World War Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more here...

Alive after the Fall Review Summary


4.8 stars out of 37 votes

Contents: Ebooks
Author: Alexander Cain
Price: $49.00

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My Alive after the Fall Review Review

Highly Recommended

It is pricier than all the other ebooks out there, but it is produced by a true expert and is full of proven practical tips.

In addition to being effective and its great ease of use, this eBook makes worth every penny of its price.

World War II Allied Forces

World War British Desert

Military weapons, tactics, and uniforms a tend to develop rapidly during periods of conflict and to remain fairly stable during times of peace. This was certainly true of the period between the two world wars. When World War II began in Europe in 1939, the uniforms and equipment worn and carried by the soldiers were, in many cases, not much different from those their fathers had worn in 1918. Once again, a major war led to great improvements in the design of military uniforms. The mass slaughter of World War I had caused such outcries among the public that care of the men became a major concern for military planners. Uniforms were designed that offered greater protection from the elements and better blending into the background. The two biggest changes that took place during this time were the evolution of uniform variations for specialist troops and the development of camouflage. The greatest change in military uniforms in this period was in the use of camouflage. This was a logical...

World War Axis Forces

German Infantry Equipment Dice Shakers

Under the Treaty of Versailles, which brought an end to World War I, Germany had to get rid of most of her armed forces. Then, in March 1935, Hitler announced that he was reintroducing conscription. His new army needed to be equipped and clothed, and, unlike its Allied counterparts, its uniforms were to be new and up-to-date. All troops continued to wear leather webbing, the main difference in the belt being the buckle, which in World War I had been brass. These new steel buckles were painted green or gray, so they would not reflect the light. Officers were issued with a circular buckle, but as these came undone easily, many officers opted to wear the ordinary version, especially in combat. Leather was also used for the other ranks' calf-length leather boots, known as dice shakers.

Post World War II 194660

Post World War Society Usa Families

He world woke up from a six-year-long nightmare in the summer of 1945. World War II (1939-45), which had pitted the Allied forces of the United States, Britain, France, Russia, Canada, Australia, and other nations against the Axis forces of Germany, Japan, Italy, Austria, and others, finally ended, but the effects of the war lingered on for years afterward. The economies of Europe and Japan were in ruins, and people around the world struggled to recover from the deadliest war in human history. Yet over the next fifteen years, the world did recover. Led by the United States, the economies of the world expanded and people in the West enjoyed new access to consumer goods. Meanwhile, countries such as the Soviet Union and China embraced a radical form of government known as communism. Political differences between the United States and the Soviet Union, headed by Russia, soon led to the Cold War (1945-91), and nations across the globe aligned themselves with one of the two world powers....

Historical Changes in Style

Women wore three pagnes, layered in three different lengths. The three contrasting pagnes were made of hand-woven, hand-dyed, and factory-printed fabrics. After World War II, the grand boubou, reaching almost to the ankles, came into fashion for women. The pagne, almost hidden, became less of a focal point. In the latter part of the twentieth century, elegant fashion demanded a single pagne of the same fabric as the boubou and head-tie, either richly dyed or in Holland wax.

The Process of Recycling Textiles

Woman Sorting Thru Clothes

REENACTORS Reenactors, referring to themselves sometimes as living historians, are individuals who publicly recreate historical events and eras by donning historical dress and emulating period behavior. For most it is a hobby or pastime, occurring among all age groups and genders in varying locations around the world. People in the United States can be found reenacting the European medieval era, the American Revolutionary War, the early 1800s westward expansion, World War II, and other events. In the early 2000s the most popular era, judged by the frequency of reenactments and number of participants, is the American Civil War.

Contemporary Scarification

During World War I, she and her husband moved in artistic and cosmopolitan circles between Europe and the United States. When Schiaparelli separated from her husband in the early 1920s, she returned to Paris with her young daughter. There she came to know Paul Poiret, who often loaned the impoverished young woman dresses to wear.

Origins of luxury fashion

The history of luxury fashion is similar to that of branding in terms of development from ancient to modern times. Fashion's history has, however, been written about extensively by those more qualified than myself to do so therefore its repetition is not the purpose of this chapter. However, there are key periods, events and circumstances that led to the evolution of modern luxury branding, which are worth recounting. For example, events following the industrial revolution brought about mass production techniques and led the way for the current pret-a-porter fashion. Also, the dissolution of the world's monarchies, aristocracy and social class systems brought a change in luxury fashion, notably after the First World War. These factors show an important link between fashion and mankind's history and social evolution.

Benjamin Benedict Green Field

Over the next three decades, Green-Field became known as the Mad Hatter for his conversation-piece designs. His whimsical designs featured leather lobsters, dice, jeweled bees, clocks, and other objects he collected on his travels to Cuba, Paris, Hong Kong, and other exotic locations. During the World War II rationing restrictions, he incorporated nonrationed materials, such as kitchen utensils, scrub clothes, feather dusters, napkin rings, tea strainers, and clothespins, into his designs. Green-Field was also commissioned for a number of special headwear pieces including a hat for the 1944 Democratic National Convention, a hat adorned with razor blades for Hedda Hopper to wear to the opening of her film The Razor's Edge in 1946, and a headpiece for the queen of Belgium for the Brussels 1958 World's Fair. As hat popularity declined in the 1960s, Green-Field added decorative pillows to his business, but he elected to close his shop and retire in 1978.

Madame Gres Germaine Barton

Madame Gres Sketch

Her first collection consisted of day wear, cape and skirt ensembles, and evening wear, using draping techniques to pleat bias-cut fabrics into complex designs. It was her third collection, in which she introduced silk jersey in neoclassical style evening gowns, which made her famous. This was the first time that anyone had ever incorporated silk jersey into evening wear. Her gowns made such an impact on the industry that jerseys were often referred to as Alix jerseys. Gres continued to instill inspiration from her travels in her designs in 1935 her Arabian gown featured an ornamental harem-pant style trouser skirt in grape angora jersey. The success of her couture house continued to escalate, but unfortunately, in 1940, the impact of World War II forced her to close her doors.

Street Scents and Scenes

17th Century Street Scenes

Poiret's couture clients, artists, actresses, and the wealthy, in the U.S. and abroad, quickly became his fragrance customers as he encouraged them to consider fragrance one of his most important fashion accessories. They responded enthusiastically. After World War I, however, his fashion house floundered. His fragrances continued to enjoy popularity in the United States where they were reintroduced. Poiret closed his business in 1930.

Striped Cloth in the Twenty First Century

Since World War II, striped cloth has occasionally been fashionable for women's attire, and almost any year's ready-to-wear collections will include some striped dresses, skirts, and shirts. Horizontally striped sweaters remain sportswear standards for both men and women. But the major uses of striped cloth today are so understated as to escape immediate notice striped cloth is primarily used now for men's suiting materials and for men's dress (business) shirts and ties. Partly in the hope that vertical stripes produce an illusion of a slimmer and taller body, many men wear dark suits with very thin stripes (pinstripes) or slightly fuzzy stripes (chalk stripes) of white or some other light color. Shirting materials, too, are frequently woven in white or light colors with dark pinstripes, or in stripes of even width (often of blue and white). In some years bright, multicolored stripes come into fashion these are often made up into shirts with white collars and cuffs. And plain shirts...

The pocket handkerchief

Mens Light Color Hankies

Immediate access to a handkerchief is crucial, w hether to head off that unexpected sneeze or to mop up spilled champagne i ur ing World War I. uniformed officers with tightly flapped pockets cached their handker chiefs within their coat sleeves s the lounge jacket with its breast pocket supplanted the frock coat, the one for blowin' was safel) tucked awa in the unflapped rear trousei pocket w hile the one for show in' w as perma nentl) displayed in the jacket s breast pockct

Stalinist Representational Dress

19th Century Fashion For Women

Political changes in Eastern Europe heavily influenced fashion, ranging from the austere, functional, classless communist dress during the post-World War II years to a more open attitude toward Western fashion influence in the 1950s. Bettmann Corbis. Reproduced by permission. Children walking to school. Political changes in Eastern Europe heavily influenced fashion, ranging from the austere, functional, classless communist dress during the post-World War II years to a more open attitude toward Western fashion influence in the 1950s. Bettmann Corbis. Reproduced by permission.

The Buttondown Collar

Button Down Dress Shirt With Collar

I nitialh popularized by American sportsmen and Eastern university men during the 1920s and 1930s the oxford button-down is Americas sole contribution to the lexicon of permanent dress shirt fashion Since World War II. European enthusiasts have descended upon the doorstop of its shrine. 346 Madison Avenue, to load up on this unique American classic. Until recently, no elegant male could unfurl his stripes without at least one Brooks Brothers pink oxford gracing his closet.

Birth of the Cocktail Ensemble

By the end of World War I, the French couture depended rather heavily on American clientele and to an even greater extent on American department stores that copied and promoted the French cr ateurs (Steele, p. 253). As cocktailing had originated in the United States, the French paid less attention to the strict designations of line, cut, and length that American periodicals promoted for their heure de l'aperitif. Instead, the couturi res Chanel and Vionnet created garments for the late afternoon, or after five, including beach pajamas silk top and palazzo pant outfits worn with a mid-calf-length wrap jacket. Louise Boulanger produced les robes du studio, chic but rather informal sheaths that suited the hostess of private or intimate cocktail gatherings.

Hubert James Taffin de Givenchy

Jackie Onassis Silhouette

Givenchy moved to Paris after World War II and entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. While pursuing a formal education in fashion, he apprenticed at the House of Fath. Givenchy also worked briefly at two of the top couture establishments in Paris, the House of Piguet which was known for a young, dramatic, yet simple style and the House of Lelong which had a reputation for conservative, distinguished, high-quality clothing. Next, Givenchy took a position under Elsa Schiaparelli, one of the most creative and unconventional designers in Paris, where he designed her youthful boutique clothes. This position gave him creative control and the opportunity to cultivate relationships with couture customers.

Mainbocher Main Rousseau Bocher

World War I called him into service with the American Ambulance Corps and Intelligence Corps from 1917 to 1918. When the war ended, he remained in Europe and took a job as an illustrator for Harper's Bazaar. He held that job until 1922 when he was hired as a fashion correspondent and later as the editor of French Vogue. Tired of reporting about fashion, in 1929 he bought himself dress forms and, using cheesecloth, taught himself to cut and drape clothes. In 1939, as World War II was starting in Europe, Mainbocher left Paris and established his couture house in New York. At that time his popular, slim silhouette was a perfect complement for wartime regulations which limited the use of materials. He started to present short evening dresses and one of his signature designs, the cashmere evening sweater. These luxurious evening sweaters, worn over dresses, were adorned with beads, lined with silk, and fastened by jeweled buttons. He introduced another practical wartime solution, the...

Clothing and Fashion Industries

Clothing Late Nineteenth Century

Although always dependent on imported attire and fabrics, especially high-grade goods, a local clothing, footwear, and textile industry was set up in Eastern Australia soon after first settlement. These industries have been subject to a persistently troubled history, although until the mid-twentieth century, Australia sustained a sound reputation for manufacturing good-quality, comfortable clothing and textiles. Immediately after World War II, local wool fabrics were successfully promoted, initially by the Australian Wool Board and later the Australian Wool Corporation, but the situation has remained endemically volatile at the quality end of the fashion spectrum. While a fashion industry of sorts emerged by the early twentieth century, the real high point for the rag trade occurred in the decade immediately following World War II.

What Was The Impact Of Emergence Of Women Right Activists On Womensware During That Period

The onset of World War I (1914-1918) stimulated further simplification of clothing. The rationing of fabric and metals was responsible for women's fashions that served multiple purposes with fewer fasteners and shorter The entry of the United States into World War II (1941-1945) ended the Great Depression and spurred economic growth. Just as Americans were beginning to enjoy economic stability, however, the government imposed rationing on building materials, clothing, food, and fuel. The fighting in Europe forced many of the couture houses there to close their doors, and those that remained open had to bend to the will of the Nazis occupying France. With America cut off from European fashions by the war, the U.S. fashion industry gained power and prominence in an industry that previously had been indisputably dominated by the French. When the Soviet Union launched its first satellite, Sputnik, in 1957, it ignited the space race and intensified the Cold War between the Soviets and the...

The Twentieth Century

Marilyn Monroe Glasses

By the early 1940s, eyeglasses were available in a wide variety of colored plastic frames to harmonize with the wearer's complexion or costumes, and women were advised to have a spectacle wardrobe, with jeweled frames for evening and special frames for beach and sportswear. After World War II, variations on the harlequin shape (later known as cat-eye or cat's-eye) were the dominant style for women, and they were available in many new textures and finishes opalescent pastels, laminates of glitter, or patterned fabric and embellished with carving, gilding, Marilyn Monroe wearing eyeglasses. After World War II, eyeglasses began to be fashionable and fun, and designers began marketing them in various colors, shapes, and styles. Marilyn Monroe wearing eyeglasses. After World War II, eyeglasses began to be fashionable and fun, and designers began marketing them in various colors, shapes, and styles.

To View This Figure Please Refer To The Printed Edition

The ethnographic styling and practicality of Shirin Guild's designs can be assessed within the historical context of 'unconventional' (sometimes described as 'eccentric') dress - that is, styles selected by those who actively spurn high-fashion trends. In the post-war period fashions became increasingly diverse and open to individual interpretation, as well as a host of sub-cultural alternatives. Certainly before the 1950s, the evolution of fashionable style was strictly linear and to deviate from this was to risk ridicule and even social ostracism. Prior to the Second World War, it was therefore primarily the most daring members of the aristocracy, artists and intellectuals who dared to flaunt their rebellious attitudes via their mode of dress. Unconventional dress has an international context but has always found especially vocal expression in Britain.

How To Decorate A Cloche

Women's hats of the early twentieth century were ornately decorated with deep crowns and wide brims. During World War I (1914 18) hats became less flamboyant. By the end of the war many women were cutting their long hair. They wore bobbed haircuts trimmed to the nape of the neck shingled locks, layering their short hair into flat, overlapping rows and the Eton crop, a severe, masculine style with hair slicked back close to the head.

America fashion and commerce

In the early part of the twentieth century, America depended on Europe, particularly on Paris, for its fashion products and style guidelines. Wealthy Americans made several annual trips across the Atlantic to Paris for dress fittings at notable couturiers such as La Maison Worth. This fashionable elite also purchased their accessories in Italy, especially in Florence. Back home, those that could not travel to Europe copied the styles of the wealthy. This trend continued until the Second World War and the result was a great European influence on the outlook and interpretation of American fashion. This reality also created a mistaken portrayal of the American fashion style as lacking in taste and originality. The Second World War brought several changes to the American fashion scene. The most prominent of these was the blockage of the flow of fashion goods from Paris to America, as a result of the occupation of Paris by German troops. Americans were forced to seek alternatives in local...

The rise and opening of Japan

Heian Costume

Have been well represented in Japanese theater, such as No plays and Kabuki, and in film, particularly the historical films of director Akira Kurosawa (1910-1998). (A No, or Noh, play is a classic Japanese dance-drama having a heroic theme, a chorus, and highly stylized action, costuming, and scenery.) The samurai film, in fact, has had a wide influence throughout the world. Akira Kurosawa's legendary movie, The Seven Samurai (1954), was the inspiration for the light saber battles in the film Star Wars (1977) and its sequels. Samurai suits of armor, made of ceramic plates sewn together, were the inspiration for the military flak jacket developed by the United States Army during World War II (1939-45). Samurai wore distinctive top-knot hairstyles and wore bold crests on their robes. In 1867 the rule of shoguns ended and an emperor was restored. The emperor, Meiji, believed that Japan must become a modern nation. He allowed the Japanese people to vote, and he developed a modern economy....

Later and Non European Developments

Deutsche Diplomatenuniform

End of World War I, several countries decided to keep diplomatic uniforms. Germany, for example, had already abandoned its richly embroidered diplomatic uniforms during the Weimar Republic, although the Nazis' fondness of impressive uniforms brought back the diplomatic uniform for a short while. The stage designer Benno von Arent recreated a new diplomatic uniform with the help of Mrs. von Ribbentrop, wife of the German foreign minister. Its full dress uniform consisted of a dark blue tailcoat with silver oak leaf embroidery covering the coat's modern lapels. A silver sash, silver aiguillette, and a small dagger completed the startling uniform. Even by the twenty-first century, some European ambassadors still appeared in full dress uniforms at special occasions. A photo taken of the New Year's reception at the Vatican in 2001 shows from left to right the ambassadors of Monaco, the Netherlands, Thailand, Great Britain, Spain, France, and Belgium, all clad in splendid diplomatic...

Eighteenth Century to the Twentieth Century

Overcoats designed primarily for use in World War I made the transition to civilian use soon afterward. The British warm, as it is called in the United Kingdom, was a melton, double-breasted coat with shoulder tabs. It was developed for officers in the trenches and remains a popular style in the early 2000s. This was also true of the water-repellent and breathable Burberry trench coat made from fine-twilled cotton gabardine especially for trench warfare. Coats changed very little during the interwar years. World War II again led to innovation, providing men's wear with the only classic coat to have a hood the duffel coat. Worn principally by servicemen in the Royal Navy, and popularized by Field Marshal Montgomery, this style flooded the market when they were sold as surplus after the war.

Modern Sneaker Marketing

Although most sneakers in the early 2000s are manufactured in Asia, Onitsuka Tiger (later named ASICS) was the first Asian brand to make a statement in the sneaker market. Established in Kobe, Japan (1949), by Kihachiro Onitsuka, the company's philosophy was based on bringing-up sound youth through sports. Onitsuka believed that playing sports was a solution to keeping kids out of prison, especially after World War II. The company's first shoes were made in Onit-suka's living room and resembled the Converse All-Star. Another philosophy of Onitsuka's was harmony between human and science. In an interview with Onitsuka, he said We try to analyze all phenomena which affect a human body during sports and to make shoes which will meet the needs of the users is our principle toward the shoe making (ASICS 2004). The company's name evolved to ASICS in 1977 based on the Latin phrase Anima Sana In Corpore Sano, which translates to A Sound Mind in a Sound Body. Although...

The Evolution of Military Uniform

Navy Uniform Evolution

Even at this early point in the evolution of military uniforms a purely military form of headdress, the grenadier cap, came into being. During the late seventeenth century, the grenade was a significant factor in infantry tactics. It was an iron sphere filled with gunpowder that was ignited by a fuse. Specialist troops were trained to light these fuses from a hand-held match and then throw the grenades into the ranks of the enemy. Since two hands were required for this, grenadiers had to sling their muskets on their backs, an operation difficult to accomplish when wearing the broad-brimmed hats of the era. Thus grenadiers were given a sort of stocking cap. Some military tailor concluded that these grenadiers, already selected for their size and strength, would look even more impressive if the cap were stiffened to increase the apparent height of its wearer (Laver's seduction principle). The grenadier cap became a symbol of an elite soldier (Laver's hierarchical principle). Since elite...

First Collections 19131919

19th Century Sailor Clothing

While on vacation in Deauville on the west coast of France in the summer of 1913, Boy Capel found a shop for Chanel to open on the fashionable rue Gontaut-Biron, and it was here that she presented her first fashion collections. With the outbreak of World War I in July 1914, many wealthy and fashionable Parisians decamped to Deauville and shopped at Chanel's boutique. It is believed that she sold only ready-to-wear clothing at this date. Chanel had cut her hair short during this period and many other women copied her bobbed hairstyle as well as bought her clothes. Chanel's time had come radical in their understatement, her versatile and sporty designs were to prove perfect for the more active lives led by many wealthy women during wartime.

Youth Subcultural Styles

Peaky Blinder Clothing

Despite assumptions to the contrary, working-class youth subcultures, based around distinctive, dissenting styles, were not confined to the period after World War II. Geoffrey Pearson, for example, in a study of the history of respectable fears, notes the presence in late-nineteenth-century Britain of the troublesome teenage hooligan (an Australian equivalent of the same period was known as the larrikin ). Notwithstanding some regional variations in style between the

Principles Underlying Military Dress

While the hierarchical principle dictates that elite units differentiate their dress from ordinary military units, there is also the fact that it seems to be nearly universal that others if given the opportunity will appropriate the symbols of elite status. The jump boots of American paratroops in World War II were once a proud symbol of their elite status, but later in the war they came to be devalued as a status symbol as other soldiers, even those in noncombatant roles, acquired them. world's armies the green beret has come to be associated with elite commando formations, the red beret with airborne troops, and the black beret with armored troops. In World War II, the British commander Bernard Montgomery and the men of the Royal Tank Corps wore black berets, as did the Germans in the Panzers they fought in the North African desert. In earlier centuries light cavalry worldwide adopted the heavily laced jacket of the Hungarian hussar or the square-shaped czapka headdress of the...

Early Twentieth Century

In the 1930s, a renewed interest in handweaving led to a revival in that and other textile crafts in America, particularly after World War II, and is linked to the wearable art movement of the late 1960s and 1970s. This weaving revival was particularly accelerated by the arrival

The Swimwear Industry

Esther Williams Publicity Stills

In the years following World War I, American manufacturers of ready-made swimwear, most of them based on the West Coast, played a major role in setting fashion trends, and in creating a mass market for fashionable swimwear. The first Jantzen swimming suits, introduced in the late 1910s, were knit in a double-sided rib stitch, which added elasticity and made knitted suits much more practical. The company's innovative advertising campaigns in the 1920s, often featuring Olympic champion swimmers such as Johnny Weissmuller, helped to popularize swimming as well as Jantzen bathing suits, and by 1930 Jantzen was the largest swimwear manufacturer in the world. Catalina and Cole of California, which became major competitors to Jantzen in the late 1920s, emphasized appearance and styling in their suits and advertisements Catalina became associated with the Miss America pageant, and Cole with Hollywood glamour. Competition between these manufacturers, joined by B.V.D. in

Tailoring in the Twentieth Century

One of the most important shifts in Savile Row tailoring was the transition from a more traditional client base of British gentry and aristocracy to a more international, clientele including American financiers and eventually Hollywood celebrities. Though Savile Row rose to prominence in the late eighteenth century, dressing such figures as the Prince Regent and dandy Beau Brummel, in the twentieth it created the movie wardrobes of Fred Astaire, Cary Grant, and Roger Moore. Though many American stars sought the cachet of Savile Row, there were very talented tailors in the United States. In Harlem, the exaggerated shapes and bright colors of the zoot suit were launched by stylish young black men in the mid-1930s. When the War Production Board tried to curtail this antipatriotic tailoring because of wool rationing in 1942, race riots ensued. In Britain, there was a brief revival in elegant Edwardian tailoring after World War II, when so-called Teddy Boys working-class men who spent...

Body Decorations 193045

Dramatic Eyelashes With Decorations

The extravagant, frivolous fashions of the 1920s were replaced by more practical decorations and accessories during the 1930s. The Great Depression (1929-41) and World War II (1939-45) put pressure on both men and women to simplify their wardrobes. The fanciful purses of the 1920s were replaced by the plainer clutch purse style, for example. Rather than buying different jewelry to adorn each different outfit, women instead favored simple styles or wore meaningful pieces to which they could add decoration, such as charm bracelets. One trend for excess continued during these lean years, however. The fashion for wearing heavy makeup started during the 1920s lasted well into the next decades. Women blushed their cheeks with rouge, darkened their lips with a variety of lipsticks, and lengthened and thickened their eyelashes with mascara. According to Jane Mulvagh in Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion, in 1931 Vogue magazine reported that we are all painted ladies today, adding Now we...

The dolce vita style blast

Before 1945, Italy's economic mainstay was primarily agriculture-based and this was a challenge to the country's economy. The adverse effects of the Second World War further worsened the economy, and as a result the industrial production of fashion goods and innovation in couture and dressmaking remained minimal. The climate of a thriving social and economic structure which fashion needs in order to flourish was lacking. While Paris boomed as the world's fashion destination, Italian cities like Rome, Florence and Milan remained largely unappealing. One major contributing factor to the growth of Italian fashion was the Nazi occupation of Paris during the Second World War which disrupted the leading position of French fashion. During this period, America was again to play an important role in the take-off of Italian fashion. The post-war mass migration from Italy to America meant an export of Italian fashion style and culture and later an import of American ready-to-wear business and...

Harold Fox With Jimmy Dale Orchestra

The zoot suit was regarded as fashionable by some and as rebellious and unpatriotic by others. Its popularity coincided with World War II. Rationing during the war led to clothing restrictions for U.S. citizens. To some people, the copious amounts of fabric required to construct a zoot suit constituted open defiance of the American war effort. In California, animosity between Latino zoot suiters and U.S. servicemen erupted in a fight known as the Zoot Suit Riots in June 1943. Racial prejudice lay beneath the servicemen's outrage over the fashion, since the garment was worn primarily by blacks and Latinos.

Interpreting Contemporary Trends

The early 2000s have seen widespread fashion trends reflecting early twentieth-century styles and the decades after World War II. In such a fashion Zeitgeist, the cultural and economic capital of secondhand clothing, or vintage as it is latterly termed, has vastly increased. Secondhand clothes' stylistic appreciation has created new markets for its retail for instance, in designated concessions of urban fashion multiples, within the high-fashion collections of designers including Martin Margiela, and on auction websites, such as Ebay. Expanding career opportunities for women after World War II made the domestic sewing machine a niche appliance, sometimes used as a fallback during price inflation and for mending. With the rise of sold-state control, using programmable integrated circuits instead of or in addition to mechanical controls like cams and with the globalization of the apparel and footwear industries, sewing machine production moved in the later twentieth century first to...

Down Vests and Jackets

Many people have recognized and used the insulating quality of down. Even before the arrival of explorer Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) in the New World in 1492, Native Americans were known to use a mixture of wool and down to make warm blankets, and down and feathers were used for centuries to make warm, soft mattresses. The first manufactured down garment was made by Seattle, Washington, outdoorsman Eddie Bauer (1899-1986) in 1936. After he almost died on a winter fishing expedition, Bauer designed and marketed the Skyliner, a down-insulated jacket. The jacket was so effective in combating cold weather that Bauer made flight jackets and other down clothing for the military during World War II (1939-45).

Cunnington C Willett And Phillis

Willett (1878-1961) and Phillis (1887-1974) Cun-nington were medical doctors with a general practice in North London in the 1930s they were also major dress historians. C. W. Cunnington served in World War I as a captain in the Royal Army Medical Corps after graduating from Cambridge University. He married Phillis in 1918. The Cunningtons amassed a vast collection of English costume between the 1920s and the late 1940s, which they stored in a big shed in the garden of their house in North London.

Civil Uniforms for State Employees

Nazi Uniform Court

If the civil uniform symbolized the new administra-tional structures of modern states early in the nineteenth century, by the end of the century the civil uniform was regarded as a sign of stultifying and overexpanding bureaucracies supporting conservative governments, which, as in the case of Germany, became increasingly militaristic. At the end of World War I, when the German empire and its local monarchies were abolished, most civil uniforms for state employees disappeared. The Weimar Republic regarded the civil uniforms as a symbol of an After the two world wars, only law-enforcement sections of the government (police, immigration, or prison wards) as well as certain public services (postal services, railways, fire fighters, or foresters) continued to wear uniforms. In Germany, the devastating experience of two world wars that had been supported by widespread militarism triggered a pacifistic countermovement during the 1960s and 1970s that regarded state authority and its...

Classical Influences and Cutting on the Bias

During the late teens Vionnet focused on the process of wrapping lengths of fabric onto the body in the style of the Greek chiton. Through these experiments she exploited the advances made in fabric technology during World War I that had produced yarns that could be made into more supple fabrics, and she had extra wide lengths of material created for her to allow even greater drape. Vionnet was thus able to push her examination of construction methods that not only draped but twisted fabric still further than before moreover, she formulated the potential of the bias cut for which she is so often remembered. To do this she cut the fabric diagonally, across the grain, to produce a springy, elastic drape. Although cutting on the bias had been used for accessories and had been applied to fixed, molded dress forms, it had not been used this extensively for the body of a garment. Vionnet took an experimental leap forward in her desire to release both fabric and figure from the tight-fitting...

Positive View of Street Style

The dramatic increase in the standardization of life after World War II (suburbanization, mass marketing, the franchising of restaurant and retail chains, the spread of television, and so on) may have increased the appeal of alternative lifestyles for individuals in search of authenticity. The clothing styles of both the outlaw and those from the wrong side of the tracks became attractive as symbolic totems of escape from the bland (un)reality of what many cultural theorists have termed late capitalism. Important also was the astounding demographic blip of the baby boomers born just after World War II. As this generation grew up in the late 1950s and early 1960s, they came to represent a new sociocultural category the teenager who, by sheer dint of numbers and the fact that, by and large, they had money to spend, became a significant focus of the economic and cultural worlds. Slow off the mark in its embrace of youth culture (and still determinedly upper class and elitist), high...

Developments in the Early 2000s

Appears to reduce the effects of aging and improves the skin. These products have increasingly blurred the lines between cosmetics, drugs, and medical specialties. The post-World War II baby-boom generation has fueled the growth of anti-aging research and product development, a trend that is expected to continue.

Education and Early Career

Pucci, however, needed additional financial security after World War II. In 1949 he opened a boutique in Capri, Italy, where he sold the tapered pants that became known as Capri pants, as well as sexy silk shirts fitted to show off the female figure. With the return of peace, people were again traveling for pleasure. Pucci astutely surmised that his boutique, which he named Emilio of Capri, and his casual, colorful resort fashions would be popular with the new visitors. International sophisticates like Consuelo Crespi, Mona Harrison von Bismarck, and Maxime de la Falaise were frequent customers at Emilio of Capri. Diana Vreeland praised Pucci as divinely Italian (Kennedy, p. 57). Although it was extremely unusual

Hollywood Style and Glare Control

The quality of sunglasses also improved in the 1930s, and both of the major U.S. optical companies introduced lines of sunglasses with optical glass lenses (ground and polished like prescription eyeglasses). Taking advantage of the public appeal of daring aviators such as Charles Lindbergh and Amelia Earhart, Bausch & Lomb introduced the metal-framed Anti-Glare Aviator sunglasses in 1936, and the following year gave them the more appealing brand name Ray-Ban (to emphasize protection from harmful infra-red and ultraviolet rays). American Optical teamed up with the Polaroid Corporation in 1938 to produce the first polarized sunglasses, with glass lenses incorporating a polarizing film. World War II brought new popularity to military-style sunglasses, especially Ray-Ban Aviators (worn by Navy pilots and General Douglas MacArthur), and lent them the air of toughness and competence that has kept the style popular ever since.

Popular Debates and Imagery

1960s Poor People Clothes

SECONDHAND CLOTHES, ANTHROPOLOGY OF Well into the nineteenth century, secondhand garments constituted the clothing market for much of the population in Europe and North America except the very rich. In the post-World War II economic growth era, affordable mass-produced garments, broader income distribution, and growing purchasing power reduced the need for large segments of the population to purchase used clothing, although people with small means still frequent secondhand clothing stores. Throughout the West in the early 2000s, secondhand clothing by and large makes up fringe or niche markets for the purchase of retro, vintage, or special garments, while in many developing countries, secondhand clothing imported from the West is an important clothing source.

Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

Century style of knickerbockers known as plus fours were worn when hiking, biking, or playing golf. The name referred to the four inches added to their length to create an exaggerated overhang at the knee. Breeches were also used as livery for household servants such as footmen and chauffeurs in Britain and North America through the early twentieth century. In the twentieth century, a type of knee breeches was worn with leg wraps called puttees by some officers and troops fighting in World War I.

Levi Strauss and Company

The history of Levi Strauss and Company (LS & Co.) reads like a chronology of U.S. political and social history. During World War II U.S. soldiers who wore Levi's jeans overseas, introduced them to an international audience. As America moved into the television age, Levi's were there, making their first television commercial in 1966. During the birth of the women's liberation movement, Levi's expanded into women's apparel in 1968. In 1984, LS & Co. was the official outfitter of the U.S. Olympic Team. The introduction of Dockers in 1986 and Slates in 1996 revolutionized menswear and blazed a path for the now standard casual Fridays. A traditional pair of Levi's jeans requires one and three-quarter yards of denim, 213 yards of thread, five buttons, and five rivets. Very few changes have been made to the design of the original Levi's jeans. The rivets on the back pockets were removed in 1937 after complaints that they scratched school desk chairs and saddles. Later, in 1967, thread bar...

Twentieth Century Textiles

Industrially produced textiles, initially from the looms of England and France, but, later production, from pre-World War II Shanghai, South Asian, and American factories, coupled with the intrusion of European tailored clothes, wrought major changes in rural Southeast Asian textile production and urban and rural consumption. While there is no secure data, it seems that the period leading up to and through World War II and the following one to two decades resulted in the production of an extraordinary range of indigenous village textiles of complicated designs and patterns, a creative explosion by many accomplished women. These textiles, many used but even more saved for future use, flooded the textile markets of Southeast Asia following the end of the cold war and the opening of transportation and consumption across the whole broad sweep of northern mainland Southeast Asia and southern China. It is fair to say that these textiles represented a culmination of Southeast Asian women's...

Body Decorations 191929

fter World War I (1914-18) both women and men changed the way they adorned themselves. No longer needing to follow the rules set by the military, men began getting their fashion guidance from newly popular film actors and public figures, such as Edward VIII, the Prince of Wales (1894-1972), or created their own styles on college campuses throughout Europe and the United States. The decade brought more changes for women than for men.

The Enlightenment to the Present

Although most troops ceased wearing armor by the eighteenth century, military engineers (sappers) wore bulletproof helmets during sieges, and some horsemen wore breastplates and helmets against sword cuts and firearms. The knight's neck defense, or gorget, became a symbol of officer's rank, and many armors became theatrical props. The Napoleonic wars briefly revived the use of some cavalry armor, but by the middle of the nineteenth century, its military use was again largely ceremonial. There were some exceptions, such as the breastplates privately acquired by both sides in the American Civil War (1861-1865), and Australian outlaw Ned Kelly's crude 100-pound body armor worn during a shootout. World Wars I and II revived interest in protective armor on a large scale. Allied and Axis physicians and scientists worked with curators to develop helmets and body defenses for ground troops and flak jackets for aircrew, but they used media and technologies little different from those of...

The end of the empire

The great city of Constantinople survived and was renamed Istanbul, part of the Ottoman Empire that ruled in Turkey and the surrounding area until the end of World War I (1914-18). In the West, the same crusades that helped end the Byzantine Empire sparked the end of the Middle Ages and led to a period of cultural and intellectual growth in western Europe that paved the way for modern societies to develop as we know them. The Byzantine Empire, then, served as a bridge between the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome and the modern kingdoms and later nation-states of Europe.

Growing Ferocity of Competition

Couture was not profitable after World War I its client base dwindled further during the Depression of the 1930s. Designers tried to control copying of their designs and sometimes produced lower-priced replicas of their own exclusive models. Design piracy has long been a plague for clothing manufacturers and designers, but no tactics seem to stop it, especially when consumers are ea For a time after World War II, couture houses licensed their names to other firms to produce lower-priced clothing merchandise and accessories. Some ventured into men's wear, with limited success. In Europe and North America, the number of establishments producing fine custom-made clothing and the number of customers that bought it had declined. Demand continues to shrink for complex and costly custom-made apparel such as elaborately embroidered or beaded garments. To the extent that such clothing is still produced, production moves to India and other Asian countries.

Globalization and Free Trade Practices

While the number of textile employees declined between 1950 and 2002, the percentage of women and blacks also declined, while the percentage of Hispanics increased. The overall decrease in the number of workers has been accompanied by a decline in the American production of textiles in the post-World War II period, due to foreign competition and an influx of imports, particularly from Asian countries. Textile production and employment in the countries of Western Europe has seen similar declines.

Lilly Dache

Dache, a strong, dramatic woman, worked diligently to establish herself as one of the top milliners in New York. The height of her career was during the Great Depression and World War II when her outrageous designs could enliven a woman's otherwise difficult life. She popularized draped turbans, molded brims, half hats, and snoods or hairnets. Her imaginative designs landed her contracts with Travis Banton to design hats for

The consumer is king

Gabrielle Coco Chanel thoroughly understood the luxury consumers of her time. She also recognized the influence of the wider society on shaping consumer expectations and outlook. In the early twentieth century after the First World War, fashion designers continued to apply the pre-war styles characterized by extravagant and elaborate designs. Chanel however opted for classic and practical clothing such as trousers and the famed little black dress for women. This design approach was embraced by society because consumer needs had evolved after the war. Women who had been forced to work during the war and also cater for their families in the absence of their husbands had been exposed to a different lifestyle that required dressing in a different and more realistic way. After the war, they maintained the same attitude towards fashion. They were no longer attracted to extravagant dressing but desired more practical clothing like trousers. Chanel's designs offered the fashion solutions they...

Prince Of Wales

Prince Charles Military

The historv ol patterned lashions and their rise to sartorial sophistication has its ori gins in the early 1920s. when men began to experiment w ith a variety of less formal garments as a result of spending so much time in the function driven gear of World War I. Patterned attire also represented a departure from the stiff stolid Victorian dress of the prewar years. The new lounge coat s easy, flowing lines inspired men to loosen up and smell the roses.

Louis Feraud

As a young boy growing up in France, Louis Feraud aspired to be a baker however, he went to school to become an electrician. Ultimately, neither of these fields would prove to be Feraud's true calling. Feraud moved to Cannes in 1948 to write, paint, and pursue the good life after serving in the French underground during World War II. While living in Cannes, Feraud's interests shifted to fashion design, and in 1953 he met French sex-kitten Brigette Bardot. Feraud designed simple dresses, unlike the sculpted silhouettes of Christian Dior, which captured the spirit of the youth movement embodied by Bardot. In 1955 Feraud officially opened his

Classic Suit Models

Anthony Eden Three Button

The Double-Breasted Suit Prior to World War 11.single-and double breasted suits sold in almost equal numbers. As the driving force behind tailored menswear in the twenties and thirties, the double breasted suit's most popular rendering was the six-on-rwo button front, with broad lapels marking a high waist and straight ventless tails hugging cylindrical hips. Long, wide trousers supported this columnlike shape, serving as the base of an athletic silhouette that came to define masculine elegance throughout the period. Men are creatures of habit. When servicemen returned from World War 11, they opted for the single-breasted suit, having become accustomed to its comfort and case of wear during their military service. As a result, the fifties witnessed the popular decline of the DB. With rheexcep rion of a few random periods of limited renaissance, the double- breasted s principal proponents hav e been the custom tailors and their style-conscious clientele. Although its appeal comes and...

The odd jacket

Action Back Shirred

The thirties also witnessed the civilian adoption of military apparel identified with the Commonwealth's colonies in Asia and Africa. The first of these was the mid-length safari jacket, inspired by the summer uniform of the English army during the First World War. f astened by a row of buttons, it featured a yoke in front and back, four gus-seted pockets, a belt and long sleeves with cuffs. Different design offshoots of this garment have enjoyed periods of revival, and w itin the new business-casual mode taking hold. Although World War 11 put a damper on new sport coats, when the war ended, the first article of apparel to reflect a sense of celebration was the patterned sport jacket. Back in mufti and extremely sports-minded, the fashion-conscious man had no intention of letting his new sport coat be mistaken for a suit jacket, and therefore bold-patterned jackets returned stronger than ever.

Outure an

Dior Total Look 1955

Originally training for a diplomatic career, setting up an art gallery and travelling widely outside France. He worked briefly as a fashion illustrator, but from 1938 to the declaration of the Second World War he was employed as an assistant to couturier Robert Piguet, and then became a junior designer for Lucien Lelong. At Lelong's he learned a sense of fabric, honed his creative talents and observed the workings of a major fashion house.

Raccoon Coat

Raccoon Coat

For a short time during the mid-1920s, wearing long, bulky coats of raccoon fur was a fad among young American men and some young women, especially those attending colleges and universities. Distinctive and flamboyant, the gray and black raccoon fur coat fit perfectly with the style of the Roaring Twenties (a period of time following World War I 1914 18 when people were experiencing newfound freedoms and a sense of rebellion), when people dressed in flashy and extravagant fashions.

Claire McCardell

Claire Mccardell

McCardell felt that when a woman worked in the kitchen and garden she should not sacrifice appearance for comfort. Her practical yet intricate clothing was affordable to the average American woman. One dress which embodied the spirit of the American working women was the pop-over dress. This work dress was originally fabricated from denim as a wraparound, loose silhouette with rolled-up sleeves, large utilitarian pockets, and detachable pot holders. This attractive, durable, and functional dress became the uniform of the American working woman during World War II.

Madeleine Vionnet

Chilleurs Aux Bois Madeleine Vionnet

Although the house did well, she had difficulties with her financial manager and closed the house during World War I. The war years brought a much-needed break and allowed Vionnet to begin thinking about her innovations in dress design. She reopened in 1919 after the war and closed the house for a final time in 1939. Another characteristic of Vionnet's designs was her use of geometry. Beginning after World War I, her designs used the rectangular silhouette, which was composed of a loose tube with a few darts for fitting. As her work evolved, she began to use geometric shapes for gussets and to create decorative seams. Much of this work was inspired by Cubism, an art movement popular during the 1910s and 1920s. All of Vionnet's designs were draped on a miniature model before a pattern would be made. This way she could ensure the proper drape for each of her complex designs.

Thomas Burberry

Men's outerwear and clothing in general. In the 1870s he invented gabardine, a revolutionary fabric which rain could not penetrate, yet was cool and wrinkle resistant. This fabric became invaluable for sportswear as active leisure pursuits became popular in the 1890s. Burberry's gabardine trenchcoat, made for the British military during World War I, evolved into a timeless style worn by civilian men and women for the remainder of the century. Despite the popularity of Burberry's activewear, the trenchcoat would be the company's legacy. From its introduction during World War I, the functional and stylish coat attained popular acclaim. Stars have appeared in films such as Today We Live (1933), Patton (1970), Kramer vs. Kramer (1979), and Wall Street (1987) wearing the distinctive coat. The classic style has changed little since its introduction.

Oleg Cassini

Oleg Cassini 1960s Pillbox Hats

Cassini's entree to the fashion arena finally came through the movie industry. Cassini signed a seven-year contract with Paramount and worked for other studios, and he designed wardrobes for some of the most glamorous stars including Veronica Lake, Grace Kelly, Marilyn Monroe, Gene Tierney, and Natalie Wood. In 1942 Cassini, now a U.S. citizen, postponed his design career to serve his newly adopted country in World War II. After the war, Cassini found investors to provide him with the finances to found his own business in 1950. His first collection was so popular with U.S. buyers that he wrote enough orders to pay back his investors and become sole owner of Oleg Cassini, Inc.


Pierre Cardin was born near Venice in Italy in 1922, as Pietro Cardin. He was the youngest of 11 children and his father was a wine merchant who provided a comfortable life for his family. However, during the First World War, the family was forced to migrate to the south of France to escape poverty. Pierre Cardin was only two years old. Pierre grew up in France and had dreams of becoming an actor and dancer. The Second World War however ended this dream but also brought another opportunity for him to join the Red Cross and help the military effort. There he studied Accounting, which contributed to sharpening the business skills that would guide him throughout his career in fashion.

Hanae Mori

She earned a degree in Japanese literature from Tokyo Christian Women's University in 1947. After World War II, she attended design school and began producing her own designs in 1955. For the next several years, she created clothes for private clients and costumes for films and plays.

Edward H Molyneux

Molyneux's career took a brief detour beginning in 1914 when he served in World War I. He was wounded three times and earned the rank of captain, a title by which he would be known for the remainder of his life. After the war he renewed his career in fashion by moving to Paris and opening his own house in 1919. He achieved immediate success with simple, elegant styles which expressed the modern aesthetic of the 1920s. At the height of his popularity, Molyneux fled Paris when it fell to the Germans during World War II. He escaped to England and spent the remainder of the war bolstering the Allied war effort. He donated the proceeds from his London operations to the British Defense Budget. Also, he helped design clothes that met the strict requirements of British wartime clothing regulations. In France he opened a camp for war victims and a school for couture workers.

Mixand Match Clothing

The trend during the 1950s to wear matching clothing ensembles was followed by women from every social class. After the rationing, or limiting, of fabrics during World War II (1939-45), women embraced the availability of luxuries once again. Their outfits reflected the flood of products on the market. Accessories once limited by the war were available in all price ranges. Women eagerly accented their flowing skirts with an array of hats, gloves, belts, handbags, and shoes. But by the 1950s women's desire to accessorize began to fade. To combat falling sales, manufacturers advertised a new fashion mix-and-match clothing.

Pierre Cardin

Pierre Cardin was born in Italy but spent most of his childhood in France. The Cardins knew their son was destined to be a designer his interest in costume design and architecture was evident at an early age. Cardin's parents supported his interest in design by enrolling him in architectural studies at the school of Saint Etienne in France. By the time Cardin was fourteen, he was working as an apprentice for Manby, a local tailor. Anxious to start his career, the seventeen-year-old Cardin was on his way to Paris when World War II erupted and he was enlisted. After the war, Cardin returned to Paris, anxious to launch his career in fashion. Cardin landed a series of positions with prominent couturiers, including Madame Paquin, Elsa Schia-parelli, Jean Cocteau, and Christian Berard, which helped mold his design skills. He also spent four years at Christian Dior, from 1946 to 1950, designing coats and suits.

The Demimonde Legacy

World War I brought to an end the rarified lifestyle of the Belle poque and with it the phenomenon of the demimonde and courtesan. The social, economic, and cultural conditions that permitted the excesses of debauchery and squandering of fortunes were irreversibly changed. The demimondaines who lived beyond the war years were no longer the idolized, public figures they had

Uniforms Since 1945

Indochina British Machete

After World War II, newly independent nations with armies of their own modeled their uniforms on those of such countries as Britain and the United States, but conflicts in various parts of the world required further modifications to suit function and climate. illions of men had been called upon to fight in World War , and millions of uniforms, guns, and items of equipment had been produced for them. When the war ended, these were returned to the stores, while the vast majority of soldiers went back to civilian life. takes two main forms body armor and nuclear, chemical, and biological warfare suits. Vietnam War-period flak jackets weighed a lot. They were fastened at the front with zippers and press studs, and in combat, this proved to be a weak spot if the jackets were not correctly fitted. Around the bottom of the flak jackets was a band of material fitted with eyelets, from which the wearer could hang equipment. In the 1980s, the Israelis expanded on this design by fitting...

Clothing 193045

Ancient American Costume Dolman

W W hen it comes to fashion, the 1930s were a complex age. On the one hand fashions were deeply influenced by the economic depression that gripped the Western world throughout the 1930s on the other hand fashions in the 1930s were very elegant, with clothing trends largely determined by the tastes of the very wealthy, especially movie stars and other celebrities. Strangely, these two influences came together to create clothing styles that were simple yet elegant. The coming of World War II in 1939 brought a completely new set of pressures to the way people dressed, with rationing, or limiting, of clothing, government dress codes, and the German occupation of Paris, France, the world's fashion capital, altering clothing styles dramatically. Every nation that fought in World War II (193945) created standardized uniforms for their soldiers. The most dramatic uniforms were worn by the Nazi soldiers of the German army. With their mania for black leather, brass buttons, medals, and...

Jean Patou

Prior to serving as a captain in World War I, Patou worked with his father in the family's fur tannery and, in 1914, he opened a small dressmaking facility in Paris. He returned home in 1919, reopened his salon, and soon began to create clothing for the ideal woman of the 1920s one who exhibited physical health, fitness, and atheletic prowess, all signs of her newly found independence. Wimbleton tennis star Suzanne Lenglen and aviator Ruth Elder were two women who epitomized this new image. Recognizing the value of public relations, Patou created clothing for both of them, as well for other celebrities who engaged in sports, or at least wanted to look as if they did. Inside his couture house, he created a boutique-like series of rooms called Le Coin des Sports, where he displayed outfits suitable for tennis, riding, boating, and piloting a plane, among others, all properly accessorized. Then, like Chanel, he opened shops in Deauville, Biarritz, and other centers for the vacationing...

Doc Martens

After the end of World War II (1939-45), a German doctor named Klaus Maertens injured his foot while skiing in the European Alps. Seeking a comfortable shoe for his recovery, he joined with German engineer Herbert Funck to design a special sole of rubber sealed around pockets of air. The first air-cushioned soles were made from army surplus tires. Dr. Maertens's shoes were first popular among older people throughout Germany who wanted comfortable, sturdy shoes. Maertens thought his shoes could sell successfully in other countries, too. In the late 1950s respected British shoe manufacturer R. Griggs and Company bought the rights to Maertens's special air-cushioned sole and designed sturdy work boots and shoes that used it. They changed the name to Dr. Martens, thinking that the German spelling of the name would harm sales in post World War II Europe where anti-German sentiment remained high due to the millions of people killed during the war when Germany invaded several European...

Nicola White

The Italian fashion industry is currently one of the leading players on the international fashion stage, and ranks parallel with Paris and New York.1 Yet before 1945, there was no industrial production of fashionable womens-wear in Italy, and little innovative made-to-measure haute couture. The well-known Italian fashion style currently seen in the world's glossy fashion magazines rose seemingly from nowhere in the post-war years, and was not widely recognized until the early 1980s. It is perhaps not surprising therefore, that the early post-war period has been seen simply as a preparation for the recent miracle of Italian fashion. This chapter considers whether a distinct Italian fashion look existed in the mind of the international fashion industry well before this date, in fact, by the mid-1960s. It attempts a definition of Italian fashion style in the two decades after the Second World War, through the top three levels of production haute couture, boutique and quality...

Hair Spray

Vfter the end ofWorld War II (1939-45), many people considered the 1950s to be the beginning of a modern world, full of new products that would make their lives easier. The bright, the shiny, and the new were valued above all, and fashions reflected this. Hair spray, made of liquid plastics and vinyl that harden when they are sprayed on the hair to form a kind of shell that keeps the hair from falling out of its style, became very popular during the 1950s and early 1960s. Styles were crisp and clean, and hairstyles were held in place with aerosol hair spray. Aerosol sprays, substances dispensed from a pressurized can, had been developed for use with insecticides during World War II, and they were quickly adopted by the hair-care industry. Women of the 1950s used products such as Helene Curtis Spray Net to hold their hair neatly in place.

Bill Blass

The first job Blass landed after college was as a sketch artist for New York sportswear designer David Crystal in 1940. Blass's fashion career was delayed by the onset of World War II Blass served as a sergeant in the United States Army from 1941 to 1944. When his term of service was over, Blass took a position as a designer at Anna Miller and Company, Ltd., which later merged with Maurice Rentner in 1958. By the mid-1960s Blass had positioned himself as the head designer, vice president, and partner of the company. In 1968 Blass bought out the other partners and renamed the company Bill Blass, Inc.

Short Hair for Women

Symbol For Liberation

N an April 1927 issue of Pictorial Review, a well-known opera singer of the 1920s named Mary Garden (1874-1967) wrote an article titled Why I Bobbed My Hair explaining to her fans why she cut off her long hair. She said, Bobbed hair is a state of mind and not merely a new manner of dressing my head. I consider getting rid of our long hair one of the many little shackles that women have cast aside in their passage to freedom. This statement expresses the underlying reason behind the 1920s fad of short hair for women. While until World War I (1914-18) long and carefully styled hair had been a symbol of elegant femininity, never cut except in times of serious illness, during the Roaring Twenties, a time of rebellion and newfound freedoms following the calamities of World War I, short hair on women became a symbol of liberation, fun, and daring.

The 1940s

During World War II (1939-1945) and the first years following, fashion was dictated by the need for practical, simple clothes and the rationing of resources and materials. In England the government encouraged utility clothing. In Paris, during the German occupation, only very few haute couture houses remained open. In all countries, special magazines and brochures dispensed advice on re-modeling old clothes or how to make new clothes from combining pieces of old ones. Skirts and coats became shorter, suits took on the character of uniforms, and wide shoulders dominated more than ever. Hats and shoes were often hand-made and wool stockings and socks replaced silk. In the United States, Claire McCardell created a furor with her pop-over dresses, leotards, and sea-side diaper suits.

Trench Coats

1914 1918 Women Trench Coats

The long, water-repellent coat known as a trench coat was adapted from military use and became enormously popular during and after World War I (1914-18). Stylish and functional, the trench coat, traditionally made of a rugged fabric called gabardine, remained a staple of outerwear throughout the twentieth century and was adopted by some of the most revered figures in history and popular entertainment. The outbreak of World War I in 1914 created a need for a bad-weather garment to protect the soldiers fighting in the trenches, long pits dug into the ground for defense. Burberry designed a coat made of fine twill gabardine that repelled water while allowing the wearer freedom of movement. Dubbed the trench coat or storm coat, it quickly became the official coat of the Allied fighting man, someone who fought Germany and its allies during World War I. It is estimated The classic World War I-era trench coat was double-breasted, with four buttons, reinforced shoulder or gun flaps, straps at...

Yohji Yamamoto

Yamamoto, who grew up in post-World War II Japan, has said that having been raised by his mother, a widow who worked as a dressmaker, he learned to look at the world through the eyes of women. Apparently he did not like everything he saw. His mother's customers wanted him to duplicate the latest Paris fashions, but he concentrated on creating designs of his own, mostly in black, the color his mother always wore and the one he continues to use, almost exclusively, today. In 1969 he went to Paris, having won a scholarship to study there, then back to Tokyo in 1972 where he established his own ready-to-wear company. In 1976 he showed his first collection in Tokyo and made his Paris debut in 1981, where he both delighted and dismayed the fashion world.

Historical Context

19th Century Harlem Fashion

While the reasons for Balenciaga's departure from Spain in 1935 at the age of forty, and his subsequent establishment in Paris, are not clear, it is probable that the commercial and political situation in Europe contributed to his move. In the 1930s Paris was the fashion mecca not only for ambitious designers but also for the cosmopolitan women they dressed. The French government fostered couture and its ancillary trades because they were important national export industries. Subsidies encouraged the use of French textiles, and textile manufacturers supplied short runs of rare fabrics for couture collections. The trade organization Chambre Syndicale de la couture parisienne guided the regulation of conditions of employment, training for prospective couturiers, and the efficient coordination of the twice-yearly showings of all couturiers' collections. This arrangement made the trade desirable, as private clients and commercial buyers from department stores and wholesale companies from...

Clothing 194660

1950s Fashion For Teenage Girls

During World War II (1939-45) fashion had taken a backseat to the war effort, and dress designers had been severely limited in what they could make as governments placed severe restrictions on the kinds and amounts of cloth designers could use. In the fifteen years that followed the end of the war, fashions in the West went through a series of sweeping changes. Women's fashions reached levels of richness and luxury that had not been seen since the turn of the previous century. In addition, fashions across Europe and the United States highlighted women's femininity and Paris, France, reclaimed its spot as the fashion capital of the world. Dior's New Look was part of a larger return to femininity across the Western world. The war years had forced women into unusual roles. Many worked outside the home for the first time, and the clothes they wore did not accentuate their female forms. As men returned from the war to claim jobs and start families, women also returned to more traditional...

Headwear 194660

Ladies Wearing Pink Pillbox Hat

The late 1940s and 1950s were a time in fashion history when many people were concerned with dressing just right, and the way they styled their hair and chose their hats was no exception. As with other areas of fashion, hat styles had been simplified during World War II (1939-45) in order to conserve precious materials that were needed for the war effort. French designer Christian Dior's (1905-1957) New Look, introduced in 1947, called for a range of accessories. Dior's New Look outfits and the many imitations that followed all featured hats chosen to match the outfit. These hats could be highly ornate, with wide brims and veils that hung around the head, or they could be as simple as a pillbox hat, a smallish, brimless round hat. It is estimated that the typical American woman in the 1950s owned four hats. Fashion-conscious women probably had many more. ulate that the mustache worn by German dictator Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), who led the Germans in World War II, killed the...

Elsa Schiaparelli

Schiaparelli closed the house during World War II and reopened it in 1945. Like many other French designers after the war, she found that her formula for success no longer worked. Her whimsical designs did not appeal to war-weary European women, and she stopped creating couture garments in 1954. She continued to license items, including costume jewelry, stockings, sunglasses, swimsuits, men's ties, and wigs.

Early Career

In 1914 Patou established a couture house at 7, rue St. Florentin, near the rue de la Paix. Although his first collection was prepared, it was never shown, as he went to serve as a captain in a French Zouave regiment during World War I. Following the cessation of hostilities Patou became a leading international couturier. He commissioned his fellow officer Bernard Boutet de Monvel, who was working for several fashion magazines, to illustrate many of his advertisements. Patou's salon was dec

The United States

Punk Movement 1970s

One of the many effects of the post-World War II consumer boom within the United States and Europe was an ever-expanding market for goods, particularly within a youth cultural market that led to an active struggle from young people to shape and realize their own identities through the consumption of music and fashion. This popularization of youth as style and surface was in part reflected in the breakdown of distinctions between high and low culture within the pop art movements of Britain's Independent Group and its U.S. equivalent of the 1950s and 1960s. In the latter grouping was Andy Warhol and the Factory. Symptomatic of pop, Warhol's work, its repetitive nature, and its insistence in articulating nothing more than the surface engaged with a youth cultural perspective of nihilism that revolved around the adage of live fast, die young. As such, alongside Warhol's desire to surround himself with a coterie of the young, dangerous, and beautiful, the seeds of an avantgarde music scene...


When her husband died shortly after World War I, Paquin relinquished the design role and gave it to Mademoiselle Madeleine. She designed the collections during the 1920s, and Madame del Pombo created the designs until the house closed in 1956, twenty years after Paquin's death.

Pacific Islands

Conflict between the French and British occurred on most islands as each nation tried to assert control. In the Marquesas, the French expelled the British and secured influence over the area, leaving the ruling Pomare family as token rulers. A French colony was proclaimed when King Pomare V was forced to abdicate in 1880 and within a few years it included the Marquesas, Society Islands, Austral Islands, Gambier Archipelago, and Tu-amotu atolls. After World War II, Tahitians who had fought for France brought pressure against the government to extend French citizenship to all islanders in 1957 the territory was officially renamed the Territory of French Polynesia.

The Modern Swimsuit

After World War I, several factors combined to produce a radical change in swimwear. Women had achieved new levels of independence during the war, and fashions began to allow them more freedom of movement. Interest in active sports of all kinds increased during the 1920s, and sportswear achieved new importance in fashion. Swimming also gained in popularity due to an increase in the number of municipal swimming pools, and the publicity given to such celebrities as Gertrude Ederle, who in 1926 became the first woman to swim the English Channel. Form-fitting knitted wool tank suits, almost identical to those worn by men, were promoted as active swimwear for the modern woman, and soon became the dominant style. At the same time, beach resorts on the Riviera or at Palm Beach became an important part of the fashionable calendar, and beach fashions assumed new significance in society wardrobes. Paris couturiers such

Bold Look

The Bold Look was a style in men's clothing and accessories that sought to answer the conservatism, or reserved nature, that had characterized men's dress during the Great Depression (1929-41) and World War II (1939-45). It was created by the editors of Esquire magazine, the most popular men's magazine of the period, in the spring of 1948, most likely as a male answer to the popular women's styles of the day, the New Look and the American Look.


Seventeenth Century Fashion

Poiret's earliest styles were radically simple these would give way to increasingly lavish artistic designs and showman-like behavior. By 1913 Harper's Bazaar was already looking back at his notable achievements originating the narrow silhouette, starting the fashion for the uncorseted figure, doing away with the petticoat, being the first to show the jupe-culotte and the minaret tunic. That the fashion world was already nostalgic about his achievements proved oddly prescient his ability to transform how women dressed would pass with World War I.

Converse All Stars

Basketball Player Wearing Converse

Converse founded the rubber footwear company that bears his name in 1908. The Converse brand grew briskly in the decade leading up to World War I (1914-18). But it achieved its greatest success following the introduction of the world's first basketball shoe in 1917. Dubbed the All-Star, the high top, black-and-white sneaker was distinguished by eight aluminum porthole eyelets running up each side and a bulbous toe made out of vulcanized rubber. The lightweight shoe provided excellent traction on the gymnasium floor for those playing the increasingly popular sport of basketball, invented by James Naismith (1861-1939) in 1891.

Swimming Suits

Women who wished to swim, however, found it much more difficult to find a suitable costume. Beginning in the 1860s, women were encouraged to take up swimming for exercise, and by the 1870s many women were learning to swim at pools and bathhouses, which had separate times designated for male and female bathers. In these sex-segregated situations, and for swimming competitions and demonstrations, female swimmers adopted simple princess-style one-piece suits, knitted garments similar to men's suits, or suits with long tights similar to those worn by circus performers. However, these garments were still not acceptable in mixed company, or for public wear out of the water, until the early twentieth century. The Australian swimmer Annette Kellerman became famous early in the century for her long-distance swimming feats and exhibitions of fancy diving, for which she wore sleeveless, form-fitting one-piece suits of black wool knit, sometimes with full-length stockings attached. She was an...

Plus Fours

Body Decoration

During World War I (1914-18) certain British officers wore loose riding breeches, or pants, which bloused out over the tops of their boots. The dashing look their baggy pants gave them caused the fashion to spread when the war ended. Soon a new type of knee pants was created that imitated the casual, dashing look of the soldier by adding four inches to the usual length of knickers. These came to be called plus fours and were soon popular all over Britain. The stylish Edward VIII (1894-1972), then the Prince of Wales, brought the fashion to the United States on a visit in 1924. Within a very short time plus fours had replaced regular shorter knickers, which were soon considered old fashioned. Plus twos, which used less fabric than plus fours, and plus sixes, which used more, were also introduced but did not become as popular as the plus fours.

Headwear 191929

Vfter the end of World War I (1914-18) both men and women were inspired to change their hairstyles. For men the changes were not too drastic, but for women hairstyles were dramatically different. Nevertheless, both men and women prized neatly groomed hairstyles during this period.


Makeup Small Lips

One effect of cosmetics is that they highlight the sexuality of the women who wear them, by emphasizing lips and eyes and reddening cheeks. Therefore, for much of the nineteenth century those of the middle and upper classes did not consider makeup respectable. By the early decades of the twentieth century the view of cosmetics began to change. Women gained the right to vote in many places and began to gain other freedoms as well. The start of World War I in 1914 had brought a more public role for many women, as they took over the jobs left empty by men who had gone to war. When the war ended in 1918, these modern, more independent women were not content with the old styles. They wanted fashion that was fun, sexy, and free, and the generous use of cosmetics was part of the new, daring image. Modern young women of the 1920s, called flappers, used heavy lipstick in dark reds with names like oxblood. They reddened their cheeks with rouge, and since hemlines were going up, many rouged...

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