award, 1973, 1975, 1984 Bath Museum of Costume Dress of the Year, 1980 Council of Fashion Designers of America Award, 1993, 1999 Sex sells, and Calvin Klein knows it. Throughout his career he has created functional, mainstream clothing, but his true contribution to fashion has been his ability to capitalize on sensuality and sexuality in his marketing. By creating an image of provocative sexuality, he has been...

Hermes

Hermes Scarf Mexico

It is a legendary name among family businesses and is currently overseen with the same love and eye for impeccable quality by its fifth-generation chairman, Jean-Louis Dumas-Hermes. The saga began with beautifully handcrafted harnesses and saddles, made by founder Thierry and his son Emile-Charles, who catered to the wealthy carriage trade. When grandson Emile-Maurice saw that the invention of the automobile could mean extinction for the company, he expanded into travel accessories, silk...

Jean Charles de Castelbajac

November 28, 1949 Birthplace Casablanca, Morocco Awards Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, 1978 Forum Design, Linz, Austria, 1980 Laforet Museum, Belgium, 1984 Castelbajac began designing for his mother's apparel manufacturing company, Ko and Co., when he was only eighteen. He introduced his first line for the company in 1968. Soon thereafter, he worked as a design assistant at Pierre d'Alby. After starting his own label in 1970, Castelbajac quickly became known for taking everyday materials,...

Benetton

The Benetton siblings, Luciano, Giuliana, Gilberto, and Carlo, grew up in a small town in postwar Italy with bombers flying overhead. While working at a fabric store in the 1960s, Luciano Benetton delivered, by bicycle, colorful sweaters hand knit by his sister, Giuliana, to local patrons. The unusual patterns and bright colors of Giuliana's designs were diametrically opposed to the traditional, muted English sweaters that were typically worn. The popularity of Giuliana's sweaters inspired...

Skechers

After graduating from beauty school, Robert Greenberg owned and operated several wig stores in the Boston area. Tired of the cold Boston winters, Greenberg left Boston for Los Angeles in 1978 where he opened a roller-skate rental shop. Sunny, warm California was the birthplace of the fitness craze that swept the United States in the late 1970s and early 1980s. People everywhere were becoming more health conscious, working out to Jane Fonda's tapes, jogging, and joining gyms, and Greenberg saw...

Adidas

The origins of Adidas date back to 1920 when Adolph (Adi) Dassler began a footwear business which specialized in manufacturing slippers. In 1924 his brother, Rudolph, joined the company then called Gebruder Das-sler Schufabrik. Soon the company expanded to produce football boots and track shoes. The brothers achieved recognition during the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games when Jesse Owens won four gold medals while wearing their shoes. The company weathered World War II but could not withstand a...

Jeanne Lanvin

Awards Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur, 1926 Officier de la Legion d'Honneur, 1938 De d'Or Award (Golden Thimble), 1990, 1991 Jeanne Lanvin entered the fashion business in 1890 by opening a millinery house. However, it would not be her headwear designs that would launch her career. In addition to designing headwear, Lanvin was designing charming, youthful garments for her daughter. These creations were noticed by other women, and in 1909 she converted her millinery business to a custom-made...

Marc Jacobs

Awards Perry Ellis Golden Thimble Award, 1984 Chester Weinberg Gold Thimble Award, 1984 Best Student of the Year, Parsons, 1984 Council of Fashion Designers of America, Perry Ellis Award for New Fashion Talent, 1987 Council of Fashion Designers of America, Womenswear Designer of the Year, 1993 Council of Fashion Designers of America, Womenswear Designer of the Year, 1997 Women's Designer of the Year, VH1, 1998 Council of Fashion Designers of America, Accessory Designer of the Year, 1999 Marc...

Harold Fox With Jimmy Dale Orchestra

July 28, 1996 Birthplace Unknown The zoot suit is the most innovative men's garment of the twentieth century. Its knee-length jacket featured exaggerated padded shoulders, and the voluminous, high-waisted pants narrowed to a pegged ankle. When the zoot suit emerged during the 1940s, it was a radical departure from typical men's suits which had changed little in nearly a century. Although the origins of the zoot suit are unclear, several sources attribute the suit's invention to Harold C....

Carolee

Award National Woman Business Owner of the Year, 1999 Carol Friedlander, founder, president, and chief executive officer of Car-olee Designs, has succeeded literally in building a business from the ground up. Friedlander's jewelry line was originally produced in her home before she launched her collection nationwide in 1985. The costume jewelry line she produces contains signature elements such as synthetic pearls that are so finely crafted as to appear genuine. Friedlander creates this...

Ellen Tracy

Awards Dallas Fashion Award, 1986, 1987 There is no Ellen Tracy. The company, was founded in 1949 by Herbert Gallen to manufacture blouses for the junior market. Gallen, a veteran of the garment trade, invented the name Ellen Tracy, believing a woman's blouse manufacturer should be named after a woman. However, in 1962, Gallen hired the woman who would come to personify Ellen Tracy Linda Allard, a Kent State University fine arts graduate who came to New York City with 200 in her pocket to...

Dana Buchman

Award Dallas Designer Sportswear Award, 1991 Dana Buchman was named vice president of design for the Buchman division of Liz Claiborne, Inc., in 1987. This signature collection was created for working women who wanted fashionable dress but were concerned about professionalism and comfort. In 1989 Karen Harman was brought on as vice president of design and codesigner for the Buchman division and, in 1990, Gail Cook was made president of the Buchman division. Together, these three women drew upon...

Sears Roebuck and Company

Richard Warren Sears, one of the pioneers of mail order, contributed to the fashion industry by introducing new strategies for marketing apparel. He entered into the mail order business in 1886 when he founded the R.W. Sears Watch Company in North Redwood, Minnesota. As the middleman between watchmakers and the railroad station managers who sold the watches, Sears concentrated on low profit margins, rapid turnover, and high volume. This strategy was successful because he supported it with...

GH Bass and Company

Bass is the largest seller of men's and women's casual shoes in the United States. When George Henry Bass started the company in 1876, he created a reputation which endured for more than a century. He constructed durable footwear in the finest shoemaking tradition. Among the devotees of craftsmanship was Charles Lindbergh, who wore Bass aviation boots on his first trans-Atlantic flight in 1927. The company had existed for sixty years before it introduced its signature style, the...

Gottex

Award Dallas Fashion Award for Swimwear, 1994 Gottex was created in 1956 by Armin and Leah Gottilieb, a family-owned business, originally based in Tel Aviv, Israel. The owners' daughters, Miriam and Judith, were involved in the business Miriam selected fabrics and acted as head designer, and her husband, Stephen Ruzow, was vice chairman. The Gottiliebs' other daughter, Judith, managed the company's operations. In the 1990s 80 percent of the company was purchased by Africa Israel, making them a...

Ralph Lauren Lifschitz

October 14, 1939 Birthplace Bronx, New York Awards Coty Award, 1970, 1973, 1974, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1984 Neiman Marcus Distinguished Service Award, 1971 American Printed Fabrics Council Tommy Award, 1971 Council of Fashion Designers of America Award, 1981 Coty Hall of Fame Award, 1981 Gentlemen's Quarterly Manstyle Award, 1982 Neckwear Association Special Achievement Award, 1985 Retailer of the Year by the Council of Fashion Designers of America, 1987, 1992 Council of Fashion Designers of...

The Limited

The Limited was the biggest success story in the history of retailing. Throughout the 1980s, The Limited grew at an unprecedented rate. Sales rates and stockholder equity climbed at a rate of 46 percent per year, with earnings increasing 63 percent annually. In 1984 The Limited sold over 200 million garments, which averages out to three for every woman between the ages of fifteen and fifty-five. By 1985 The Limited controlled 5 percent of the 50 billion per year women's clothing business. So...

Cartier

Almost from the moment Louis-Francois Cartier took over the shop of his former employer in 1847, he attracted prosperous clients by selling jewelry and art objects which he purchased from numerous manufacturers. He opened several more locations over the years, but the Cartier name became even better known when, in 1899, son Alfred and grandson Louis opened a new shop at 13 Rue de la Paix in Paris, which was, at that time, the heart of the haute couture and jewelry district. Louis, in fact,...

Edith Head

Birthplace San Bernardino, California Awards Academy Award for Costume Design The Heiress 1949 , All About Eve 1950 , Samson and Delilah 1950 , A Place in the Sun 1951 , Roman Holiday 1953 , Sabrtna 1954 , The Facts of Life 1960 The Sting, 1973 Motion Picture and Television Fund, Tribute to Edith Head, 1998 From 1938 to 1967, Edith Head ruled at Paramount Studios, working on more than 1,000 movies, winning eight Academy Awards, and being nominated thirty-five times. She is Hollywood's most...

Nina Mari Nielli Ricci

November 29, 1970 Birthplace Turin, Italy Awards Fragrance Foundation Hall of Fame Award, 1982 De d'Or Award Golden Thimble , 1987 Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur, Bijorca d'Or Award, 1987, 1988 Fragrance Foundation Perennial Success Award, 1988 Venus de la Beaute, 1990 Trophee International Pardum Couture, 1991 Prix d'Excellence Creativitie, 1992 Trophee de la Beaut de D pische Mode, 1992 Prix Europeen de la P.L.V., 1992 L'Oscar du Mecenat d'Entreprises, 1993 Nina Ricci, born Maria Nielli...

Jantzen

Awards Woolknit Award for Men's Sweater Design six times Jantzen, Inc. evolved from the Portland Knitting Mills, located in Portland, Oregon, a company owned by John A. Zehntbauer, Roy C. Zehntbauer, and Carl C. Jantzen. The mill produced knit items such as sweaters, socks, and gloves which were retailed out of the factory. In 1913 Jantzen, the mills knitwear designer, experimented with a sweater cuff machine and invented the first rib-stitched swimsuit. Jantzen's new invention provided...

Thierry Mugler

Birthplace Strasbourg, Alsace, France Thierry Mugler's early training was in the fine arts he was a member of the Rhine Opera Ballet from 1965 to 1966, and he attended the Strasbourg School of Fine Arts from 1966 to 1967. At the age of twenty, Mugler moved to Paris to pursue a career in the fashion industry. He worked as an assistant designer for the Gudule boutique in 1968, as a designer for Andre Peters in London in 1969, and freelanced for several houses in Paris and Milan between 1970 and...

Michael Kors Karl Anderson

Awards Dupont's American Original Award, 1981 Council of Fashion Designers of America Womenswear Designer of the Year, 1999 Michael Kors designs great American sportswear. He began his professional career in 1978 as a salesperson designer at Lothar's, a once famous New York boutique. Recognizing the value of the hands-on training he was enjoying there, he left Fashion Institute of Technology after one semester, preferring to spend more time at Lothar's, sketching outfits and having samples made...

Paquin

Birthplace Unknown Award Legion d'Honneur, 1913 Madame Paquin was the first important female couturier, but very little is known about her personal life. Even her first name has been lost to history. After training at Maison Rouff, she founded her house in Paris in 1891. Her husband served as administrator, financier, and supporter to Madame Paquin. This arrangement was unusual, because at the time men usually did the designing and their wives served as inspiration and models. Since men...

Joan and David

Awards American Fashion Critics Coty Award, 1978 Footwear New Designer of the Year Award, 1986 Cutty Sark Award, 1986 Fashion Footwear Association of New York Award, 1990 Michelangelo Award, 1993 Women's Achievement Award Girl Scout Council of Greater New York, 1995 Financial Women's Association Entrepreneurial Award, 1996 The Michael Awards for the Fashion Industry First Award for Footwear Design, 1996 The Athena Award, Hunter College, New York, 1997 The Shattered Ceiling Award, Atlanta...

Nicole Miller

Girl Scouts of America Award, New York, 1994 Nicole Miller's practical yet fun design philosophy has made her remarkably successful. Some of Miller's inspirations stem from her childhood. Her father, an engineer, fascinated Miller with his interesting gadgets, while her mother sparked her interest with French fashion magazines. After high school, Miller attended the Rhode Island School of Design in Providence. During her sophomore year, she had the opportunity to travel abroad to Paris where...

Charles Wilson Brega James

September 23, 1978 Birthplace Sandhurst, England Awards Coty American Fashion Critics Award, 1950, 1954 Neiman Marcus Award, Dallas, 1953 Woolens and Worsteds of America Industry Award, 1962 The Genius of Charles James, Brooklyn Museum and Art Institute of Chicago, 1982-1983 Charles James, Architect of Fashion, Fashion Institute of Technology, New York, 1993 Charles James's designs can be described as a seamless union of art, architecture, engineering, and fashion. Although...

Rudi Gernreich

Awards Coty Award, 1960, 1963, 1966, 1967 Knitted Textile Association Crystal Ball Award, 1975 CFDA Special Tribute, 1985 Long before December 1, 1967, when he became the first American designer to appear on the cover of Time, colleagues from the worlds of art and fashion had hailed him as a super star. Rudi Gernreich has been referred to as a visionary, a prophet, a clairvoyant, and an innovator who changed the shape of fashion. His ingenious and imaginative designs foretold all that clothing...

Christian Lacroix

May 16, 1951 Birthplace Arles, France Awards De d'Or Award Golden Thimble , 1986, 1988 Council of Fashion Designers of America Award, 1987 Christian Marie Marc Lacroix never intended to be a fashion designer. He studied art history at Paul Valery University, in Montpellier, and museum studies at the Sorbonne, in Paris, from 1973 to 1976 where he wrote his dissertation on seventeenth-century costume. However, his love of costume drew Lacroix into the world of fashion instead of museum...

Karl Lagerfeld

Awards Second Prize, International Wool Secretariat Design, 1954 Neiman Marcus Award, 1980 Bath Costume Dress of the Year Award, 1981 Golden Thimble Award De d'Or , 1986 Council of Fashion Designers of America Award, 1991 Fashion Footwear of America Award, 1991 He has been referred to as Kaiser Karl, the Don Corleone of the fashion industry. He seldom appears without a fan in one hand and a Diet Coke in the other, always with his dark glasses, signature pony tail, and white powdered hair. He...

Norman Norell

October 25, 1972 Awards Neiman Marcus Award, Dallas, Texas, 1942 Coty American Fashion Critics Award, 1943, 1951, 1956, 1958, 1966 Parsons Medal for Distinguished Achievement, 1956 Honorary Doctor of Fine Arts, Pratt Institute, 1962 Sunday Times International Fashion Award, London, 1966 City of New York Bronze Medallion, 1972 Norman Norell, known in his earlier years as Norman David Levinson, was raised by his parents, Harry and Nettie Levinson, who owned a men's hat store....

Zandra Rhodes

September 19, 1940 Birthplace Chatham, Kent, England Awards Designer of the Year, English Trade Fashion, 1972 Royal Designer Industry, Royal Society of Arts, 1977 Fellow of the Society of Industrial Arts, 1978 Moore College of Art Award, Philadelphia, 1978 Emmy Award, Best Costumes, Romeo and Juliet on Ice, 1979 British Designer, Clothing and Export Council and National Economic Development Committee, 1983 Women of Distinction Award, Northwood Institute, Dallas, 1986 Number One Textile...

Jean Paul Gaultier

Even in his forties Jean-Paul Gaultier was described as an enfant terrible, a moniker he earned when his began his fashion career in the 1970s. As a designer he embraced an unconventional sense of gender and sensuality. He revised the feminine ideal to include the qualities of strength, power, and authority. To the stereotype of masculinity he added the ideas of sensuality, femininity, and narcissism. This gender redefinition in his designs has become the most enduring characteristic of his...

Pauline Trigere

Suits Silhouettes

November 4, 1912 Birthplace Paris, France Awards Coty American Fashion Critics Award, 1949, 1951, 1959 Neiman Marcus Award, Dallas, 1950 National Cotton Council of America Award, 1951 Filene Award, Boston, 1959 Silver Medal, City of Paris, 1972 Trigere was born in Paris, France, to Julles Ferry, a dressmaker, and Victor Hugo, a skilled technician and wholesale clothing contractor. Her mother introduced Trigere to the world of marketing and design. Her first official training took place at...

Kenneth Cole Productions

Kenneth Cole was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, where he was exposed to shoemaking by his father whose El Greco ladies shoe manufacturing business produced Candies shoes. At twenty-two Cole realized he wanted to venture in the world of law rather than shoes and planned to attend New York University of Law but decided to delay his decision when an important employee of his father's company left. The vacant position in his father's business gave Cole the opportunity to sketch his own shoe...

Elsa Schiaparelli

November 14, 1973 Awards Neiman Marcus Award, 1940 Hommage a Elsa Schiaparelli, Pavillion des Arts, Paris, 1984 Fashion and Surrealism, Fashion Institute of Technology, and Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1987-1988 Schiapperelli experimented with art and wit to create outrageously fun clothes which captured the fascination with fantasy of the 1930s. This adventurous designer revised the idea of chic for the modern woman. To her, designing was not a job, it was an...

Willi Smith

April 17, 1987 Birthplace Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Awards iInternational Mannequins Designer of the Year, 1978 Coty American Fashion Critics Award, 1983 When Willi Donnell Smith died, at age thirty-nine, a New York Daily News fashion writer called him the most successful black designer in fashion history Martin, p. 383 . However, as Richard Martin pointed out in a biographical sketch of Smith, there were countless fans of his sportswear style who may never have known...

Bugle

Mow Chao Wei came to the United States in 1949 when he was thirteen. His family fled Shanghai just before the city fell to Communist rule. They settled in New York City, and he became William C. Mow. In 1967 Mow completed his doctorate in electrical engineering at Purdue University, and two years later he founded Macrodata, a company which developed and tested computer microchip technologies. Mow's successful venture captured the attention of investors, and Mow sold control of his company to a...

Body Glove International

Award Diving Hall of Fame and the Pioneers of Surfing, 1990 Body Glove was founded by identical twins Bob and Bill Miestrell. The brothers were born in Missouri, two of seven children. Both boys loved the water and were taught to swim by their older brother, Joe, a local lifeguard. By the time the boys were fourteen, they had become avid swimmers and explorers and soon became interested in deep-sea diving. They were obsessed with creating a diving helmet to be used for exploring the local...

Jacques Fath

November 13, 1954 Birthplace Lafitte, France Award Neiman Marcus Award, 1949 Jacques Fath was destined to be a couturier his great grandmother had been a dressmaker to the Empress Eugenie but his path to fulfilling his destiny was not a direct one. Fath considered pursuing a career as either an actor or businessman, and he studied bookkeeping and law at the Commercial Institute in Vincennes, France. However, Fath's true love was fashion, and in 1937 he and one fitter...

Jockey International

Jockey International is one of the leading men's underwear brands in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Germany, the Phillippines, and South Africa. The company's products are sold in more than 120 countries throughout the world. Jockey, which originated as S.T. Cooper and Sons, a hosiery company in Saint Joseph, Michigan, was founded in 1876 by Samuel T. Cooper who wanted to improve the comfort of the socks worn by lumberjacks. Shortly after Cooper's death in 1893, his sons...

Glossary

Bridge A price category that bridges the price point gap between designer collections and better fashions in men's and women's apparel. Designer The price category for high-fashion collections with limited production and distribution. These collections are often referred to as signature collections. Direct Mail A form of retail sales where materials such as catalogues or letters are mailed directly to individual customers. Fad A short-lived fashion which is rapidly adopted and then quickly...

Alexander Julian

Birthplace Chapel Hill, North Carolina Awards Coty American Fashion Critics Award, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1983, 1984 Cutty Sark Award 1980, 1985, 1988 Cutty Sark Achievement Award, 1988 Men's Woolknit Design Award, 1981 Council of Fashion Designers of America Award, 1982 Major Collection, Pinnacle Design Achievement Award, 1998 Forrest L. Dimmick Award for Excellence in Color Marketing, Color Marketing Group, 1998 Alexander Julian's interest in fashion peaked at any early age. As a child he was...

Donna Karan

Awards Coty American Fashion Critics Winnie, 1977, 1981, 1984, 1985 CFDA, Best Designer, 1985, 1986, 1990, 1992, 1997 Fashion Footwear Association of New York Award, 1988 CFDA, Best Men's Designer, 1991 Woolmark Award, 1992 Donna Karan grew up Donna Faske in Forest Hills, New York, and seemed destined from the beginning to be in the fashion industry her father was a tailor and her mother was a sales representative and showroom model. After high school Karan moved to New York City to attend...

Mary Quant

Mary Quant Cosmetic

Awards Woman of the Year, London, 1963 Sunday Times International Fashion Award, London, 1963 O.B.E. Order of the British Empire, 1966 British Fashion Council Hall of Fame Award, 1990 Booby traps and bacon savers . . . bras and panty hose, that is, for those who were not around when the designer of the 1960s, Mary Quant, started a fashion revolution. Quant opened her first Bazaar store on London's King's Road in 1955 with her husband partner Alexander Plunkett Greene, and before long she was...

Yohji Yamamoto

Awards Fashion Editors Club Award, 1982, 1991, 1997 Mainichi Grand Prize, 1984 Chevalier de l'Ordre des Art et des Lettres, French Ministry of Culture, 1994 Fashion Group Night of Stars Honoree, 1998 Art e Moda Award, Florence, Italy, 1998 Fashion watchers are always claiming to understand the essence of Yohji Yamamoto's designs. He has been called visionary, avant-garde, antifash-ion, nondirectional, and so on. Many have said he subscribes to the Japanese belief that beauty does not come...

Geoffrey Beene

Geoffrey Beene Fashion Images

Awards National Cotton Council Award, 1964, 1969 Coty American Fashion Critics Award, 1964, 1966, 1968, 1974, 1975, 1977, 1981, 1982 Neiman Marcus Award, 1965 Ethel Traphagen Award, 1966 Council of Fashion Designers of America Award, 1986, 1987, 1989 Council of Fashion Designers of America, Lifetime Achievement Award, 1988 Geoffrey Beene graduated from high school in Haynesville, Louisiana, when he was sixteen. In 1943 he enrolled in Tulane University to study medicine but soon found himself...

Claude Montana

Awards Best Women's Collection, Paris Opera, 1985 Best European Designer, Munich, 1987 Balenciaga Prize Best Designer, Madrid, 1989 Prix Medicis, 1989 Fragrance Foundation Award, 1990 De d'Or Award Golden Thimble for Lanvin , 1990, 1991 Claude Montana grew up in a well-to-do family, but he did not want to pursue the professional career his family would have preferred. After leaving home in his late teens and getting by on odd jobs, including one as an extra at the Paris Opera, he went to London...

Bill Blass

Awards Coty American Fashion Critics Winnie Award, 1961, 1963, 1970 Gold Coast Award, Chicago, 1965 National Cotton Council Award, New York, 1966 Coty American Fashion Critics, Menswear Award, 1968 Neiman Marcus Award, Dallas, 1969 Coty American Fashion Critics, Hall of Fame Award, 1970 Coty American Fashion Critics, Special Citations, 1971, 1982, 1983 Point Council Award, 1971 Martha Award, New York, 1974 Honorary Doctorate, Rhode Island School of Design, 1977 Ayres Look Award, 1978...

Doc Martens R Griggs Co

Klaus Maertens of Munich, Germany, who created an air-cushioned, soled boot from a truck tire in 1945 after breaking his foot skiing, could never have imagined the fashion statement his boots would one day make. Dr. Herbert Funck, an engineer, helped Maertens perfect his boot in 1947 for commercial production in Germany. The hard-wearing utility boot with a Goodyear welted sole, which resists oil, fat, acid, petrol, and alkali, was transformed in 1960 into Doc Martens or DM's through a...

Anna

Birthplace Dearborn Heights, Michigan Award Perry Ellis Award, 1993 Anna Sui, the daughter of Chinese immigrants, grew up in a small suburb of Detroit, Michigan, where she spent her time designing evening wear for her dolls. After high school, Sui convinced her parents to send her to New York to study fashion at the Parsons School of Design. Sui left Parsons in 1975, after two years of study. Over the next several years, Sui worked for a series of design firms, including Bobbie Brooks and...

Theadora Van Runkle

Awards Academy Award Nominations, Costume Design, Bonnie and Clyde 1967 , Godfather, Part II 1974 and Peggy Sue Got Married 1986 When we look back at the reemergence of certain trends in women's fashions during the twentieth century, it becomes clear that the Depression era look of the 1930s had a tremendous influence on the styles of the 1960s and 1970s. American filmmakers played a major role in fostering this trend, bringing the 1930s to the moviegoing masses in such films as They Shoot...

Roger Vivier

Awards Neiman Marcus Award, 1961 Knighted, France, 1988 Daniel and Fischer Award Riberio d'Oro Roger Vivier enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux Arts at the age of nineteen to study sculpture. After working briefly in a shoe factory, Vivier, the Fa-berge of Footwear, launched his footwear design career in 1937 designing for Pinet and Bally in France, Delman in the United States, and Rayne and Turner in the United Kingdom. He designed a cork-soled platform shoe for Elsa Schiaperelli in 1939, and in...

Brioni

Brioni, and there never has been. In 1945 two partners, Gaetane Savini and Nazareno Fonticoli, opened a tailor shop in Rome and named it after a resort island in the Adriatic Sea, where the wealthy frolicked. The two craftsmen became known for creating handmade suits of exceptional quality at a time when nothing similar was available anywhere but on London's Savile Row. In the early 1950s, Brioni Roman Style, the full name of the salon, began to make a name for itself by...

Norma Kamali

Award Coty American Fashion Critics Award, 1981, 1982, 1983 Council of Fashion Designers of America Award, 1982, 1985 Ernie Award, 1983 Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising Award, 1984 CFDA Award, Innovative Use of Video in Presentation and Promotion of Fashion, 1984 6th Annual Interiors Award, 1985 Fashion Group Award, 1986 American Success Award, Fashion Institute of Technology, 1989 Fashion Outreach Style Award, 1995 Norma Kamali grew up on the upper east-side of Manhattan, New...

What Was The Impact Of Emergence Of Women Right Activists On Womensware During That Period

The word fashion conjures many ideas in people's minds trendy styles, a person's external appearance, or the work of an elite group of designers. But fashion does not exist in a vacuum its context is the society around it. Fashion is a style . . . that is temporarily adopted by a social group . . . because that chosen style is perceived to be socially appropriate for the time and situation Sproles and Burns, 1994 . Fashion and social development have a dynamic relationship each one influences...

Isaac Mizrahi

Awards Council of Fashion Designers of America Award, 1988, 1989 Fashion Industry Foundation Award, 1990 Michaelangelo Shoe Award, 1993 Sundance Film Festival Audience Award for Unzipped, 1995 He refers to his witty film, Unzipped, about one stressful season in the life of a fashion designer himself, of course , as a frockumentary. His comic book, Sandee the Supermodel, parodies the lifestyles of divas in demand. And his admitted love affair with Technicolor has given birth to such surprising...

Anne Klein Hannah Golofsky

Awards Mademoiselle Merit Award, 1954 Coty American Fashion Critics Award, 1955, 1969 Neiman Marcus Award, 1959, 1969 Lord and Taylor Award, 1964 National Cotton Council Award, 1965 In 1948 Anne Klein and first husband, Ben Klein, formed Junior Sophisticates, which completely transformed the clothing styles, choices, and attitudes of young American women. Anne Klein will forever be remembered as the designer who revolutionized the junior market, doing away with the traditional little-girl...

Jean Patou

March 8, 1936 Birthplace Normandy Today, the House of Jean Patou is known primarily for producing Joy, the most expensive perfume in the world, first introduced in 1930. But Patou's contributions to modern fashion were not restricted to perfumes, although there were many, each with a cleverly seductive name, from Moment Supreme, 1929, and Divine Folie, 1933, to l'Heure Attendue, first offered in 1946, after his death. The couturier's talents included more than...

Gianni Versace

July 25, 1997 Birthplace Calabria, Italy Awards Occhio d' Oro Award, Milan, 1982, 1984, 1990, 1991 Cutty Sark Award, 1983, 1988 Council of Fashion Designer of America International Award, 1993 Gianni Versace did not receive a formal education in fashion design. He did, however, study architecture in Calabria from 1964 to 1967. Versace's preparation for fashion design came informally, through his mother. As a child, Versace spent time in his mother's dress shop where he...

Tommy Hilfiger

Awards Menswear Designer of the Year, CFDA, 1995 From Catwalk to Sidewalk, VH1 Fashion and Music Awards, 1995 Designer of the Year, Parsons School of Design, 1998 Normally when we talk about the big three, we are referring to Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler. There is, however, another big three Ralph Lauren, Calvin Klein, and Tommy Hilfiger. Together, they form the triumvirate that dominates the menswear industry. Tommy Hilfiger was one of nine siblings born into a middle-class family in...

Azzedine Alaia

Awards Designer of the Year, French Ministry of Culture, 1985 To those familiar with his work, it is not surprising that Azzedine Ala'ia originally planned to become a sculptor. His garments are known for their sensuous tension, their voluptuization of the female form, and their accentuation of womanly curves. In other words, the King of Cling, as he is called, is renowned for creating the sexiest clothing in the world. Raised by his grandmother, Ala'ia attended L'Ecole des Beaux Arts in Tunis...